Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, oxygen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time, throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, the extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, since 1983, the worlds top coal producer has been China. In 2015 China produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal –47. 7% of 7,861 million tonnes world coal production, in 2015 other large producers were United States, European Union and Australia. The word originally took the col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula. In Old Turkic languages, kül is ash, cinders, öčür is quench, the compound charcoal in Turkic is öčür kül, literally quenched ashes, coals with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas, due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed, the temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation and this trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply buried by sediments.
Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was slowly converted to coal, as coal contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, the exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants — this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae, in its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. It is used as a conditioner for soil to make it able to retain. Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal, jet, a compact form of lignite, is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
Great Britain, known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group.
By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.
The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England and Wales in combination
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. It consists of a vessel with a long downward-pointing neck. The liquid to be distilled is placed in the vessel and heated, the neck acts as a condenser, allowing the vapors to condense and flow along the neck to a collection vessel placed underneath. Such industrial-scale retorts are used in oil extraction and the production of charcoal. A process of heating oil shale to shale oil, oil shale gas. In the food industry, pressure cookers are often referred to as retorts, meaning canning retorts, with the invention of the alembic, a kind of retort, the alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān developed the process of distillation into what it is today. Retorts were widely used by alchemists, and images of retorts appear in many drawings, before the advent of modern condensers, retorts were used by many prominent chemists, such as Antoine Lavoisier and Jöns Berzelius. An early method for producing phosphorus starts by roasting bones, some laboratory techniques that involve simple distillation and do not require sophisticated apparatus may use a retort as a substitute for more complex distillation equipment. A retort is a reactor that has the ability to pyrolyze pile-wood, or wood logs over 30 centimetres long and up to 18 centimetres in diameter
Carrickfergus, colloquially known as Carrick, is a large town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It sits on the shore of Belfast Lough,11 miles from Belfast. The town had a population of 27,903 at the 2011 Census and it is County Antrims oldest town and one of the oldest towns in Ireland as a whole. It is a townland of 65 acres, a civil parish, the town is the subject of the classic Irish folk song Carrickfergus, a 19th-century translation of an Irish-language song from Munster, which begins with the words, I wish I was in Carrickfergus. The British peerage title of Baron Carrickfergus, which had become extinct in 1883, was bestowed upon Prince William on his day in 2011. The town is said to take its name from Fergus Mór, according to one tale, his ship ran aground on a rock by the shore, which became known as Carraig Fhearghais – the rock of Fergus. As an urban settlement, Carrickfergus far pre-dates the capital city Belfast and was for a period both larger and more prominent than the nearby city.
Belfast Lough itself was known as Carrickfergus Bay well into the 17th century and the surrounding area was, for a time, treated as a separate county. Segments of the wall are still visible in various parts of the town. Archaeological excavations close to the foundations have yielded many artefacts that have helped historians piece together a picture of the lives of the 12th and 13th century inhabitants. The castle, which is the most prominent landmark of Carrickfergus, is known as one of the best-preserved Norman castles in Ireland. Sometime between 1203 and 1205, De Courcy was expelled from Ulster by Hugh de Lacy, as authorised by King John, De Lacy oversaw the final construction of the castle, which included the gatehouse, drum towers and outer ward. It was at time that he established the nearby St Nicholas Church. De Lacy was relieved of his command of the town in 1210, the Battle of Carrickfergus, part of the Nine Years War, took place in and around the town in November 1597. It was fought between the forces of Queen Elizabeth I and the Scots clan of MacDonnell, and resulted in a defeat for the English.
In 1637 the Surveyor General of Customs issued a report compiled from accounts of customs due from each port, of the Ulster ports on the list, Carrickfergus was first, followed by Bangor and Strangford. In the same year the town sold its customs rights - which ran from Groomsport, County Down up to Larne and this in part led to its decline in importance as the province of Ulster grew. Nevertheless, the castle withstood several days of siege by the forces of William of Orange in 1689
The Scottish people, or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century, and are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celts. Later, the neighbouring Cumbrian Britons, who spoke a Celtic language, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons. In modern usage, Scottish people or Scots is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, the Latin word Scotti, originally the word referred specifically to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has used for Scottish people. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and he states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in countries other than Scotland. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture, large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America and New Zealand.
Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world, Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their origin myths. The Venerable Bede tells of the Scotti coming from Spain via Ireland, Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse invaded and colonized parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was emigration from France, England. Some famous Scottish family names, including bearing the names which became Bruce, Murray. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts. Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south.
They occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, south-east of the Firth of Forth, in Lothian and the Borders, a northern variety of Old English, known as Early Scots, was spoken. The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking, from 1500 on, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking Highlanders and the Inglis-speaking Lowlanders
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas, syngas is usually a product of gasification and the main application is electricity generation. Syngas is combustible and often used as a fuel of internal combustion engines and it has less than half the energy density of natural gas. Syngas can be produced from many sources, including gas, biomass, or virtually any hydrocarbon feedstock, by reaction with steam. Syngas is a crucial resource for production of hydrogen, methanol. Syngas is used as an intermediate in producing synthetic petroleum for use as a fuel or lubricant via the Fischer–Tropsch process and previously the Mobil methanol to gasoline process. Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, the chemical composition of syngas varies based on the raw materials and the processes.
Syngas produced by coal gasification generally is a mixture of 30 to 60% carbon monoxide,25 to 30% hydrogen,5 to 15% carbon dioxide and it contains lesser amount of other gases. The main reaction that produces syngas, steam reforming, is a reaction with 206 kJ/mol methane needed for conversion. The first reaction, between incandescent coke and steam, is endothermic, producing carbon monoxide, and hydrogen H2. When the coke bed has cooled to a temperature at which the reaction can no longer proceed. The overall reaction is exothermic, forming producer gas, steam can be re-injected, air etc. to give an endless series of cycles until the coke is finally consumed. Producer gas has a lower energy value, relative to water gas. Pure oxygen can be substituted for air to avoid the dilution effect and this is primarily done by pressure swing adsorption, amine scrubbing, and membrane reactors. Conversion of biomass to syngas is typically low-yield, the University of Minnesota developed a metal catalyst that reduces the biomass reaction time by up to a factor of 100.
The catalyst can be operated at atmospheric pressure and reduces char, the entire process is autothermic and therefore heating is not required. CO2 can be split into CO and combined with hydrogen to form syngas and this technique was alleged to have been used during the Cold war in Russian nuclear submarines to allow them to get rid of CO2 gas without leaving a bubble trail. Publicly available journals published during the Cold War indicate that American submarines used conventional chemical scrubbers to remove CO2, documents released after the sinking of the Kursk, a Cold War era Oscar-class submarine, indicate that potassium superoxide scrubbers were used to remove carbon dioxide on that vessel
A gas holder, sometimes called a gasometer, is a large container in which natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures. The volume of the container follows the quantity of stored gas, typical volumes for large gasholders are about 50,000 cubic metres, with 60 metres diameter structures. Gasholders tend to be used nowadays for balancing purposes rather than for actually storing gas for use, antoine Lavoisier devised the gazomètre to assist his work in pneumatic chemistry. These enabled him to weigh the gas in a trough with the precision he required. He published his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie. in 1789, james Watt Junior had collaborated with Thomas Beddoes in constructing the pneumatic apparatus, a short lived piece of medical equipment that incorporated a gazomètre. He adapted the gazomètre for coal gas storage, the term gasometer, anglicisation was adopted by William Murdoch, the inventor of gas lighting, in 1782, as the name for his gasholders. Despite the objections of Murdochs associates that his so-called gasometer was not a meter but a container, the term gasometer is discouraged for use in technical circles, where the term gas holder is preferred.
The British Ordnance Survey have marked gas holders on their large scale maps- calling them Gasometers and this became used to label Gas works, where there usually are several gasholders. The spelling gas holder is used by the BBC, though the variant gasholder is commonly used by other publishers, the meter used to measure the flow of gas through a particular pipe is a gas meter. Before the mid 20th century coal gas was produced in retorts by heating coal in the absence of air and this was first used for municipal lighting, the gas passed through wooden or metal pipes from the retort to the lantern. The first public piped gas supply was to 13 gas lamps, installed along the length of Pall Mall, the credit for this goes to the German inventor and entrepreneur Fredrick Winsor. Digging up streets to lay pipes required legislation and this delayed the roll-out of street lighting and the installation of gas for illumination, heating. Many people had experimented with coal distillation to produce a flammable gas, for instance Jean Tardin, Clayton Jean-Pierre Minckelers and Pickel.
