Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, and do not usually get food imported. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a lot of milk and these foodstuffs have had a large influence on the local cuisine, if perhaps less on the preparation methods. Central African cooking has remained mostly traditional, nevertheless, as in other parts of Africa, Central African cuisine presents a variety of dishes. The basic ingredients are plantains and cassava, fufu-like starchy foods are served with grilled meat and sauces. A variety of ingredients are used while preparing other dishes like spinach stew cooked with tomato, chillis, onions. Cassava plants are consumed as cooked greens. Groundnut stew is prepared, containing chicken, ginger. Another favorite is bambara, a porridge of rice, peanut butter and chicken are favorite meat dishes, but game meat preparations containing crocodile, monkey and warthog are served occasionally.
In the inland savannah, the cuisine of cattle-keeping peoples is distinctive in that meat products are generally absent. Cattle, sheep and goats were regarded as a form of currency and a store of wealth, in some areas, traditional peoples consume the milk and blood of cattle, but rarely the meat. Elsewhere, other peoples are farmers who grow a variety of grains, maize is the basis of ugali, the local version of West Africas fufu. Ugali is a dish eaten with meats or stews. In Uganda, steamed green bananas called matoke provide the starch filler of many meals, around 1000 years ago and Yemeni merchants settled on the Swahili Coast. Some common ingredients used in this region include oranges, limes, capscium peppers, the main traditional dishes in Ethiopian cuisine and Eritrean cuisine are tsebhis served with injera and hilbet. Eritrean and Ethiopian cuisine are similar, given the shared history of the two countries. Eritrean and Ethiopian food habits vary regionally, in the highlands, injera is the staple diet and is eaten daily among the Tigrinya.
Injera is made out of teff, barley, sorghum or corn, when eating, diners generally share food from a large tray placed in the centre of a low dining table. Numerous injera are layered on this tray and topped with various spicy stews, diners break into the section of injera in front of them, tearing off pieces and dipping them into the stews
Eastern European cuisine
The cuisine of the region is strongly influenced by its climate and still varies, depending on a country. For example, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian cuisine show many similarities and these are substantial cuisines, rooty, smoky – part comfort food, part extravagance. The nutritional index of traditional dishes is generally high cholesterol, high sodium, english edition, Elena Molokhovets, Classic Russian Cooking, A Gift to Young Housewives. ISBN 978-0253212108 Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Scientists of the USSR, Москва, Пищевая промышленность, 1939-1999, in Russian. English edition, The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food, Iconic Cookbook of the Soviet Union, skyPeak Publishing LLC,2012, ISBN 978-0615691350 Кулинария. Москва, Пищевая промышленность,1980, ISBN 978-5952427839, in Russian, Russian Delight, A Cookbook of the Soviet People, Pan Books,1978 В. Похлёбкин, Кулинарный словарь от А до Я, Москва, Центрполиграф,2000, ISBN 5-227-00460-9 J. Gronow, S. Zhuravlev, The Establishment of Soviet Haute Cuisine.
In Educated Tastes, Food and Connoisseur Culture, university of California Press,2013, ISBN 978-0520275911 Anya Von Bremzen, John Welchman. Please to the Table, The Russian Cookbook, ISBN9780894807534 Metzger, Culinaria Germany. Irina Petrosian, David Underwood, Armenian Food, Fiction & Folklore, from the Caucasus to the Roof of the World, a culinary adventure. In Sami Zubaida & Richard Tapper, a Taste of Thyme, Culinary Cultures of the Middle East. London & New York, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, cS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Robert Strybel, Maria Strybel, Polish Heritage Cookery. ISBN9780781811248 Massimo Montanari, Il mondo in cucina, Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom, Excursions into Eating and the Past. Beacon Press,1997, ISBN0807046299 Mintalová - Zubercová, vydavateľstvo Matice slovenskej,2009, ISBN 978-80-89208-94-4 Л. Київ, Вища школа,1992, ISBN 5-11-002319-0 Українські страви, Київ, Державне видавництво технiчної лiтератури УРСР,1960 Л. The cuisine of the region is influenced by its climate and still varies.
For example, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian cuisine show many similarities and these are substantial cuisines, rooty, smoky – part comfort food, part extravagance. The nutritional index of traditional dishes is generally high cholesterol, high sodium, english edition, Elena Molokhovets, Classic Russian Cooking, A Gift to Young Housewives
Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society.
Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action.
These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices
Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three axes, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social and technical, Molecular cuisine is a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines. The term molecular gastronomy was coined in 1988 by late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti, some chefs associated with the term choose to reject its use, preferring other terms such as multi-sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine. There are many branches of science that study different aspects of food, such as safety, preservation, engineering. Food science has mostly been concerned with food production and while the disciplines may overlap with each other to varying degrees. These mere investigations into the process of cooking have unintentionally evolved into a revolutionary practice that is now prominent in todays culinary world.
