Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy, Catalonia consists of four provinces, Girona and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain, Catalonia comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal the Count of Barcelona, in the Middle Ages Catalan literature flourished. Between 1469 and 1516, the King of Aragon and the Queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all their distinct institutions and constitutions. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the Royal army in its territory, within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, at a high economic cost for Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army.
In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic, in the second half of the century Catalonia experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a Commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, after the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained some political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain, the origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. During the Middle Ages, Byzantine chroniclers claimed that Catalania derives from the medley of Goths with Alans.
Other less plausible theories suggest, Catalunya derives from the land of castles, having evolved from the term castlà or castlan. This theory therefore suggests that the names Catalunya and Castile have a common root, the source is of Celtic origin, meaning chiefs of battle. Although the area is not known to have been occupied by Celts, the Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved by metathesis to Katelans and Catalans. In English, Catalonia is pronounced /kætəˈloʊniə/, the native name, Catalunya, is pronounced in Central Catalan, the most widely spoken variety whose pronunciation is considered standard. The Spanish name is Cataluña, and the Aranese name is Catalonha, the first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Palaeolithic. From the next era, the Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic, important remains survive
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U. S. –Mexico border. The highly urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego and four cities, including National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach. Considered to be one of the best natural harbors on the west coast of North America, San Diego Bays commercial port has two container ship facilities and a cruise ship terminal. A second cruise terminal opened in December 2010. The port handles more than 3 million metric tons of cargo yearly, San Diego International Airport is adjacent to the bay, across Harbor Drive from the Coast Guard Station. The bay is spanned by the San Diego–Coronado Bridge, built in 1969, the bridge curves and rises to a height of 200 feet above the water so that Navy ships can pass under it. The bridge was originally a bridge, toll collection was discontinued in 2002. Americas Cup Harbor has several boat yards and marinas for private sailing yachts, numerous resorts and the San Diego Convention Center are adjacent to the Bay.
Several parks and nature preserves are found at locations along the shoreline. Sightseeing boats depart from the downtown area, commercial sport fishing and whale watching tours depart from Shelter Island. Ten museum ships call San Diego Bay home and they include the USS Midway, an aircraft carrier museum, and the Star of India, the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship afloat and the worlds oldest active sailing ship. In the northern part of the bay there are two islands called Harbor Island and Shelter Island. They were built up from former sand bars and now hold hotels, restaurants and public parkland. Small boat sailing is extremely popular, and the bay is lined by dozens of marinas and nine yacht clubs, an inlet of the bay was renamed Americas Cup Harbor to commemorate that occasion. An annual fireworks display called the Big Bay Boom is held on the Fourth of July over the waters of the Bay, fireworks are launched simultaneously from four barges in the Bay as well as from a pier in Imperial Beach.
It is one of the largest annual fireworks displays in the United States and is viewed by half a million each year. The Parade of Lights is a parade of more than 80 small boats with holiday decorations, the parade has been held annually since 1972. The parade starts off Shelter Island and proceeds past Harbor Island and Downtown, a one-time special event was the Parade of Flight in February 2011, celebrating the 100th anniversary of naval aviation
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
Mission San Carlos Borromeo del río Carmelo, known as the Carmel Mission or Mission Carmel, is a Roman Catholic mission church in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California. It is on the National Register of Historic Places and a U. S. National Historic Landmark, the mission was the headquarters of the Alta California missions headed by Saint Junípero Serra from 1770 until his death in 1784. It was the seat of the presidente, Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen. The mission buildings and lands were secularized by the Mexican government in 1833 and they were partially restored beginning in 1884. In 1886 it was transferred from the Franciscans to the diocese and has continued as a parish church since then. It is the one of the California Missions to have its original bell tower dome. Mission Carmel is the second built by Franciscan missionaries in Upper California. It was first established as Mission San Carlos Borromeo in Monterey and it was named for Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, Italy. It was the site of the first Christian confirmation in Alta California, when the mission moved, the original building continued to operate as the Royal Presidio chapel and became the current Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo.
