Count of Foix
The Count of Foix ruled the independent County of Foix, in what is now southern France, during the Middle Ages. The House of Foix extended its power across the Pyrenees mountain range, moving their court to Pau in Béarn; the last count unified with King Henry IV of France in 1607. 1010-1034: Bernard Roger, count of Couserans, count of Bigorre, lord of Comminges and lord of Foix Main article: House of Albret and Albret In 1607 the county of Foix was reunited to the French crown. Foix Castle of Foix County of Foix List of Co-Princes of Andorra Diana of Foix List of Navarrese monarchs from the House of Foix Navarre monarchs family tree Histoire des Comtes de Foix Medieval History of Navarre
Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. It is located at the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 149,410. Huelva is home to the oldest football club in Spain. A maritime town between the rivers Anas, Baetis, it was situated on the estuary of the River Luxia, on the road from the mouth of the Anas to Augusta Emerita; the city may be the site of Tartessus. The Greeks kept the name and rendered it Ὄνοβα, it was in the hands of the Turdetani at the time of conquest by Rome, before the conquest it issued silver coins with Iberian legends. It was called both Onoba Aestuaria or Onuba during Roman times, or Onoba; the city was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. The Arabs called it Walbah and ruled between 714-1250, it suffered substantial damage in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. There are still some; the city had a mint. Modern inhabitants are called Onubenses in Spanish.
Part of a large wooden wheel, used to drain a copper mine in Huelva was discovered in the late nineteenth century. Dating to the Roman times, it was donated by the British mining company Rio Tinto to the British Museum in 1889. Mines in the countryside send pyrite to the port for export. From about 1873, the most important company in the area was the British mining firm; the mining operations caused severe sulfur dioxide pollution and were accompanied by protests of local farmers and miners, allied under the anarchist syndicalist leader Maximiliano Tornet. On 4 February 1888, the Pavi Regiment of the Spanish Army opened fire on demonstrators at the village plaza of Rio Tinto. Historians estimate the number of deaths between 100 and 200. Environmentalists from the nearby Nerva village referred to 1888 as the "year of shots" a hundred years in their protests against the province government's plans to site a large waste dump in a disused mine in the 1990s. During World War II, the city was a hub of espionage activities led by members of the large British and German communities.
German activity centered on reporting British shipping moving out of the Atlantic. Most famously, the city was the location where Operation Mincemeat allowed a body carrying false information to wash ashore; the body of Glyndwr Michael, the fictional "Major William Martin, Royal Marines," of the espionage operation is buried in the San Marco section of the cemetery of Nuestra Senora under a headstone that reads: William Martin, born 29 March 1907, died 24 April 1943, beloved son of John Glyndwyr and the late Antonia Martin of Cardiff, Wales, DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI, R. I. P; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in January 1998 added an inscription to the gravestone, which reads: Glyndwr Michael served as Major William Martin. On 11 October 2005, Hurricane Vince made landfall in Huelva as a tropical depression; the local football club, Recreativo de Huelva, is the oldest in Spain. It was founded in 1889 by workers of a British mining company; the Port of Huelva is divided in two sectors: the outer port: The Inner Port.
Constructed in 1972, the East Wharf, replaced constructed harbour facilities of inferior quality between 1900 and 1910. At the moment it is the wharf used for smaller traffic including tourist boats; the Outer Port was built in 1965, is located to the south of the River Tinto. Huelva is home to a provincial bus company. Huelva´s train station is now a shadow of its former self, exists on a spur line. There are no trains to Portugal. Huelva´s port hosts Naviera Armas´ ferry Volcan del Teide, on which one can travel weekly to Arrecife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Huelva does not have an airport; the closest airports to the city are Seville Airport. Huelva had a population of 149,410 in 2010; the city experienced a population boom in the nineteenth century, due to the exploitation of mineral resources in the area, another with the construction of the Polo de Desarrollo in the 1960s. It had a population of 5,377 inhabitants in 1787, which had risen to only 8,519 by 1857. From 1887, the city experienced rapid growth, reaching 21,539 residents in 1900, 56,427 in 1940, 96,689 in 1970.
Rapid expansion occurred in the following decades and the population reached 141,479 by 1991. In the last ten years, immigration both from abroad and from the surrounding area have sustained population growth. In 2007, the city reached the 145,000 mark, while the metropolitan area had nearly 232,000 inhabitants, encompassing the surrounding areas of Aljaraque, San Juan del Puerto, Punta Umbría, Gibraleón, Palos de la Frontera; the 2006 census recorded a foreign population of 5,000 people in the urban centre, the majority of whom were of Moroccan origin. Huelva and its metropolitan area have a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate, characterized by mild and wet winters and long warm to hot and dry summers; the average annual temperature is 12.4 °C at night. The average annual precipitation is 525 mm per year, there are about 52 rainy days per year. Extreme temperatures have been 43.8 °C recorded on 25 July 2004 and −3.2 °C recorded on 28 January 2005 at Ronda Este. Among the attractions to visit in this province are the Columbus site
Charles II of Navarre
Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. Besides the Pyrenean Kingdom of Navarre, he had extensive lands in Normandy, inherited from his father, Count Philip of Évreux, his mother, Queen Joan II of Navarre, who had received them as compensation for resigning her claims to France and Brie in 1328. Thus, in Northern France, Charles possessed Évreux, parts of Vexin, a portion of Cotentin, he was a major player at a critical juncture in the Hundred Years' War between France and England switching sides in order to further his own agenda. His horrific death by burning was considered God's justice upon him. Charles was born in Évreux. Since his father was first cousin to King Philip VI of France, his mother, Joan II of Navarre, was the only child of King Louis X, Charles of Navarre was'born of the fleur de lys on both sides', as he liked to point out, but he succeeded to a shrunken inheritance as far as his French lands were concerned. Charles was raised in France during childhood and up to the moment he was declared king at 17, so he had no command of the Romance language of Navarre at the moment of his coronation.
In October 1349, he assumed the crown of Navarre. In order to take his coronation oath and be anointed, Charles II visited his kingdom in summer 1350. For the first time, the oath was taken in a language other than Latin or Occitan as it was customary, i.e. Navarro-Aragonese. Apart from short visits paid the first 12 years of his reign, he spent his time entirely in France, he hoped for a long time for recognition of his claim to the crown of France. However, he was unable to wrest the throne from his Valois cousins, who were senior to him by agnatic primogeniture. Charles II served as Royal Lieutenant in Languedoc in 1351 and commanded the army which captured Port-Sainte-Marie on the Garonne in 1352; the same year he married Joan of the daughter of King John II of France. He soon became jealous of the Constable of France, Charles de La Cerda, to be a beneficiary of the fiefdoms of Champagne and Angoulême. Charles of Navarre felt he was entitled to these territories as they had belonged to his mother, the Queen of Navarre, but they had been taken from her by the French kings for a paltry sum in compensation.
After publicly quarrelling with Charles de la Cerda in Paris at Christmas 1353, Charles arranged the assassination of the Constable, which took place at the village of l'Aigle, his brother Philip, Count of Longueville leading the murderers. Charles made no secret of his role in the murder, within a few days was intriguing with the English for military support against his father-in-law King John II, whose favourite the Constable had been. John II was preparing to attack his son-in-law's territories, but Charles's overtures of alliance to King Edward III of England led John instead to make peace with the King of Navarre by the Treaty of Mantes of 22 February 1354, by which Charles enlarged his possessions and was outwardly reconciled with John II; the English, preparing to invade France for a joint campaign with Charles against the French, felt they had been double-crossed: not for the last time, Charles had used the threat of an English alliance to wrest concessions out of the French king.
