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Gaspard de la nuit

Gaspard de la nuit, M. 55 is a suite of piano pieces by Maurice Ravel, written in 1908. It has three movements, each based on a poem or fantaisie from the collection Gaspard de la Nuit — Fantaisies à la manière de Rembrandt et de Callot completed in 1836 by Aloysius Bertrand; the work was premiered on January 9, 1909, by Ricardo Viñes. The piece is famous for its difficulty because Ravel intended the Scarbo movement to be more difficult than Balakirev's Islamey; because of its technical challenges and profound musical structure, Scarbo is considered one of the most difficult solo piano pieces in the standard repertoire. The manuscript resides in the Harry Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin; the name "Gaspard" is derived from its original Persian form, denoting "the man in charge of the royal treasures": "Gaspard of the Night" or the treasurer of the night thus creates allusions to someone in charge of all, jewel-like, mysterious even morose. Of the work, Ravel himself said: "Gaspard has been a devil in coming, but, only logical since it was he, the author of the poems.

My ambition is to say with notes what a poet expresses with words."Aloysius Bertrand, author of Gaspard de la Nuit, introduces his collection by attributing them to a mysterious old man met in a park in Dijon, who lent him the book. When he goes in search of M. Gaspard to return the volume, he asks,'Tell me where M. Gaspard de la Nuit may be found."He is in hell, provided that he isn't somewhere else,' comes the reply.'Ah! I am beginning to understand! What! Gaspard de la Nuit must be...?' the poet continues.'Ah! Yes... the devil!' His informant responds.'Thank you, mon brave!... If Gaspard de la Nuit is in hell, may he roast there. I shall publish his book.' Written in C♯ major and based on the poem "Ondine", an oneiric tale of the water nymph Undine singing to seduce the observer into visiting her kingdom deep at the bottom of a lake. It is reminiscent of Ravel's early piano piece, the Jeux d'eau, with the sounds of water falling and flowing, woven with cascades. There are five main melodies; the opening melody at bar 2 evokes a line of song and is similar in form and subject to the main theme in Sirènes from Claude Debussy's Nocturnes.

This is interrupted by the second theme at bar 10 before opening up a longer melodic passage formed from the latter part of theme 1. A short simple melody first heard at bar 23 introduces shimmering harmonic side-shifting; the final distinct melody is a menacing short rising figure first heard at bar 45, which prefaces the menace of Le Gibet and which provides a bridge to the main climax at bar 66. Ravel prioritises melodic development to express the poetic themes, keeping subordinate the simmering coloration of the right hand. By contrast, Claude Debussy's works such as Reflets dans l'eau tend to treat melody more with harmonic and figurative impulsivity, position virtuosity more in the foreground; this piece contains technical challenges for the right hand such as the fast repetition of three-note chords in the opening accompaniment, the double note passages beginning at bar 57, the disjunct climactic movement of the hands beginning at bar 66. The duration of Ondine is about 6:30. Recordings vary in tempo, driven by the tension of keeping the shimmering alternating notes from becoming mechanical, yet giving sufficient space for the lyricism of the melodies.

Written in E♭ minor and based on the poem "Le Gibet", the observer is presented with a view of the desert, where the lone corpse of a hanged man on a gibbet stands out against the horizon, reddened by the setting sun. Meanwhile, a bell tolls from inside the walls of a far-off city, creating the deathly atmosphere that surrounds the observer. Throughout the entire piece is a B♭ octave ostinato, imitative of the tolling bell, that must remain distinctive and constant in tone as the notes cross over and dynamics change; the duration of Le Gibet is about 7:15. Written in G♯ minor and based on the poem "Scarbo", this movement depicts the nighttime mischief of a small fiend or goblin, making pirouettes, flitting in and out of the darkness and reappearing, its uneven flight and scratching against the walls, casting a growing shadow in the moonlight, creates a nightmarish scene for the observer lying in his bed. With its repeated notes and two terrifying climaxes, this is the high point in technical difficulty of all the three movements.

Technical challenges include repeated notes in both hands, double-note scales in major seconds in the right hand. Ravel said about Scarbo: "I wanted to write an orchestral transcription for the piano." The duration of Scarbo is about 8:30. Eugene Goossens orchestrated Gaspard in 1942. Marius Constant orchestrated the piece in 1990. Piano – Ravel – Gaspard de la nuit – includes free recordings of "Ondine" and "Scarbo". Gaspard de la nuit: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project BBC Discovering Music – Includes lecture and performance – 1 hour and 30 minutes The Shady Lane Publishing Includes Creative Commons recording and sheet music of "Le gibet" transcription for two guitars by M. Jacquot

Education Authority

The Education Authority is a non-departmental body sponsored by the Department of Education in Northern Ireland. It was established under the Education Act 2014, passed by the Northern Ireland Assembly; the authority became operational on 1 April 2015. The Education Authority is responsible for ensuring that efficient and effective primary and secondary education services are available to meet the needs of children and young people, support for the provision of efficient and effective youth services; these services were delivered by the five Education and Library Boards. Each of the former ELBs is now a sub region of the Education Authority: Belfast Region North Eastern Region South Eastern Region Southern Region Western Region The Education Authority Board consists of 20 members plus the Chair; these include: 8 political members who were nominated by political parties according to the D’Hondt mechanism.

1985 in archaeology

The year 1985 in archaeology involved some significant events. April - Engine of SS Xantho recovered off Western Australia. June 21 - 1928 Scania truck recovered from Fryken in Sweden. September - British Vickers Wellington IA medium bomber N2980 recovered from Loch Ness in Scotland. Sagalassos surveyed. July 20 - The main shipwreck site of the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de Atocha is found 40 miles off the coast of Key West, Florida by treasure hunters who soon begin to raise $400 million in coins and silver. September 1 - The shipwreck of the RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic is located by a joint American-French expedition led by Dr Robert Ballard and Jean-Louis Michel using side-scan sonar from RV Knorr. October 13 - A hoard of coins of the Durotriges tribe is found in the rampart of Castle Rings, England, an Iron Age hill fort, by a metal detectorist. Autumn - Rogozen Treasure: In the village of Rogozen, Vratsa Province, tractor driver Ivan Dimitrov discovers 65 silver vessels in his garden.

In 1986 archaeologists will discover a second hoard consisting of 100 vessels near the spot. Archaeologists date the treasure to the 5th-4th centuries BCE. Wrecks of three Spanish Armada ships driven ashore in Autumn 1588, La Lavia, La Juliana, Santa Maria de Vison, found at Streedagh Strand, north of Rosses Point on the west coast of Ireland. Shipwreck of Greek merchant ship of about 400 BCE found off Ma'agan Michael. Scar boat burial, Orkney; the Middleham Jewel, a 15th century pendant, found on a pathway at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire. The oldest known representation of a cannon, a stone relief sculpture dated 1128, is discovered carved in the walls of Cave 149 of the Dazu Rock Carvings in Dazu, China. Discovery of a Roman amphitheatre at London. Theresa A. Singleton - The Archaeology of Slavery and Plantation Life. Ruins of Nan Madol in Micronesia declared a protected historic landmark. April 11: Olga Tufnell, English archaeologist of the Near East April 18: Gertrude Caton Thompson, English archaeologist of Africa December 5: A. Ledyard Smith, American archaeologist of the Americas December 18: Theresa Goell, American archaeologist of the Near East

Eddie Dean (singer)

Eddie Dean was an American western singer and actor whom Roy Rogers and Gene Autry termed the best cowboy singer of all time. Dean was best known for "I Dreamed Of A Hill-Billy Heaven", which became an greater hit for Tex Ritter in 1961. Dean was born in the rural community of Posey in Hopkins County, northwest of Sulphur Springs, his father was a teacher. At the age of sixteen, Dean performed on the Southern gospel circuit with the Vaughan and the V. O. Stamps quartets. Dean and his brother, Jimmie Dean moved to Chicago and performed together on WLS Radio's National Barn Dance, they did work from a radio station in Yankton, South Dakota. In 1934, Dean appeared in his first film in the role of Sam in Manhattan Love Song. In 1937, Dean relocated to California. In 1936-1937, Dean portrayed Larry Burton on the old-time radio serial Modern Cinderella on CBS. Producers Releasing Corporation, a low-budget movie studio, had been making more ambitious pictures in 1944 and 1945, introduced a new novelty: hour-long westerns in color.

