Monmouthshire is a county in south-east Wales. The name derives from the historic county of Monmouthshire of which it covers the eastern 60%; the largest town is Abergavenny. Other towns and large villages are Caldicot, Monmouth and Usk, it borders Newport to the west. The historic county of Monmouthshire was formed from the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Act 1535 and bordered Gloucestershire to the east, Herefordshire to the northeast, Brecknockshire to the north, Glamorgan to the west; the Laws in Wales Act 1542 again enumerated the counties of Wales and omitted Monmouthshire, implying that the county was no longer to be treated as part of Wales. However, for all purposes Wales had become part of the Kingdom of England, the difference had little practical effect. For several centuries, acts of the Parliament of England referred to "Wales and Monmouthshire". However, the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect in April 1974, confirmed the county as part of Wales, with the administrative county of Monmouthshire and its associated lieutenancy being abolished.
Most of its area was transferred to a new local government and ceremonial county called Gwent, with the same eastern and southern boundaries as the historic county, the River Wye and the Severn Estuary. The western two-fifths of the former Monmouthshire are now administered by other Welsh unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Torfaen and Newport; the current unitary authority of Monmouthshire was created on 1 April 1996 as a successor to the district of Monmouth along with the Llanelly community from Blaenau Gwent, both of which were districts of Gwent. The use of the name "Monmouthshire" rather than "Monmouth" for the area was controversial, being supported by the MP for Monmouth, Roger Evans, but being opposed by Paul Murphy, MP for Torfaen. By area it covers some 60% of the historic county, but only 20% of the population. A new council headquarters building at the site of Coleg Gwent, Usk was developed. Planning permission was granted in September 2011; the new county hall in Usk was opened in 2013.
In comparison to the pre-1974 areas it covers: the former boroughs of Abergavenny and Monmouth the former urban districts of Chepstow and Usk the former rural districts of Abergavenny Rural District and Monmouth Rural District the former rural district of Pontypool, except the community of Llanfrechfa Lower the parish of Llanelly from the former Crickhowell Rural District in Brecknockshire Scenic Railway Line: Gloucester to Newport Line Monmouthshire County Council Monmouthshire at Curlie The Original Monmouthshire website Monmouthshire.co.uk BBC Wales on Monmouthshire Genuki National Gazetteer of 1868
Thomas Edward Phillis was an Australian professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. He won the 1961 125cc motorcycle road racing World Championship and was the first person to lap the TT mountain circuit at over 100 mph on a pushrod engined motorcycle, he was the first person to win a World Championship motorcycle race on a Japanese machine. Phillis grew up in Marrickville where his father was a despatch rider, he retired from that sport after a serious crash at Henson Park. After leaving school at 16, Phillis had taken up a motor mechanic apprenticeship, his first experience of motorcycling came with the job, where he had to use a 125cc Excelsior motorcycle to deliver messages around Sydney, it was there that he began to develop an interest in motorcycles. His father was supportive, when he was 17, Phillis bought his first bike, a 1939 High Cam Sunbeam B25; this bike was followed by several Velocette MAC's, it was on one of these road-going bikes, that Tom entered his first motorcycle events.
In 1952, Phillis was called up for six months National Service, which he served in the Royal Australian Air Force. Known as Ted to his family, in 1954 Phillis married Betty and they went on to have two children, Debra Ann and Thomas Braddan. Phillis was well-liked and known for his dry sense of humour, he developed a reputation for poor timekeeping, having arrived late for the German GP in 1958, being told that he would not be allowed to practice, shrugged his shoulders and said "Well, I'd better set off for next week's Swedish GP to get there on time." With support from his father, Phillis began motorcycle racing, riding a Velocette MAC in the Canobolas Clubman's race at the Gnoo Blas circuit on 3 October 1953 where he retired. He took his first win in the fourth event he entered, again riding the Velocette in the 2nd division Junior Clubman's race at the Mount Druitt circuit on 21 November 1954. Betty helped him to buy a BSA Gold Star in 1955, this period was spent gaining experience, it wasn't until the BSA was replaced by a two-year-old Manx Norton in 1957 that Phillis started to achieve more notable success.