Pedro Fages, who served as governor of Alta California between 1770 and 1774, kept his headquarters at the Presidio of Monterey, the capital of Alta California. He worked his men very harshly and was seen as a tyrant, Serra intervened on behalf of Fages soldiers, and the two men did not get along. The soldiers raped the Indian woman and kept them as concubines, Serra wanted to put some distance between the missions neophytes and Fages soldiers. Serra found that the land near the mouth of the Carmel River was better suited for farming, in May 1771, Spains viceroy approved Serras petition to relocate the mission to its current location near the Carmelo River. The relocated mission was renamed Mission San Carlos Borromeo del Río Carmelo, after the Carmel mission was moved to Carmel Valley, the Franciscans began to baptize some natives. By the end of 1771, the population of mission was 15 with an additional 22 baptized Indians, farming was not very productive and for several years the mission was dependent upon the arrival of supply ships.
Historian Jame Culleton wrote in 1950, The summer of 73 came without bringing the supply ship, neither Carmel nor Monterey was anything like self-supporting. To improve baptismal rates, they sought to convert key members of the Esselen and Rumsen tribes and this persuaded some Indians to follow them to the mission. Disease, starvation and torture decimated these tribes, native neophyte laborers made the adobe bricks, roof tiles and tools needed to build the mission
Suppression of the Society of Jesus
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, Parma, the Spanish Empire and Austria and Hungary is a highly controversial subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy, by the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. Russia and the United States allowed the Jesuits to continue their work, soon after their restoration by Pope Pius VII in 1814 they began returning to most of the places from which they had been expelled. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering, monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity. The expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the benefit of allowing governments to impound the Societys accumulated wealth. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know, various states took advantage of different events in order to take action.
The Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, the conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, and in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767, the Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext for the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets. Portugals quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain, the native Guaraní, who lived in the mission territories, were ordered to quit their country and settle across the Uruguay. Owing to the conditions, the Guaraní rose in arms against the transfer. It was a disaster for the Guaraní, benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses. He ordered an inquiry, but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society. Benedict died the month on May 3. He had not visited Jesuit houses as ordered, and pronounced on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself. Pombal implicated the Jesuits in the Távora affair, an assassination of the king on September 3,1758.
Among those arrested and executed was the denounced Gabriel Malagrida, after Malagridas execution in 1759, the Society was suppressed by the Portuguese crown. The Portuguese ambassador was recalled from Rome and the papal nuncio expelled, diplomatic relations between Portugal and Rome were broken off until 1770. Their large mission plantations included large populations that worked under the usual conditions of tropical colonial agriculture of the 18th century
Fages was born in Guissona, Lérida/Lleida province, Spain. In 1762 he entered the infantry in Catalonia in 1762. In May 1767 Fages, commissioned as a lieutenant in the newly formed Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, set sail from Cádiz along with a company of light infantry and he and his men served under Domingo Elizondo in Sonora. In 1769, Fages was selected by visitador José de Gálvez to lead the portion of the Gaspar de Portolá-led expedition to found San Diego. Lieutenant Fages sailed from Guaymas to the Baja California port of La Paz, on January 9,1769, he boarded the galleon San Carlos, captained by Vicente Vila and bound for San Diego. Also on board were Franciscan friar Fernando Parrón, engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó, surgeon Pedro Prat, after sailing nearly 200 miles beyond San Diego due to cartography errors, the San Carlos doubled back south. It finally arrived in San Diego Bay on April 29, with scurvy-ridden troops, in his letter reporting to Gálvez, Fages observed of the local Kumeyaay Indians, …They appear to be docile and alert.
We have made good friends with them and we are never lacking some little rabbits, hares. We give them some glass beads, but they value very highly any kind of cloth — no matter how poor it might be — since in exchange for some that I had, I received some furs and nets. Costansó, while branding the Kumeyaay as lazy idlers, noted that they have bestowed great affection upon Don Pedro Fages and they have invited him at various times to be with their women, an expression of friendship that the rest have not merited. Fages ordered a leather target erected at a practical distance, the Indians fired their arrows, which had only a mild effect on the leather. Fages ordered his best marksmen to shoot at the same target, upon hearing the noise and seeing the destruction so close at hand, the Indians changed their expressions and some of the more timid ones left, giving very clear signs of their surprise and fear. On July 14,1769, Fages set out from San Diego with a party of 74 men on the Portolá expedition to locate Monterey Bay.