This was the first time a regular series of features was photographed in color, Eddie Dean was chosen as the star of the series. The films were an immediate success, launching Dean as a popular western star and showcasing his pleasant baritone singing voice, his comic sidekick was Mississippi native Roscoe Ates in the role of Soapy Jones. Dean's films, in 1947 and 1948, were conventional black-and-white westerns. A partial listing of Dean's films and musical numbers includes: Renegade Trail as Singing Cowboy "Red" Rolling Home to Texas as a sheriff Trail of the Silver Spurs as Stoner The Harmony Trail as Marshal Eddie Dean, his first starring role Wildfire as Sheriff Johnny Deal. Wild Country as Himself. Dean and Jan Sterling appeared in the short-running ABC television western series, The Marshal of Gunsight Pass, broadcast live in 1950 to West Coast stations from a primitive studio lot at the Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, California. Dean was featured in archival footage on NBC's The Gabby Hayes Show.

Long after The Marshal of Gunsight Pass ended, Dean appeared as Trail Boss Tim in a 1962 television short called The Night Rider, with Johnny Cash as Johnny Laredo and Dick Jones from Snyder, Texas, as Billy Joe. Dean thereafter guest starred twice on CBS's The Beverly Hillbillies sitcom with Buddy Ebsen in the 1963 episodes "Elly's Animals" and in the role of Sergeant Dean in "Jed Plays Solomon". During the 1930s, Dean sang on radio with Judy Canova. Beginning in 1941, he recorded a string of singles for Standard, American Record Company, Just Film and Radio Recorders, he joined Mercury Records in 1948, when he released "One Has My Name," written with his wife, Lorene Donnelly Dean, whom he married in 1931 and called "Dearest". The song became Billboard's No. 1 country hit as recorded by Jimmy Wakely and Jerry Lee Lewis, Nat King Cole, Willie Nelson and over 30 other artists. In 1955, Dean and Hal Southern released "Hill-Billy Heaven". Southern claimed that a dream inspired the song and that the name of the song is derived from the nickname that a West Coast disc jockey, Squeakin' Deacon Moore, had given to Bell Gardens, because of its considerable number of country music fans.

Dean was a founder of the Academy of Country Music. One of Eddie's last records, recorded in the 1990s and released on The Bradlley Brothers record label was a country song entitled'Cold Texas Beer' which harkened back to Eddie's West Texas roots; the song was written by Bill Aken, the adopted son of actors Frank and Lupe Mayorga who had worked in a few films with Eddie in the 1940s. Eddie asked Bill for the 43-year-old song because he remembered it from the early days when Aken performed the song himself on Cliffie Stone's'Hometown Jamboree' in the 1950s. Eddie's reco

Mount Etna

Mount Etna, or Etna, is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the Eurasian Plate, it is the highest active volcano in Europe outside the Caucasus and the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps with a current height of 3,326 m, though this varies with summit eruptions. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only Mount Teide on Tenerife in the Canary Islands surpasses it in the whole of the European–North-African region west of the Black Sea. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under this mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder and king of gods, the forges of Hephaestus were said to be underneath it. Mount Etna is one of the world's most active volcanoes and is in an constant state of activity.

The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations. In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the word Etna is from the Greek αἴθω. In Classical Greek, it is called Αἴτνη, a name given to Catania and the city known as Inessa. In Latin it is called Aetna. In Arabic, it was called جبل النار Jabal al-Nār, it is known as Mungibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello or Montebello in Italian. According to another hypothesis, the term Mongibello comes from the Latin Mulciber, one of the Latin names of the Roman god Vulcan. Another theory is that Mongibello came from the Italian word monte plus the Arabic word jabal, both meaning "mountain." Today, the name Mongibello is used for the area of Mount Etna containing the two central craters, the craters located southeast and northeast of the volcanic cone.

The name Mongibel is found in Arthurian Romance, as the name of the otherworld castle of Morgan le Fay and her half-brother, King Arthur, localised at Etna, according to traditions concerning them derived from the stories told by the Breton conteurs who accompanied the Norman occupiers of Sicily. What were Welsh conceptions concerning a dwarf king of a paradisal, Celtic underworld became attached to the quasi-historic figure of Arthur as "Ruler of the Antipodes" and were transplanted into a Sicilian milieu, by Bretons impressed by the otherworldly associations of the great, volcanic mountain of their new home. Mediaevalist Roger Sherman Loomis quotes passages from the works of Gervase of Tilbury and Caesarius of Heisterbach featuring accounts of Arthur's returning of a lost horse which had strayed into his subterranean kingdom beneath Etna. Caesarius quotes as his authority for the story a certain canon Godescalcus of Bonn, who considered it a matter of historical fact of the time of Emperor Henry's conquest of Sicily circa 1194.

