Forillon National Park
Forillon National Park, one of 42 national parks and park reserves across Canada, is located at the outer tip of the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec and covers 244 km2. Created in 1970, Forillon was the first national park in Quebec, the park includes forests, sea coast, salt marshes, sand dunes and the Eastern End of the Appalachians. The word forillon is thought to have referred to an island or sea stack which used to be a landmark in the area but has since collapsed into the ocean. The area was a summer hunting and fishing ground for the Micmac. This area was used for its rich supply of wood. People living in LAnse-au-Griffon were once involved in the industry here. The creation of the park in 1970 was preceded by the removal of 225 families through expropriation, when preparing to create the new park, the Government of Canada requested that the Quebec government expropriate the homes of these families. The Quebec government sub-contracted the appropriation and negotiations to a private firm and this firm allegedly used various bullying tactics to scare the residents into agreeing to settlements of reduced value.
This stratagem ensured a profit margin for the contractor. On 14 February 2011, the House of Commons adopted a motion which issued an apology to the people whose properties were expropriated to create Forillon Park. This expropriation is the subject of a song titled Forillon by the group Le Vent du Nord on their album Têtu, raptors that inhabit this park are great horned owls, northern harriers, peregrine falcons, bald eagles, rough-legged hawks, and ospreys. Activities at interpretation sites bring visitors to more about human. The Grande-Grave National Heritage Site attests to the way of life of fishing families, the Hyman Store features collections of articles that were sold at the time, and the store owners tell tales of thriving fisheries industry. Close by, the pedestrian walk Une Tournée dans les Parages brings visitors around houses, Forillon encloses the site of Fort Péninsule, near the Penouille beach. Visitors today can enter a tunnel to see cannon in place since that time. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Quebec national parks Forillon National Park Watch the NFB documentary A Day in Forillon
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector, the basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and discussion, the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. The goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods. It is sometimes hard to define whether a company is part of the secondary or tertiary sector. These governmental classification systems have a hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries, the second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced.
For the last 100 years, there has been a shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialised countries. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world and these are not necessarily busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category and they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, and often more. The first economy to follow path in the modern world was the United Kingdom. The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time, manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers rarely face, services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, since the quality of most services depends largely on the quality of the individuals providing the services, people costs are usually a high fraction of service costs.
Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, for example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are often seen to provide identical services. Charging a premium for services is usually an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition
Saint Lawrence River
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin. It traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and is part of the boundary between Ontario and the U. S. state of New York. This river provides the basis of the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway, the estuary begins at the eastern tip of Île dOrléans, just downstream from Quebec City. The river becomes tidal around Quebec City, the St. Lawrence River runs 3,058 kilometres from the farthest headwater to the mouth and 1,197 km from the outflow of Lake Ontario. The farthest headwater is the North River in the Mesabi Range at Hibbing, the average discharge below the Saguenay River is 16,800 cubic metres per second. At Quebec City, it is 12,101 m3/s, the average discharge at the rivers source, the outflow of Lake Ontario, is 7,410 m3/s.
The St. Lawrence River includes Lake Saint-Louis south of Montreal, Lake Saint Francis at Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, pierre Archipelago and the smaller Mingan Archipelago. Other islands include Île dOrléans near Quebec City and Anticosti Island north of the Gaspé and it is the second longest river in Canada. Lake Champlain and the Ottawa, Richelieu and Saint-François rivers drain into the St. Lawrence. The St. Lawrence River is in an active zone where fault reactivation is believed to occur along late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic normal faults related to the opening of Iapetus Ocean. The faults in the area are related and are called the Saint Lawrence rift system. According to the United States Geological Survey, the St. Lawrence Valley is a province of the larger Appalachian division, containing the Champlain. However, in Canada, where most of the valley is, it is considered part of a distinct Saint Lawrence Lowlands physiographic division. Lawrence River itself was Jacques Cartier, at that time, the land along the river was inhabited by the St.
Lawrence Iroquoians, at the time of Cartiers second voyage in 1535. Because Cartier arrived in the estuary on St. Lawrences feast day, the St. Lawrence River is partly within the U. S. and as such is that countrys sixth oldest surviving European place-name. The earliest regular Europeans in the area were the Basques, who came to the St Lawrence Gulf, the Basque whalers and fishermen traded with indigenous Americans and set up settlements, leaving vestiges all over the coast of eastern Canada and deep into the Saint Lawrence River. Basque commercial and fishing activity reached its peak before the Armada Invencibles disaster, the whaling galleons from Labourd were not affected by the Spanish defeat
Quebec Route 132
Route 132 is the longest highway in Quebec. This highway is known as the Navigators Route and it passes through the Montérégie, Centre-du-Québec, Chaudière-Appalaches, Bas-Saint-Laurent and Gaspésie regions of the province. Unlike the more direct Autoroute 20, which it shadows from Longueuil to Luceville, until the connection between Rivière-du-Loup and Le Bic is completed, this highway provides a link between the two sections of Autoroute 20. At Rivière-du-Loup, the Trans-Canada Highway continues south on Autoroute 85 to Edmundston and this eastern section of the highway, from Rivière-du-Loup towards Gaspé, was the former Route 6, until the early 1970s realignment of route numbers into a grid. At Sainte-Flavie, the splits and one branch turns south following the valley of the Matapédia River to reach the New Brunswick border near Campbellton. The other branch continues east to follow the coast of the Gaspé peninsula, the total length of this loop is over 930 km. Highway 132 joins Autoroute 15 in Candiac at its Exit 42 and overlaps it until Exit 53, in Brossard, Highway 132 begins its overlap with Autoroute 20 until Boucherville, where Autoroute 20 splits off onto Autoroute Jean-Lesage.
From that point, Highway 132 continues to the east of Boucherville as a four-lane expressway formerly known as Autoroute 430, list of Quebec provincial highways Heritage Highway Route 132, a 2010 crime film set on Route 132 Provincial Route Map
The Channel Islands are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, and although they are not part of the United Kingdom, it is responsible for the defence, the Crown dependencies are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations nor of the European Union. They have a population of about 168,000. The total area of the islands is 198 km2, the two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century, each has its own independent laws and representative bodies. Any institution common to both is the rather than the rule. The Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey and Sark – each with its own legislature, the term Channel Islands began to be used around 1830, possibly first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. The permanently inhabited islands of the Channel Islands are, Jersey Guernsey Alderney Sark Herm Jethou Brecqhou There are several uninhabited islets and they are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville.
While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are no transport links from the other islands. Chausey is referred to as an Île normande, Îles Normandes and Archipel Normand have also, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole. The lowest point is the Atlantic Ocean, the earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe. The islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period, hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials, the Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri and is included in the Peutinger Table The traditional Latin names used for the islands derive from the Antonine Itinerary, gallo-Roman culture was adopted to an unknown extent in the islands.
In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands, samson of Dol, Helier and Magloire are among saints associated with the islands. In the sixth century, they were included in the diocese of Coutances where they remained until reformation. The islands were inhabited by Britons, who inhabited Wales, south west England, from the beginning of the ninth century, Norse raiders appeared on the coasts. Norse settlement succeeded initial attacks, and it is from this period that many names of Norse origin appear. In 933, the islands were granted to William I Longsword by Raoul King of Western Francia, in 1066, William II of Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, known as William the Conqueror
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a sea, covering an area of about 236,000 square kilometres and containing about 35,000 cubic kilometres of water. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, PEI, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, and Miquelon-Langlade. Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Labrador, and Quebec. Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. Georges Bay, Bay St. George, Bay of Islands, the Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island,104 km wide and 480 m deep at its deepest. The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula,1.0 km wide and 60 m deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows, Fisheries, St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the Graveyard of the Gulf because of its many shipwrecks. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard, the five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m deep and about 1,250 km long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C enter the Gulf at the slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation. Over the 20th century, the waters of the end of the channel have become hypoxic. The gulf has provided an important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia. The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534.
Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River The Country of Canadas, after a word meaning village or settlement. At just about the period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic. They left vestiges of their presence in locations of the area—docks, graveyards
The Chic-Choc Mountains, spelled Shick Shocks, is a mountain range in the central region of the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada. It is a part of the Notre Dame Mountains, which is a continuation of the Appalachian Mountains, the name Chic-Chocs comes from the Mikmaq word sigsôg, meaning crags or rocky mountains. It has undergone many different spellings over time, including Chikchâks, Shick-shock, the Chic-Chocs run parallel to the St. Lawrence River and are located some 20 to 40 kilometers inland. They are a band of mountains approximately 95 kilometres long and 10 kilometres wide. The Chic-Chocs are heavily eroded, with rounded, flattened tops, over 25 mountains in the range have peaks higher than 1,000 metres, the highest is Mont Jacques-Cartier at 1,268 metres. Caribou can be found in the plateaus of this region, although visited by just a few tourists, Chic-Choc Mountains became much more popular in the late 1990s as backcountry skiing gained popularity in Eastern Canada. A network of trails, including the International Appalachian Trail, passes through these mountains, quebecs Parc national de la Gaspésie protects most of the mountain range.
Brennan Landscape Paintings of the Chic-Choc Mountains
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Provinces and territories of Canada
Canadas geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. Over its history, Canadas international borders have changed several times, the ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was originally a French colony, the three territories are Northwest Territories and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the worlds second-largest country by area, the powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, the territories are not sovereign, but simply part of the federal realm, and have a commissioner who represents the federal government.
Notes, There are three territories in Canada, unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, the following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Prior to Confederation and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada, over the following years, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces. The Hudsons Bay Company controlled large swathes of western Canada referred to as Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory until 1870, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining Arctic islands were transferred by Britain to Canada in 1880,1898 saw the Yukon Territory, renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1,1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward, Manitobas to the 60° parallel, Ontarios to Hudson Bay, in 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a period of economic crisis. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbias northwestern boundary. This was one of two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area and they are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes
Acadia was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River, the actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies which became Canadian provinces, the population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France. The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis, the first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English, during these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine.
While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Annes War, present-day New Brunswick, present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rales War, during King Georges War and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutres War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British, during the French and Indian War, both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758. Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are associated with the lands, descendants. It can be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, in the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions. People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians, Arcadia derives from the Arcadia district in Greece which since Classical antiquity had the extended meanings of refuge or idyllic place.
In 1603 a colony south of the St. Lawrence between the 40th and 46th parallels was agreed by Henry IV, who recognised the territory as La Cadie, in the 17th century Champlain fixed its present orthography with the r omitted. William Francis Ganong, a cartographer, has shown its gradual progress northeastwards, in a succession of maps, another interesting note is the similarity in the pronunciation of Acadie and the Míkmawísimk suffix -akadie, which means a place of abundance. The modern usage is seen in place names such as Shunacadie or Shubenacadie. It is thought that intercultural conversation between early French traders and Mikmaq hunters may have resulted in the name lArcadie being changed to lAcadie, the history of Acadia was significantly influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th century. Prior to that period, the Mi’kmaq lived in Acadia for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi’kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years.
Early European colonists, who would become known as Acadians, were French subjects primarily from the Pleumartin to Poitiers in the Vienne département of west-central France