Relations between Charles and John II deteriorated afresh and John invaded Charles's territories in Normandy in late 1354 while Charles intrigued with Edward III's emissary, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster at the fruitless peace negotiations between England and France held at Avignon in the winter of 1354–55. Once again Charles changed sides: the threat of a renewed English invasion forced John II to make a new agreement of reconciliation with him, sealed by the Treaty of Valognes on 10 September 1355; this agreement, did not last. Charles befriended and was thought to be trying to influence the Dauphin, was involved in a botched coup d'état in December 1355 whose purpose appears to have been to replace John II with the Dauphin. John amended matters by making his son Duke of Normandy, but Charles of Navarre continued to advise the Dauphin how to govern that province. There were continued rumours of his plots against the king, on 5 April 1356 John II and a group of supporters burst unannounced into the Dauphin's castle at Rouen, arrested Charles of Navarre and imprisoned him.
Four of his principal supporters were beheaded and their bodies suspended from chains. Charles was taken to Paris and moved from prison to prison for greater security. Charles remained in prison after John II was defeated and captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers, but many of his partisans were active in the Estates General which endeavoured to govern and reform France in the power-vacuum created by the King's imprisonment while much of the country degenerated into anarchy. They continually pressed the Dauphin to release him. Meanwhile his brother Philip of Navarre threw in his lot with the invading English army of the Duke of Lancaster and made war on the Dauphin's forces throughout Normandy. On 9 November 1357 Charles was sprung from his prison in the castle of Arleux by a band of 30 men from Amiens led by Jean de Picquigny. Greeted as a hero when he entered Amiens, he was invited to enter Paris by the Estates General, which he did with a large retinue and was'received like a newly-crowned monarch'.
He addressed the populace on 30 November listing his grievances agains
Duke of Medinaceli
Duke of Medinaceli is a title of the Spanish nobility. The Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, created the title and awarded it to Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega on 31 October 1479. Luis held the title of 5th Count of Medinaceli, which title was first awarded in 1368 to his ancestor, Bernal de Foix. In 1368, the King of the Crown of Castile bestowed the title of Count of Medinaceli on Bernal de Foix, the second husband of Isabel de la Cerda, their grandson Luis, 3rd Count of Medinaceli inherited the title and changed his family name to "de la Cerda". On, Queen Isabella I of Castile raised the title from Count to Duke in 1479 for Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 5th Count of Medinaceli. Bernal de Foix, 1st Count of Medinaceli, he took the side of the royal bastard Henry of Trastámara in 1368 against Henry's legitimate half-brother, King Peter of Castile. A bastard of Gaston III, Count of Foix, Bernal de Foix chose to stay in Castile when Henry had King Peter executed in March 1369 at the Castle of Montiel.
He was the second husband of the wealthy Isabel de la Cerda, of legitimate royal descent from King Alfonso X of Castile through her grandfather. Gastón de Béarn y de la Cerda, 2nd Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier under Henry III of Castile. Luis de la Cerda y Mendoza, 3rd Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier under King John II of Castile. Gastón I de la Cerda, 4th Count of Medinaceli, he was a courtier of King John II of Castile. Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 5th Count of Medinaceli. On 31 October 1479, he became the 1st Duke of Medinaceli. Luis de la Cerda y de la Vega, 1st Duke of Medinaceli, Count in 1454 and Duke in 1479, was the first person awarded the title of "Duke of Medinaceli", he fought in the Moorish Kingdom of Granada. Duke Juan I de la Cerda y Vique, the 2nd Duke of Medinaceli, was a bastard, legitimated with Grandee by the Spanish Crown in 1520, he was a courtier under Queen Isabella I of Castile, her daughter Queen Joanna of Castile, her son King Charles I of Spain. He took part in the battles for the "incorporation" of the Kingdom of Navarre on behalf of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the grandfather of King Charles I of Spain.