Racing against top Australian riders at the airfield circuit at Fishermans Bend, Melbourne, he won the 350cc class and finished third in the 500cc class, equalling the lap record. In 1958, Phillis and his wife sold everything and came to Europe, where they bought new 350cc and 500cc Manx Nortons. Phillis was lauded as "Star of the Day" at his first appearance at Thruxton, where he won the 500cc Senior event after a race-long battle with Derek Powell and set a new 500cc lap record, he won the 350cc Junior event. He repeated this "double" shortly afterwards at the International Västkustloppet road race on the Falkenberg circuit near Skrea in Sweden, establishing himself as one of the top privateers in Europe. In 1959, he was chosen by the Auto Cycle Council of Australia as their "most promising rider", given a grant to take part in the 1959 Isle of Man TT although he was omitted from the official Australian team for the event, he was fifth in the 350cc Formula 1 TT, retired from the Junior TT on the last lap with a broken con-rod whilst lying eleventh.
He was seventh at the end of the first lap of the Senior TT, but struggled with torrential rain and high winds and finished sixteenth. In 1960, he became the first non-Japanese rider to be signed on by the Honda motorcycle racing team, was given rides in both the 125cc and 250cc Lightweight TTs. In the 125cc race, Phillis was the leading Honda and lying in sixth place on the second lap when he had stop at the pits to change a plug finishing tenth. In the 250cc race, he was in fourth place, challenging for third when he had to retire on the fourth lap with gearbox failure. Phillis took part in the Senior TT on his Norton, worked his way up from eighth on the first lap to finish fourth, behind Surtees and Hailwood. Set to compete for Honda in the Dutch TT shortly afterwards, Phillis fell during practice and broke his right collar bone and his place was taken by Jim Redman. Phillis was back for the Commonwealth Trophy meeting at Thruxton a month breaking the lap record and winning the 350cc race, finishing third in the Commonwealth Trophy.
Returning to his 250cc Honda for the Ulster Grand Prix, Phillis closed on the MV Agusta of Carlo Ubbiali finishing second, only two seconds behind. Phillis fell off his 125cc Honda in Ulster while lying fourth, but did better at Brands Hatch a fortnight chasing Mike Hailwood throughout, despite being hampered by "a gearbox full of neutrals". After the race, Phillis talked of confining himself to the 125cc and 250cc Hondas for 1961 if Honda offered him another contract. A few weeks Phillis dominated the Pyynikki TT at the Tampere Circuit in Finland. Not only winning 125, 250 and 350cc events, but setting record lap times in every race, he began 1961 with equal prowess, when at the Victorian Grand Prix event at Phillip Island, he won the 250 and 350cc events on a Honda and the Senior A-grade race and 500cc events on a Norton, setting lap records for 250cc, 350cc and 500cc classes. In 1961, he won Honda's first championship race, he went on to win the FIM 1961 125cc World Championship. This was Honda's first world championship.
He finished second to Mike Hailwood in the 250cc class. He was the first man to lap the mountain circuit at over 100 mph on a push rod engined machine, riding to third place on the Doug Hele prepared 500 cc Norton "Domiracer", he died while competing in the 1962 Isle of Man TT, crashing on the second lap of the 350 cc Junior TT at Laur
Manx Grand Prix
The Manx Grand Prix motorcycle races are held on the Isle of Man TT Course every year for a two-week period spanning the end of August and early September. The MGP or Manx is considered to be the amateur rider's alternative and a learning experience for the Isle of Man TT races held in May/June; the event differs from the TT. A'Classic TT' race category for historic racing machines was added in 2013 as part of the Manx Government Department of Economic Development's expansion to create what is termed Festival of Motorcycling; these new races allowed for professional and experienced riders to compete. The event consists of six four-lap races of the 60.70 km circuit which begins at the TT Grandstand in Douglas, the island's capital. The separate classes are the Newcomers Class, Lightweight/Ultra Lightweight Class, Junior Class, Senior Class and the Junior/Lightweight and Senior Classic races for older machines; the MGP began in 1923 as the'Manx Amateur Road Races' or MARC. The MARC continued until 1930.
Problems were encountered over the definition of an'Amateur' and the first rules were extensive and open to various interpretations. Nowadays, many riders who have achieved success in the MGP move on to race in the TT but regulations prevent them from re-entering'The Manx' unless they wish to do so on Classic machinery. Chris Palmer and the late Richard Britton both followed this route in 2005 aboard Manx Nortons. In 1989 Gloria Clark became the first woman to race in the MGP. In 1991 she gained an entry into the Guinness Book Of Records for being the fastest lady on the TT Circuit. Carolynn Sells was entered into the Guinness World Records as the first female winner on the Snaefell Mountain Course of the Ultra-Lightweight event at the 2009 Manx Grand Prix; the MGP is organised by the Manx Motor Cycle Club based on the rules and regulations of the Auto-Cycle Union which governs most British motorcycle events. The Newcomers class caters for riders; such a class does not feature in the programme of the TT and is thus the only opportunity for newcomers to race the circuit in competition.