Caesarius employs in his account the Latin phrase in monte Gyber to describe the location of Arthur's kingdom. The Fada de Gibel of the Castle of Gibaldar appears in Jaufre, the only surviving Arthurian romance in the Occitan language, the composition of, dated to between 1180 and 1230. However, in Jaufre, while it is clear from her name that the fairy queen in question is Morgan le Fay, the rich underworld queendom of which she is the mistress is accessed, not through a fiery grotto on the slopes of Etna, but through a'fountain' – a circumstance more in keeping with Morgan's original watery, rather than fiery, before her incorporation into the folklore of Sicily. For another Sicilian conception of the fairy realm or castle of Morgan le Fay – see Fata Morgana re. an optical phenomenon common in the Strait of Messina. Volcanic activity first took place at Etna about 500,000 years ago, with eruptions occurring beneath the sea off the ancient coastline of Sicily. About 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring to the southwest of the summit activity moved towards the present centre 170,000 years ago.

Eruptions at this time built up the first major volcanic edifice, forming a stratovolcano in alternating explosive and effusive eruptions. The growth of the mountain was interrupted by major eruptions, leading to the collapse of the summit to form calderas. From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some explosive eruptions, generating large pyroclastic flows, which left extensive ignimbrite deposits. Ash from these eruptions has been found as far away as south of 800 km to the north. Thousands of years ago, the eastern flank of the mountain experienced a catastrophic collapse, generating an enormous landslide in an event similar to that seen in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens; the landslide left a large depression in the side of the volcano, known as'Valle del Bove'. Research published in 2006 suggested this occurred around 8,000 years ago, caused a huge tsunami, which left its mark in several places in the eastern Mediterranean, it may have been the reason the settl

Luke Cummo

Luke Joseph Cummo is an American former mixed martial artist. A professional from 2002 until 2008, he is best remembered for his stint in the UFC and being a competitor on the reality TV series The Ultimate Fighter 2 on Spike TV. Cummo fights out of Long Island, where he attended Chaminade High School in Mineola, New York and works with Serra Jiu-Jitsu and Ray Longo's IMAA. Although his grappling ability has been improving, his primary style remains Muay Thai kickboxing, he holds a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu purple belt. He graduated Nassau Community College with a degree in Biology. Cummo began his professional mixed martial arts career in 2002, fighting in the Ring of Combat promotion in New Jersey. Over two-and-a-half years, he amassed a record of 2 losses. In 2005, Cummo was selected to be a contestant on The Ultimate Fighter 2 season, he gained recognition on the show due to his personality and unorthodox diet, his striking ability and his love of comic books. He was the last person picked for a team on the show, fighting throughout the show as the underdog.

In his first fight, Cummo defeated Anthony Torres by unanimous decision after three rounds. In the semi-finals, Cummo faced Sammy Morgan and won by knockout via a knee at 2:05 of the second round. After winning two exhibition fights, he made it to the finals against Joe Stevenson. Cummo faced Joe Stevenson in an sanction bout at The Ultimate Fighter 2 Finale on November 5, 2005, he lost the bout via a unanimous decision. Though Cummo lost to Stevenson, his performance earned him a UFC contract. In Cummo's first match under a UFC contract at UFC Ultimate Fight Night 4, he defeated Jason Von Flue via unanimous decision. In his next fight, Cummo was defeated by Canadian fighter Jonathan Goulet, who scored a decision victory over Cummo with superior wrestling and ground control. Cummo amassed a two fight win streak when he defeated Josh Haynes via knockout at UFC 69 on April 7, 2007 and defeated Edilberto de Oliveira via TKO at UFC Fight Night 11 on September 19, 2007. Cummo next faced Luigi Fioravanti at UFC 82 on March 1, 2008.

He lost the fight via unanimous decision. Cummo's last fight was a unanimous decision loss to Tamdan McCrory at UFC 87, his UFC record stands at 4 losses. Luke and his ex-wife Lara have two sons, Zachary Michael, born on October 7, 2007, Maxwell Joseph, born April 24, 2009. Cummo has endorsed urine therapy, the drinking of one's own urine, he has stated that this gives him an advantage over the competition due to the supposed nutritional benefits that it provides. Ultimate Fighting Championship Fight of the Night vs. Jonathan Goulet Professional MMA record for Luke Cummo from Sherdog Luke Cummo at UFC Luke Cummo on IMDb Official website Interview Interview Interview