Duke Gastón de la Cerda y Portugal, died without issue. He married daughter of the 3rd Count of Salinas and Count of Ribadeo. Duke Juan II de la Cerda y Silva, 4th Duke of Medinaceli, was appointed Viceroy of Sicily, Captain General of Sicily, he was appointed Viceroy of Navarra, in the years 1567–1572. He married Juana Manuel de Portugal, daughter of Sancho I de Noronha Portugal, 2nd Count of Faro on 7 April 1541, at Ocaña. Duke Juan III Luis de la Cerda y Manuel de Portugal, 5th Duke of Medinaceli, was an Ambassador in Portugal and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was married four times. His first wife, Isabella d'Aragona was the daughter of Antonio d'Aragona, his second wife was Duca di Montalto and after 1578, he married Juana de la Lama. His 4th wife was daughter of Gonzalo Fernández de la Lama. Duke Juan Luis de la Cerda y Aragón, 6th Duke of Medinaceli was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was an Ambassador to Germanic countries. He married twice, the first time in 1564, to Ana de la Cueva, daughter of the 5th Duque de Albuquerque, Gabriel de la Cueva, Governor of the Duchy of Milano.
He got married for a second time in 1606, to Antonia Dávila y Colonna, daughter of Gómez Dávila y de Toledo, the 2nd Marqués de Velada, tutor of King Philip III of Spain. Duke Antonio Juan de la Cerda y Toledo, 7th Duque de Medinaceli, Grandee of Spain, Captain General of Valencia in 1641, he was married at the age of seventeen to Ana Francisca Luisa Enriquez de Ribera y Portocarrero, thirteen years of age. The marriage took place on November 1625, in Dos Hermanas, province of Sevilla. Ana Francisca Luisa Enríquez de Ribera y Portocarrero was granted the title of hereditary 5th Duquesa de Alcalá de los Gazules, as daughter of Pedro Enríquez Girón de Ribera, a Knight of the Military Order of Santiago. Juan Francisco de la Cerda y Portocarrero, 8th Duke of Medinaceli, was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he was the Prime Minister of King Charles II of Spain. After the death of King Charles II, he was Prime Minister to the bastard brother, Juan José de Austria, he was married at the age of sixteen to eighteen-year-old Catalina Antonia de Aragón y Folch de Cardona, 9th Duchess of Cardona, 5th Duchess of Lerma, 8th Duchess of Segorbe, on 1 May 1653 in Lucena, Province of Córdoba.
Duke Luis Francisco Tomás de la Cerda y de Aragón - Folch de Cardona, was the 9th Duque de Medinaceli, 10th Duque de Cardona, 6th Duque de Lerma, 7th Duque de Alcalá de los Gazules, 9th Duque de Segorbe
Viscounts of Béarn
The viscounts of Béarn were the rulers of the viscounty of Béarn, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, Labourd, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Béarn is bordered by Basque provinces Soule and Lower Navarre to the west, by Gascony to the north, by Bigorre to the east, by Spain to the south; until 1251 all counts of Gascony descended from the House Gascony, head of the Duchy of Gascony. 1170–1173: 16th William I 1173–1215: 17th Gaston VI the Good 1215–1223: 18th William Raymond 1223–1229: 19th William II 1229–1290: 20th Gaston VII the Great 1290–1319: 21st Margaret 1302–1315: 22nd Gaston VIII 1315–1343: 23rd Gaston IX 1343–1391: 24th Gaston X Phoebus 1391–1398: 25th Matthew 1398–1428: 26th Isabelle 1412–1436: 27th John I 1436–1472: 28th Gaston XI 1479–1483: 29th Francis Phoebus ) 1483–1517: 30th Catherine, married John of Albret, king of NavarreIn 1512 Ferdinand II of Aragon conquered the better part of the kingdom of Navarre, leaving the kingdom with only the small section it held north of the Pyrenees.