Classes are over-subscribed as a result. Riders are limited to machinery with a capacity not exceeding 750cc and must wear coloured bibs over their leathers during'Practice'. Newcomers are permitted to submit an application for any of the other classes but may or may not be granted a ride depending on their levels of experience; the Lightweight/Ultra Lightweight class is represented by machinery of 125cc, 250cc and 400cc capacity. This class featured at the TT until 2004 but is now defunct and so, like the Newcomers' class, is popular.'Lightweight' refers to the 250cc 2-stroke machines whilst Ultra-Lightweight is the 125 2-strokes and 400cc 4-stroke bikes. This class is run as two separate races on Race Days but all the machines leave the start line in the same'Session' The Manx Grand Prix Ultra Lightweight class lap record is still held by a Yamaha fzr 400. 109.86.mph Still held by Keith Taylor. This was before tuned; the Junior Class features machines. Machines of any engine capacity between 200 and 750cc are permitted but the vast majority of entrants opt to race four-stroke 4-cylinder 600cc bikes.
Some 2-stroke 250cc machines are entered and there is a separate award for the highest-placed 2-stroke finisher The Senior Class is the final race of MGP fortnight and allows for motorcycles with an engine capacity not exceeding 1000cc. Again 600cc bikes are more popular than any other but a number of 750s are sprinkled in the start list; the Senior Classic race features the most diverse range of marques and is popular, with a full quota of 105 entrants accepted in 2005. Entrants must field a machine with an engine capacity between 500cc. Most riders choose machines with a capacity of between 450 and 500cc and common marques include Norton, Honda and Matchless with the odd BSA and Ducati; the Junior/Lightweight Classic is lower. Run as separate races for machines between 250-350cc and under 250cc all bikes are on-circuit at the same time during the race, but are released at separate class intervals. In 2008 the Manx Motor Cycle Club recognised the emergence of Post Classic racing These machines manufactured in the 1980s have had a history of being raced on the Isle of Man TT course.
The 2009 Post Classic Race was introduced with regulations designed to test machine availability. They stated "it has been agreed to keep these regulations as flexible as possible, but they may be subject to change in 2010". Whilst being encouraged by the interest in the 2009 Post Classic Race the number of four stroke entries were fewer than expected; the reasons were perceived to be certain restrictions, the cut off date of 1981. The Formula Classic race is to allow 750cc pre-1973 Classic four stroke machines to compete alongside the 500cc "Senior Classic" machines; the Senior Post Classic: for 601 to 1050cc four stroke machines and 351 to 750cc two stroke machines, cut off date 31 December 1985. The Junior Post Classic: four stroke machines up to 600cc, cut off date 31 December 1985 and two stroke machines up to 350cc, Grand Prix Factory Bikes Steel frame or period aluminium frame, any brakes, any wheels, cut off date 31 December 1984. Standard frames, Standard fairing, any ignition, no airboxes.
Newport is a city and unitary authority area in south east Wales, on the River Usk close to its confluence with the Severn Estuary, 12 miles northeast of Cardiff. At the 2011 census, it was the third largest city in Wales, with a population of 145,700; the city forms part of the Cardiff-Newport metropolitan area, with a population of 1,097,000. Newport has been a port since medieval times, when the first Newport Castle was built by the Normans; the town outgrew the earlier Roman town of Caerleon upstream, gained its first charter in 1314. It grew in the 19th century, when its port became the focus of coal exports from the eastern South Wales Valleys; until the rise of Cardiff from the 1850s, Newport was Wales' largest coal-exporting port. Newport was the site of the last large-scale armed insurrection in Britain, the Newport Rising of 1839 led by the Chartists. In the 20th century, the docks declined in importance, but Newport remained an important manufacturing and engineering centre, it was granted city status in 2002.