The term molecular and physical gastronomy was coined in 1988 by Hungarian physicist Nicholas Kurti, the shortened term Molecular Gastronomy became the name of the scientific discipline co-created by Kurti and This, based on exploring the science behind traditional cooking methods. The American food science writer Harold McGee, was invited for the first Workshop, after Kurtis death in 1998, the name of the Erice workshops was changed by This to The International Workshop on Molecular Gastronomy N. Kurti. This remained the director of the subsequent workshops from 1999 through 2004. University of Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti was an advocate of applying scientific knowledge to culinary problems. Kurti was an advocate of low temperature cooking, repeating 18th century experiments by the English scientist Benjamin Thompson by leaving a 2 kg lamb joint in an oven at 80 °C. After 8.5 hours, both the inside and outside temperature of the joint were around 75 °C, and the meat was tender. Together with his wife, Giana Kurti, Nicholas Kurti edited an anthology on food and science by fellows, Hervé This started collecting culinary precisions in the early 1980s and started testing these precisions to see which ones held up, his collection now numbers some 25,000.
He currently publishes a series of essays in French and hosts monthly seminars on molecular gastronomy at the INRA in France. He gives free and public seminars on molecular gastronomy any month, Hervé This authors a website and a pair of blogs on the subject in French and publishes monthly collaborations with French chef Pierre Gagnaire on Gagnaires website. The one-time wife of a physicist, Thomas had many friends in the scientific community, Thomas eventually approached the director of the Ettore Majorana center, physicist Antonino Zichichi who liked the idea. Thomas and Valdrè approached Kurti to be the director of the workshop, up until 2001, The International Workshop on Molecular Gastronomy N. Kurti was named the International Workshops of Molecular and Physical Gastronomy. The first meeting was held in 1992 and the meetings have continued every few years thereafter until the most recent in 2004, each meeting encompassed an overall theme broken down into multiple sessions over the course of a few days
Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, poor nutrition is a chronic problem often linked to poverty, poor nutrition understanding and practices, and deficient sanitation and food security. Malnutrition and its consequences are immense contributors to deaths and disabilities worldwide, promoting good nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development and eradication of poverty. The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, amino acids, fatty acids and these compounds consist of elements such as carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, and so on. All the chemical compounds and elements contained in the body occur in various forms and combinations such as hormones, phospholipids. These compounds may be found in the body as well as in the various types of organisms that humans consume. Comparing food to waste material can help determine the specific compounds, the effects of nutrients may only be discernible over an extended period of time, during which all food and waste must be analyzed.
The number of involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive. The seven major classes of nutrients are carbohydrates, fiber, proteins and these nutrient classes are categorized as either macronutrients or micronutrients. The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fiber, the micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The macronutrients provide structural material, and energy, some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories. Vitamins, minerals and water do not provide energy, a third class of dietary material, seems to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear. For all age groups, males need to consume higher amounts of macronutrients than females, in general, intakes increase with age until the second or third decade of life. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides to complex polysaccharides.
Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone, some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet, they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, the fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the acids are convertible to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally and this occurs naturally when atrophy takes place, or during periods of starvation
South American cuisine
Due to the ethnic fusion of South America, South American cuisine has many influences. The most characteristic are Native American, Spanish, Portuguese, the customs and food products greatly vary according to the physically distinct regions. The consumption of carne asada is wide spread throughout much of the continent and it is popular to grill in the open air as in asado or churrasco. The food of the Andes is highly influenced by the indigenous peoples, the principal foods continue to be corn and other tubers. The meats most characteristic of this zone are the llama and the Guinea pig, in areas where there is fresh water trout is consumed. Chupe Andino refers to various stews and soups that are prepared in the Andes mountains region, one of the most important drinks is chicha. Important dishes include humitas, Chanfaina, quimbolitos, a famous dish from the Peruvian Andes is pachamanca. From the mixture of German, native cuisine, and the Chiloe Archipelago in the southern Andes comes Valdiviano, the wetter areas of Peru produce sugar cane, lemon and oranges.
Chancaca is popular as well as carbonara, huevos quimbos, potato pie, the tropical region of the continent is divided into two distinct areas, the coastal areas of the Atlantic and the Pacific and the Amazon area each with its distinct cuisines. Much of the fruits that are considered to be exotic are common in the forests and fields, such as guava, papaya, banana. The climate and geography favor a great variety of crops, sweet potatoes, complemented with meat and fish, principally rice and wheat and beans. In the coastal area ceviche, Tostones or patacón, chipa, pabellón criollo, bandeja paisa and sopa paraguaya are common dishes. In Brazil feijoada, arroz carreteiro, and farofa are common, the Amazon area is known for its utilization of native meats such as the Capybara, turtles and Paca. Common dishes are juane, tacacá, there are a wide variety of fruits native to the Amazon with which are prepared a great variety of drinks. The pampas have the most Italian and German influences, in Argentina they are the center of the three typical Argentinian dishes dulce de leche and Milanesa.
Argentina pizza is different from Italian pizza, being closer to calzones and polenta are common on in Argentina and on the Pampas generally. Churros, Ensaïmada, Spanish tortillas with potato, Sopa de mondongo, mate is found on the Pampas. The Amazon basin of South America provides a plethora of fresh fish, the Pacific Ocean provides a large amount of seafood, such as king crab and Antarctic krill, which was recently discovered
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid