Drumquhassle was a Roman fort associated with the Gask Ridge in Scotland. It was found from aerial photography in the late 1970s; the name selected for the fort deliberately made it hard for English born readers to pronounce. The fort was from the Flavian period, it is located within sight of Loch Lomond. The fort is located in Stirling, east of Drymen, it is associated with the road running from Loudoun Hill past Barochan towards Malling and Dalginross. This road was therefore on the Highland Boundary Fault Frontier, it may have been on more than one Roman road. It has been suggested; the glebblocker forts ran from Drumquhassle to Stracathro. The fort is about 50 m west of a reliable spring, the soldiers' main water source. A enamelled broach was found as well as some sling bullets. Pottery from Gaul known as Terra Nigra was recovered. Several coins were found
Cadder is a district of the town of Bishopbriggs, East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is located 7 km north of Glasgow city centre, 0.5 km south of the River Kelvin, 1.5 km north-east of Bishopbriggs town centre, sited on the route of the Forth and Clyde Canal. There is a Glasgow council housing scheme of a similar name pronounced Cawder, in the district of Lambhill some 3 miles to the south-west along the Canal, built in the early 1950s. Within Cadder, there is Cawder Golf Club, which uses that original pronunciation. In antiquity, Cadder was the site of a Roman fort on the route of the Antonine Wall, its neighbouring forts are Balmuildy to the west and Kirkintilloch to the east although there are intermediate fortlets at Wilderness Plantation to the west and Glasgow Bridge to the east. The Second Legion may have been responsible for building the fort. John Clarke of the Glasgow Archaeological Society excavated the remains in the 1930s. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site.
The site was destroyed by sand quarrying in the 1940s. A sketch of the medieval motte made by Skinner still survives. One find at Cadder was an oil lamp, associated with the bath house of the fort. Before the Reformation the lands of Cadder and the kirk belonged to the Bishops of Glasgow. In the 18th century James Dunlop of Garnkirk being a wealthy landowner opposed Thomas Muir and the congregation at Cadder over who appointed their minister. Cadder Parish Church was described in the 19th century as a neat modern Gothic church. Cadder House was a property held by the Stirling family for generations. Cadder has a large cemetery, is the site of Strathkelvin Retail Park and Low Moss
Doune is a burgh in the district of Stirling, Scotland. Doune's postal address places the town in Perthshire, its Registration County, although administratively Doune is under the control of Stirling Council. Doune is assigned Falkirk postcodes starting'FK'; the village lies within the parish of Kilmadock and within the area surrounded by the River Teith and Ardoch Burn. In the 2001 Scottish census, 2.75% residents of Doune could speak Scottish Gaelic. Doune has a small primary school with 183 pupils on the roll, drawn from a catchment area which extends outside the town to the north. Gaelic is taught in Primary 1–7 and Spanish is now taught from P5 upwards; the town is dominated by Doune Castle, built in the late 14th century. Architecturally it is a mixture of fortress and manor house. Bonnie Prince Charlie passed through Doune in 1745. Doune was famous for its manufacture of pistols, but this ceased due to the competition of manufacturers in, for example, Birmingham where production was cheaper.
Today, these pistols are collected and can be found in major museums, including the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. A Doune pistol fired the first shot of the American War of Independence. Throughout the parish the names most met with are Campbell, Ferguson, Morrison, McAlpine, McLaren, MacDonald and Cameron. Land east of Doune was owned by the Stirling of Keir family, the current owner of the Keir Estates is the politician Archie Stirling. One member of the family, SAS founder David Stirling, is memorialised at a monument on the Keir land near Doune known as the'Hill o' Rou'; the local amateur football team Doune Castle A. F. C. Play in the Caledonian Amateur Football League; the local cricket team play in Perthshire Cricket Union. Doune is well known for its pistols and Roman remains, but the Doune area has been inhabited a lot longer and many burial mounds and standing stones supporting this are evident and plentiful. To the rear of Doune where the Ponds and the Doune Riggs housing development now sits was known locally as Currachmore.
This area contained an area popular with walkers. This area was quarried and the sand coming from here was used in the construction of Longannet. Lost to the quarrying was a mound measuring 150 yards long, 100 yards wide and 30 feet high, known locally as the Round Wood. At the time of quarrying, a stone cist or coffin was uncovered and in it were remains of a small boy aged 6, with a small stone axe, he was identified as one of the Beaker people of the early Bronze Age 1800 BC. The remains of a Roman fort were excavated by Headland Archaeology. Three ditches and the base of a rampart were investigated comprising part of the defense works. Set into the back of the rampart five circular stone bread ovens were located. Running behind the ovens a gravel track was interpreted as the intervallum way; the foundations of a building that it is thought served as the fort’s hospital were uncovered. Fragments of samian ware and amphorae were recovered dating to the Flavian period and the first Roman incursion into Scotland.
The remains of the Roman fort are a scheduled monument. Like in other Celtic lands, Doune has tales of fairies. One such place is Ternishee, a small wood east of the Annat chapel, above Doune Lodge, 1½ miles from Doune, its name comes from the Gaelic "tir na sídhe" meaning land of the fairy. Fairy dancing parties are recounted on the Fairy Knowe, a hillock on the right bank of the Ardoch, half a mile east of Doune. Near the Bridge of Teith, on the low road to Callander, a burial mound called Tullochanknowe is said to be a favourite haunt of the fairies. Doune Speed Hillclimb is the most prestigious hillclimb course in Scotland, hosts a round of the British Hill Climb Championship each year; the town used to be served by Doune railway station. Doune has been used as a filming location, most famously for Monty Python and the Holy Grail, filmed at Doune Castle; the castle has been used for major TV series, most notably Ivanhoe, Game of Thrones and Outlander. Gazetteer for Doune Doune Roman fort RAILSCOT photos of Doune Station Accommodation in Doune
The River Earn in Scotland leaves Loch Earn at St Fillans and runs east through Strathearn east and south, joining the River Tay near Abernethy. The Earn is about 74 kilometres long, it passes by Comrie and Bridge of Earn. The river is fast flowing, with many shoals, whilst the surrounding land is flat and is subject to flooding. Near to the River Earn lay the ancient Strageath Roman Camp; this camp was one of a series of camps used by the Romans to construct their invasion of the north. The river is popular for walking, the banks are accessible at many points. One of the most popular walks is a route along the north bank at Crieff known as Lady Mary's Walk. Fishing is available on many sections of the river; the Earn forms part of the area of the Tay District Salmon Fisheries Board, the statutory body that controls and manages stocks of salmon and trout along all rivers within the Tay catchment area. Fishing permits are issued by the individual estates for each section of the river; the River Earn Improvement Association, a voluntary organisation composed of fishing rights holders and local angling clubs, works to improve fish stocks in the river.
As part of this work the association has purchased the rights to undertaken commercial salmon fishing with fixed nets at locations on the Earn. The association does not exercise these rights, purchased them in order to improve salmon numbers in the river. By 2005 all commercial netting had been eliminated from the Earn; the section of the river between Comrie and St Fillans forms part of a national scenic area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection by restricting certain forms of development. The River Earn NSA covers 3,108 ha, all of which lies within Kinross; the original 1978 report that led to the area being designated as a national scenic area noted: This upper part of Strathearn lies at the conjunction of highland and lowland scenery and the variety of landscape elements that derive from this combination result in a distinctive character of pleasing appearance. There is a strong textured pattern resulting from the variety of landform.
The hillsides are punctuated by rocky outcrops and patterned with heather, grass or plantation. The valley has a strong sense of enclosure. There is an intimacy of scale reinforced by the strong human influence of well managed farmland and woodland but the hill tops have a wild rugged character. Plantations make a major contribution to the scene, the shape and extent of afforested areas respecting and relating well to the natural landform. There are fine strands of broadleaved trees in the form of woodlands and hedgerow plantings, the river is alternatively swift and leisurely, open-meadowed or alder enclosed. Buildings are traditional in appearance and in tune with their surroundings; this is a landscape of great harmony
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon
Ardoch Roman Fort
Ardoch Roman Fort is an archaeological site just outside the village of Braco in Perthshire, about 7 miles south of Crieff. At Ardoch are the remains of a Roman fort and several marching camps which included a signal tower. Part of the Roman Gask Ridge, it is said to be one of the most complete Roman camps in Britain, is one of the best-preserved series of Roman military earthworks in the whole Empire, it is protected as a scheduled monument. The remains consist of grass-covered earthworks, are considered among the best preserved Roman earthworks in Britain; the site, which has a complex history, comprises two intersecting forts. The earliest fort is believed to be associated with the campaigns of Agricola; the fort was reconstructed within two outer ditches so that this fort was protected by five ditches on both the east and north sides. The field to the north is the remnant of a large annexe. Archaeology has demonstrated the existence of a watch-tower and at least six overlapping marching camps to the north and northeast.