Newport was the venue for the 2014 NATO summit. Bronze Age fishermen settled around the fertile estuary of the River Usk and the Celtic Silures built hillforts overlooking it. In AD 75, on the edge of their empire, the Roman legions built a Roman fort at Caerleon to defend the river crossing. According to legend, in the late 5th century Saint Gwynllyw, the patron saint of Newport and King of Gwynllwg founded the church which would become Newport Cathedral; the church was in existence by the 9th century and today has become the seat of the Bishop of Monmouth. The Normans arrived from around 1088–1093 to build the first Newport Castle and river crossing downstream from Caerleon and the first Norman Lord of Newport was Robert Fitzhamon; the settlement of'Newport' is first mentioned as novo burgus established by Robert, Earl of Gloucester in 1126. The name was derived from the original Latin name Novus Burgus, meaning new town; the city can sometimes be found labelled as Newport-on-Usk on old maps.
The original Welsh language name for the city, Casnewydd-ar-Wysg means'New castle-on-Usk' and this refers to the twelfth-century castle ruins near Newport city centre. The original Newport Castle was a small motte-and-bailey castle in the park opposite Newport Cathedral, it was buried in rubble excavated from the Hillfield railway tunnels that were dug under Stow Hill in the 1840s and no part of it is visible. Around the settlement, the new town grew to become Newport, obtaining its first charter in 1314 and was granted a second one, by Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford in 1385. In the 14th century friars came to Newport where they built an isolation hospital for infectious diseases. After its closure the hospital lived on in the place name "Spitty Fields". "Austin Friars" remains a street name in the city. During the Welsh Revolt in 1402 Rhys Gethin, General for Owain Glyndŵr, forcibly took Newport Castle together with those at Cardiff, Abergavenny, Caerphilly and Usk. During the raid the town of Newport was badly burned and Saint Woolos church destroyed.
A third charter, establishing the right of the town to run its own market and commerce came from Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1426. By 1521, Newport was described as having "....a good haven coming into it, well occupied with small crays where a great ship may resort and have good harbour." Trade was thriving with the nearby ports of Bristol and Bridgwater and industries included leather tanning, soap making and starch making. The town's craftsmen included bakers, brewers and blacksmiths. A further charter was granted by James I in 1623. During the English Civil War in 1648 Oliver Cromwell's troops camped overnight on Christchurch Hill overlooking the town before their attack on the castle the next day. A cannonball dug up from a garden in nearby Summerhill Avenue, dating from this time, now rests in Newport Museum; as the Industrial Revolution took off in Britain in the 19th century, the South Wales Valleys became key suppliers of coal from the South Wales Coalfield, iron. These were transported down local rivers and the new canals to ports such as Newport, Newport Docks grew as a result.
Newport became one of the largest towns in Wales and the focus for the new industrial eastern valleys of South Wales. By 1830 Newport was Wales' leading coal port, until the 1850s it was larger than Cardiff; the Newport Rising in 1839 was the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain. John Frost and 3,000 other Chartists marched on the Westgate Hotel at the centre of the town; the march was met with an attack by militia, called to the town by the Mayor, Thomas Phillips: at least 20 marchers were killed and were buried in Saint Woolos churchyard. John Frost was sentenced to death for treason, but this was commuted to transportation to Australia, he returned to Britain in his life. John Frost Square, in the centre of the city, is named in his honour. Newport had a Welsh-speaking majority until the 1830s, but with a large influx of migrants from England and Ireland over the following decades, the town and the rest of Monmouthshire came to be seen as "un-Welsh", a view compounded by ambiguity about the status of Monmouthshire.
In the 19th century, the St George Society of Newport asserted. It was at a meeting in Newport, attended by future Prime Minister David Lloyd Geor
The Norton Manx or Manx Norton is a British racing motorcycle, made from 1947 to 1962 by Norton Motors Ltd. A Norton had contested every Isle of Man TT race from the inaugural 1907 event through into the 1970s, a feat unrivalled by any other manufacturer, the development and honing of the Manx racing motorcycle was another step in this racing achievement. New Manx Nortons, built to various specifications are still available to buy new, from various suppliers around the world; these suit different categories and definitions of Classic Motorcycle Racing and Historic Motorcycle Racing in different countries around the world. Norton's first use of the name'Manx' was applied to the'Manx Grand Prix' model available from 1936-1940, a special racing version of their'International' roadster, with telescopic forks and a plunger rear suspension, magnesium for the crankcases and cambox, no provision for lighting. Just after WW2, the'Grand Prix' was dropped, Norton named their 1947 racing model the'Manx'.
It was a redesigned prewar racing Norton International, an overhead cam single-cylinder machine available as a 350cc or 500cc. The Norton factory race bikes under team manager Joe Craig were experimental models, a version was available to buy from the factory in Bracebridge Street - to selected customers. Fitted with the McCandless brothers Featherbed frame for 1950, the Manx gained a new lease of racing life as a racing machine, the new frame giving the fine steering necessary for high speed navigation of some fast racing circuits of the time; the last Bracebridge Street Manx Nortons were sold in 1963. Though Norton had pulled out of International Grand Prix racing in 1954, the Manx had become the backbone of privateer racing; the Classic Motorcycle Racing movement from the 1970s onwards has seen large numbers of Manxs return to the track, a flourishing supply of parts and services has appeared all around the world to nourish this demand. The Norton Manx was developed to win the Isle of Man TT from single overhead cam international racers by Norton racing team engineer Joe Craig.
The double overhead cam configuration was developed in 1937 and after many problems perfected one year later. The Manx was reemerged for the 1946 Manx Grand Prix; the motorcycle in 1948 gained twin leading shoe brakes. In 1950 the innovative Featherbed frame was developed, giving the Manx a significant competitive advantage through a low centre of gravity and short wheelbase, suited the challenging island TT course; the all-welded, tubular featherbed frame was light and trim, without the usual forgings that added unnecessary weight. In 1950, the featherbed Manx recorded a double hat-trick of podium positions at the TT; the Manx engine was redesigned in 1953 with a much shorter stroke of 86.0 mm × 85.6 mm to improve the rev range. The major 1954 upgrade to the Manx was to have been an engine with the cylinder mounted horizontally to give a much lower centre of gravity – along the lines of the Moto Guzzi and Benelli racers. However, a decline in sales in the mid 1950s prompted a number of manufacturers to withdraw from GP racing in 1954, Nortons did likewise.
The Norton F Type Manx, as it was to have been, still exists, restored is displayed in the Sammy Millers Museum Collection. With Nortons withdrawal from racing, Joe Craig retired after more than 25 years of coaxing more power and reliability from his single cylinder Cammy racers; the bike had several wins at the Bol d'Or from 1958 to 1971. British racer Les Archer, Jr. worked with frame specialist Ron Hankins and engine tuner Ray Petty to develop a Norton Manx for motocross competition. The double-overhead-cam, short-stroke Norton Manx road racing engine was fitted into a Hankins frame and finished with an aluminium tank and titanium axles, his earlier Manx MX was successful, winning the 1956 F. I. M. 500 cc European Motocross Championship, but the updated 1962 machine was not able to compete with the emerging two-stroke bikes of the middle 1960s. Manx Nortons played a significant role in the development of post war car racing. At the end of 1950, the English national 500 cc regulations were adopted as the new Formula 3.
The JAP Speedway engine had dominated the category but the Manx was capable of producing more power and became the engine of choice. Many complete motorcycles were bought in order to strip the engine for 500 cc car racing, as Norton would not sell separate engines. Manx rolling chassis were sold on and paired with Triumph 500 cc twin engines to create Triton cafe racers. 1962 was the last full year for the production Norton Manx. In July AMC announced the transfer of production from Bracebridge Street to Woolwich in London. Forty two Manx Nortons were produced between November 1962 and January 1963. In 1966 Colin Seeley purchased what remained of the spares and tools, which he sold on to John Tickle in 1969; when Godfrey Nash rode a Norton Manx to victory at the 1969 Yugoslavian Grand Prix at the Opatija Circuit, it would mark the last time that a 500cc Grand Prix race was won on a single-cylinder machine. John Tickle took over the Manx name when Norton ceased production and acquired a large quantity of spare parts.
He manufactured complete racers, called the Manx T5 and T3. Both used the short-stroke Manx engines in a frame designed by Tickle but he could not compete against the Japanese racers and sold his stock and the rights in the late 1970s to Unity Equipe, a retail spares business in Rochdale, UK; the manufacturing rights passed in 1994 to Andy Molnar, an engineer based in Preston, UK who firstly produced parts faithful to the original 196
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in many motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar, sports car racing. More than ten years after its last race, Team Lotus remained one of the most successful racing teams of all time, winning seven Formula One Constructors' titles, six Drivers' Championships, the Indianapolis 500 in the United States between 1962 and 1978. Under the direction of founder and chief designer Colin Chapman, Lotus was responsible for many innovative and experimental developments in critical motorsport, in both technical and commercial arenas; the Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010 as Tony Fernandes's Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotus's iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, in 2012 the team was re-branded as Lotus F1 Team. Colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK.