Main article: House of Albret and Albret 1517–1555: 31st Henry I 1555–1572: 32nd Joan 1572–1607: 33rd Henry II In 1620 the viscountcy of Béarn was reunited to the French crown, whereas Lower Navarre was in 1607. Pierre Tucoo-Chala, Princi Negue-Librairie des Pyrénées & de Gascogne, ed. Petite histoire du Béarn, Pau, ISBN 2846180644 "L'historie du Béarn". Retrieved 2017-05-12. Fors de Béarn
Isabeau of Bavaria
Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385. At age 15 or 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a lifelong and progressive mental illness, resulting in periodic withdrawal from government; the episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both divided by political factions and steeped in social extravagances. A 1393 masque for one of Isabeau's ladies-in-waiting—an event known as Bal des Ardents—ended in disaster with the King burning to death. Although the King demanded Isabeau's removal from his presence during his illness, he allowed her to act on his behalf. In this way she became regent to the Dauphin of France, sat on the regency council, allowing far more power than was usual for a medieval queen.
Charles' illness created a power vacuum that led to the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War between supporters of his brother, Louis of Orléans and the royal dukes of Burgundy. Isabeau shifted allegiances; when she followed the Armagnacs, the Burgundians accused her of adultery with Louis of Orléans. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans; the war ended soon after Isabeau's eldest son, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419—an act that saw him disinherited. Isabeau attended the 1420 signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which decided that the English king should inherit the French crown after the death of her husband, Charles VI, she lived in English-occupied Paris until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a irresponsible philanderess. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries historians re-examined the extensive chronicles of her lifetime, concluding that many elements of her reputation were unearned and stemmed from factionalism and propaganda. Isabeau's parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 ducat dowry.
She was most born in Munich where she was baptized as Elisabeth at the Church of Our Lady. She was great-granddaughter to the Wittelsbach Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. At that period Bavaria counted amongst the most powerful German states and divided between members of the House of Wittelsbach. Isabeau's uncle, Duke Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut, suggested in 1383 that she be considered as a bride to King Charles VI of France; the match was proposed again at the lavish Burgundian double wedding in Cambrai in April 1385—John the Fearless and his sister Margaret of Burgundy married Margaret and William of Bavaria-Straubing respectively. Charles 17, rode in the tourneys at the wedding, he was an attractive, physically fit young man, who enjoyed jousting and hunting and was excited to be married. Charles VI's uncle, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, thought the proposed marriage ideal to build an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire and against the English. Isabeau's father agreed reluctantly and sent her to France with his brother, her uncle, on the pretext of taking a pilgrimage to Amiens.
He was adamant that she was not to know she was being sent to France to be examined as a prospective bride for Charles, refused permission for her to be examined in the nude, customary at the time. According to the contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart, Isabeau was 13 or 14 when the match was proposed and about 16 at the time of the marriage in 1385, suggesting a birth date of around 1370. Before her presentation to Charles, Isabeau visited Hainaut for about a month, staying with her granduncle Duke Albert I, ruler of some of Bavaria-Straubing and Count of Holland. Albert's wife, Margaret of Brieg, replaced Isabeau's Bavarian style of dress, deemed unsuitable as French courtly attire, taught her etiquette suitable to the French court, she learned suggestive of an intelligent and quick-witted character. On 13 July 1385 she traveled to Amiens to be presented to Charles. Froissart writes of the meeting in his Chronicles, saying that Isabeau stood motionless while being inspected, exhibiting perfect behavior by the standards of her time.
Arrangements were made for the two to be married in Arras, but on the first meeting Charles felt "happiness and love enter his heart, for he saw that she was beautiful and young, thus he desired to gaze at her and possess her". She did not yet speak French and may not have reflected the idealized beauty of the period inheriting her mother's dark Italian features unfashionable, but Charles most approved of her because the couple were married three days later. Froissart documented the royal wedding, joking about the lascivious guests at the feast and the "hot young couple". Charles loved his young wife, lavishing gifts on her. On the occasion of their first New Year in 1386, he gave her a red velvet palfrey saddle, trimmed with copper and decorated with an intertwined K and E, he continued to give her gifts of rings and clothing; the uncles too were pleased with the match, which contemporary chroniclers, notably Froissart and Michel Pintoin, describe as a match rooted in desire and based on her beauty.
The day after the wedding, Charles went on a military campaig