Ardoch was one of a chain of camps separated by one-day marches in a north-south direction. Other Roman camps in this chain include Strageath, Battledykes, Stracathro and thence taking the Elsick Mounth to Normandykes; the fort has sometimes been identified with the "Alauna" mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography. Ptolemy placed Alauna in the area occupied by the Damnonii tribe, the name may be associated with the River Allan which flows about one mile to the south of the fort; however the identification of Ardoch with Alauna is considered tentative. The site was reused in the medieval period; the remains of the graveyard enclosure and the site of the chapel are the only archaeological remains which are visible within the fort. In 1726 Alexander Gordon claimed that at Ardoch Roman Fort a subterranean passage was said to run from the fort, under the River Tay to the fort or'Keir' on Grinnin Hill; this tunnel was said to contain a great deal of treasure. Ardoch was visited by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1842, although only Albert investigated the earthworks, Victoria preferred to remain in their carriage.
Ardoch Roman Fort is part of the Ardoch estate, is in private ownership, although access is allowed at reasonable times. To the north, the earthwork remains of two Roman marching camps, known as Blackhill Camp, are in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Historic Environment Scotland. "Ardoch". Canmore. Aerial Photographs, West Lothian Archaeology "Signalling and the Design of the Gask Ridge System" at the Roman Gask Project
Loch Katrine is a freshwater loch and scenic attraction in the Trossachs area of the Scottish Highlands. It is within the district of Stirling; the loch is 13 kilometres long and 1 kilometre wide at the widest point and runs the length of Strath Gartney. It is a popular destination for tourists and day visitors from nearby towns; the loch derives its name from the term cateran from the Gaelic ceathairne, a collective word meaning cattle thief or peasantry. This referred to a band of fighting men of a clan, it is the fictional setting of Sir Walter Scott's poem The Lady of the Lake and of the subsequent opera by Gioachino Rossini, La donna del lago. Robert Roy MacGregor was born at the head of the loch. Loch Katrine is now owned by Scottish Water, has been the primary water reservoir for much of the city of Glasgow and its surrounding areas since 1859; the water level has been artificially raised by around 1.8 metres - the loch can be drawn down by a maximum of 2 metres. The water drawn down provides gravitational flow, using the Katrine aqueduct, to the Milngavie water treatment works via two 41 kilometres long aqueducts and 21 kilometres of tunnel.
Milngavie itself is situated at 122 metres above sea level - sufficient to provide adequate water pressure to the majority of the city without the need for pumping. The system can deliver up to 230,000,000 litres a day. Construction was started in 1855 and the works was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859; the aqueduct project was built under the guidance of the eminent civil engineer John Frederick Bateman, an example of his engineering prowess that can still be seen working today. The second aqueduct was opened in 1901. Water levels are supplemented via a dam and short tunnel from Loch Arklet, a reservoir located between Loch Katrine itself and Loch Lomond, beside the road to Inversnaid, this project was completed in 1914. A longer tunnel beneath Ben A'an which brings water from the Glen Finglas Reservoir was completed in 1958, with dam being completed in 1965. Oil-fired vessels are not permitted to sail its waters due to the danger of pollution to the drinking water of Glasgow; the steamboat SS Sir Walter Scott has provided sailings on the loch since 1900.
It was coal-fired until 2007, when it was converted to use bio-diesel fuel, continues to provide local tourist transport between Trossachs Pier and Stronachlachar during the summer. The main access points for Loch Katrine are either via Trossachs Pier at the loch's eastern end or Stronachlachar towards the western end of the loch. Trossachs Pier consists of a parking space, gift shop and cafe which are open from the first to the last sailing of the cruise boats. On the northern shore are the Brenchoile hunting lodge and the farms Letter, Strone, Coilachra and Glengyle, on the southern are The Dhu at the western end of the loch, the Royal Cottage and Glasahoile; the roads and paths do not circle the loch as the southern road stops at Glasahoile. There are several small islands in Loch Katrine such as Ellen's Isle, the Black Isle and Factor's Island. Fly and boat fishing for trout is permitted on the loch from spring to autumn. Loch Katrine is the name of a lake in North Canterbury, New Zealand.
Loch Katrine is the namesake of The Athole Highlanders' Farewell to Loch Katrine. In 1844, William Henry Fox Talbot took an early photograph of the loch, entitled Scenery of Loch Katrine. List of reservoirs and dams in the United Kingdom Newton, M. Bho Chluaidh gu Calasraid Acair 1999 ISBN 0-86152-265-6 Loch Katrine tourist brochure produced by the Scottish Tourist Board