Lotus achieved rapid success with the the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars. Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, in Britain, several organizers ran races for the new regulations during the course of 1956. Most of the cars entered that year were sports cars, they included a large number of Lotus 11s, the definitive Coventry Climax-powered sports racer, led by the Team Lotus entries for Chapman, driven by Cliff Allison and Reg Bicknell; the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evans's Cooper; the remarkable Coventry Climax-powered Type 14, the Lotus Cars production version of, the original Lotus Elite, won six class victories, plus the "Index of Performance" several times at the 24 Hours of Le Mans race. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2.2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and Cliff Allison.
These were replaced that year by Lotus 16s. In 1959 – by which time the Coventry Climax engines had been stretched to 2.5-litres – Chapman continued with front-engined F1 cars, but achieved little, so in 1960 Chapman switched to the milestone mid-engined Lotus 18. By the company's success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt; the first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix. A year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Junior; the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. More racing success followed with the 26R, the racing version of the Elan, in 1963 with the Lotus Cortina, which Jack Sears drove to the British Saloon Car Championship title, a feat repeated by Jim Clark in 1964 and Alan Mann in the 1965 European Touring car Championship.
In 1963, Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clark's Lotus and Hill's BRM gave it to Surtees in his Ferrari. However, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the structural fragility of his designs; the number of top drivers injured or killed in Lotus machinery was considerable – notably Stirling Moss, Alan Stacey, Mike Taylor, Jim Clark, Mike Spence, Bobby Marshman, Graham Hill, Jochen Rindt and Ronnie Peterson. In Dave Friedman's book "Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969", Dan Gurney is quoted as saying, "Did I think the Lotus way of doing things was good? No. We had several structural failures in those cars, but at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something better." When the Formula One engine size increased to three litres in 1966, Lotus was caught unprepared because of the surprising failure of the Coventry Climax 1.5-Litre FWMW Flat-16 project, which prevented Climax from developing a 3-Litre successor.
They started the season fielding the hastily prepared and uncompetitive two-litre Coventry-Climax FWMV V8 engine, only switching to the BRM H16 in time for the Italian Grand Prix, with the new engine proving to be overweight and unreliable. A switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49 and the DFV engine were mature enough to make the Lotus team dominant again. However, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV; the season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotus's superiority, with Jim Clark and Graham Hill finishing 1–2. It would be Clark's last win. On 7 April 1968, one of the most successful and popular drivers of all time, was killed driving a Lotus 48 at Hockenheim in a non-championship Formula Two event; the season saw the introduction of wings as seen on various cars, including the Chaparral sports car.
Colin Chapman introduced a spoiler on Hill's Lotus 49B at Monaco. Graham Hill won the F1 World Championship in 1968 driving the Lotus 49. Around the same time, Chapman moved Lotus to new premises at Hethel in Norfolk. A new factory was built on the site, the former RAF Hethel bomber base, the old runways were converted into a testing facility; the offices and design studios wer
The Lotus 24 was a Formula One racing car designed by Team Lotus for the 1962 Formula One season. Despite some early success in non-Championship Grands Prix, it was eclipsed by the technically superior Lotus 25 and featured in the points in World Championship races. Having devised the monocoque Lotus 25 for use by the works team, Colin Chapman decided to build a'conventional' back-up spaceframe design which he would sell to privateers; the 24 was a different design from its predecessor, the 21, used much of the same suspension as the 25. Both Coventry Climax FWMV and BRM P56 engines were fitted, with at least one example running with the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder; the Lotus 24 made its debut at the 1962 Brussels Grand Prix. Jim Clark retired after only one lap. Two weeks Clark won the Lombank Trophy race at Snetterton, its first World Championship event was the 1962 Dutch Grand Prix, where it finished second with Trevor Taylor. However, that would be its best Championship finish. Colin Chapman had promised his customers that the team cars would be mechanically identical to the customer cars, leaving himself free to alter what he classified as the cars' "bodywork".
The 24 continued to be run by private teams in 1963 and 1964 with limited success, by 1965 only one World Championship entry was made, Brian Gubby failing to qualify for the British Grand Prix