The party included Catalonian volunteers, leather-jacketed soldiers, Christian Indians from Baja California, during this time he was promoted to captain. Although the party failed to recognize Monterey Bay as they passed it, the 74 men returned exhausted to San Diego on January 24,1770, having had to slaughter and eat their mules on the return trek south. In March 1770 Felipe de Barri, in Baja California, was governor of both Baja and Alta California. But, since Monterey was far away, Fages had free rein to run Alta as acting governor, taking charge of constructing the Spanish presidio in Monterey, Fages imposed strict discipline on his soldier laborers. He decided the amount of work they had to do in a certain time, heavy rains punctuated the spring and winter of 1770-1, but Fages permitted no let-up in the work
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
Loreto, Baja California Sur
Loreto is a city in and municipal seat of Loreto Municipality, located on the Gulf of California in eastern Baja California Sur state, Mexico. The city of 14,724 people is located about 350 km north of La Paz, Loreto was the first Spanish colonial settlement of the Viceroyalty of New Spain on the Baja California Peninsula. The town was founded in 1697 by Jesuit missionaries, who found a spring of fresh water on this site. The Jesuits were expelled in 1767, and control of the Baja California missions was given to the Franciscans, the expedition departed from Loreto on March 24,1769. The town served as the capital of the province of Las Californias from its founding until the capital was moved to Monterey on February 3,1777, in 1768, the province had been split into Alta California and Baja California. At first, the two continued with a single governor. Later, the became the headquarters for the Lieutenant Governor of California Viejo. Loreto is located on the east coast of the Baja California Peninsula, the city is built on relatively flat land with an average elevation is 10 meters above sea level.
“La Giganta” Mountain Range lies to the west, extending along the center of the state of Baja California Sur, parallel to the gulf coast. The city is a tourist resort, catering mostly to U. S. travelers, many American tourists enjoy fishing in pangas for dorado. Local restaurants will willingly prepare the daily catch of the tourists, Loreto has a museum that coexists alongside the historic, but still active, parish. Loreto has active sister city relationships with the California cities of Hermosa Beach, Loreto’s climate is hot and humid, with abundant sunshine. The median temperature is 24.4 °C, the temperatures are hot from June through October. These summer days have highs around 34 °C and high humidity, in spring season, the temperatures are moderate and temperate. Autumn and winter months are usually windy, from January to March, winds blow from the NW and the North, the rest of the year, the winds blow usually from the West. Loretos yearly precipitation is low, averaging about 160 mm, the wettest months are August and September, when there are occasional short-lived rainfalls.
One concern for Loreto is the Pacific hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30, the last time the town area was hit by a hurricane was on September 2 and 3,2006, when the hurricane John hit the Baja California Peninsula. According to INEGI, the 2005 city population was 10,283 people with 2565 households, with 77. 67% male and 22. 32% female householders
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political and legal systems and they were part of Britains possessions in the New World, which included colonies in present-day Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a degree of self-government and active local elections. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with each other instead of dealing directly with Britain, Colonial decisions were subject to approval by the governor and the home government. There were substantial populations of African slaves in some of the colonies, especially Virginia, the Carolinas, the names of the colonies were chosen by the founders and proprietors, subject to royal approval, and given in the founding charters. Nine of the thirteen chose to include in their names the term Province of, residents tended to drop the ambiguous terminology, as in the map shown in the article Province of New Jersey, which is labeled simply East Jersey and West Jersey.
In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the United States of America, the new nation achieved that goal by winning the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France, the Netherlands, and Spain. The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies, besides these thirteen colonies, Britain had another dozen in the New World. Those in the British West Indies, the Province of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and East and West Florida remained loyal to the crown throughout the war. The British crown had recently acquired those lands, and many of the issues facing the Thirteen Colonies did not apply to them, especially in the case of Quebec. Contemporary documents usually list the thirteen colonies of British North America in geographical order, the consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, and the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689. Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled in 1630 by Puritans from England, the colonial charter was revoked in 1684, and a new charter was issued in 1691 establishing an enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Province of Maine Settled in 1622, the Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed the Maine territory in the 1650s, limited to present-day southernmost Maine. Parts of Maine east of the Kennebec River were part of New York in the half of the 17th century. These areas were made part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Plymouth Colony Settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims, plymouth was merged into the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Saybrook Colony Founded in 1635 and merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644, New Haven Colony Settled in late 1637. New Netherland Extensive region centered about New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan Island