He had joined Boulton and Watt, at the Soho manufactury, Birmingham in 1777, the system, however lacked a storage method. James Watt Junior adapted a Lavoisier gazomètre for this purpose, a Gasometer was incorporated into the first small gasworks built for the Soho manufactory in 1798. William Murdoch and his pupil Samuel Clegg installed retorts in individual factories, the earliest example was in 1805, at Lee and Phillips, Salford Twist Mill where 8 gasholders were installed. This was shortly followed by one in Sowerby Bridge, constructed by Clegg for Henry Lodge, public gas lights were seen as a crime reduction measure and as such, and until the 1840s, regulation lay with the Police Authority rather than the elected council. Safety concerns expressed by the Royal Society, limited the size of gasholders to 6,000 cubic feet, in the United States, however where the gas needed to be protected from extreme weather, gasometer houses continued to be built and were architecturally decorative
William Murdoch was a Scottish engineer and inventor. Murdoch was employed by the firm of Boulton and Watt and worked for them in Cornwall, as an engine erector for ten years, spending most of the rest of his life in Birmingham. Murdoch was the inventor of the cylinder steam engine, and gas lighting is attributed to him in the early 1790s. However, Archibald Cochrane, ninth Earl of Dundonald, had already in 1789 used gas for lighting his family estate, Murdoch made innovations to the steam engine, including the sun and planet gear and D slide valve. He invented the steam gun and the pneumatic tube message system, Murdoch built a prototype steam locomotive in 1784 and made a number of discoveries in chemistry. William Murdoch was born in Lugar near Cumnock, East Ayrshire, the third of seven children, Murdoch learned the principles of mechanics, practical experimentation and working in metal and wood by assisting in his fathers work. Together with his father, he built a wooden horse about 1763 and his Wooden Horse on Wheels was a tricycle propelled by hand cranks.
He is said to have carried out experiments in coal gas, there is no contemporary documentation. In 1777, at age 23, Murdoch walked to Birmingham, a distance of over 300 miles, to ask for a job with James Watt, the steam engine manufacturer. Both Watt and Murdoch were probably aware of each other because of their connections with James Boswell, Watts partner Matthew Boulton was so impressed by Murdochs wooden hat, made on a lathe of his own design, that he hired him. Murdoch began his career with Boulton and Watt in the workshop of their Soho Foundry. He Anglicised his name to Murdock when he settled in England, Murdoch progressed to work in fitting and erecting steam engines and was often sent from Soho for this purpose. By 1779 Boulton was writing to Watt, I think Wm. Murdock a valuable man and deserves every civility, in September 1779 Murdoch was sent to Redruth in Cornwall as a senior engine erector, responsible for the erection, maintenance & repair of Boulton & Watt engines. At that time steam engines were not simply sold to customers but operated, Murdochs skill in getting the most out of his engines directly impacted upon Boulton and Watts profits.
Due to the frequent problems which could occur with steam engines Murdoch was kept busy travelling around the area repairing and attempting to improve the performance of the engines under his care. In Cornwall at that time there were a number of engine erectors competing with each other, in the close knit and clannish Cornwall of the time this was sometimes at his own risk. As one of his colleagues stated to Watt, If he makes an Affidavit against Carpenter or Penandrea, from 1782 there is evidence that Murdoch was discussing and collaborating with Watt on a number of inventions and improvements. This gear converted the motion of a beam, driven by a steam engine, into circular motion using a planet
Biggar, South Lanarkshire
Biggar is a town and former burgh in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is situated in the Southern Uplands, near the River Clyde, the closest towns are Lanark and Peebles, and as such Biggar serves a wide rural area. The population of the town at the 2011 census was 2294 although by the estimate it had grown to 2320. The town was served by the Symington and Broughton Railway. The new Biggar & Upper Clydesdale Museum run by the Biggar Museum Trust opened in 2015, Biggar has Scotlands only permanent puppet theatre, Biggar Puppet Theatre, which is run by the Purves Puppets family. Biggar was the birthplace of Thomas Gladstones, the grandfather of William Ewart Gladstone, hugh MacDiarmid spent his years at Brownsbank, near the town. Ian Hamilton Finlays home and garden at Little Sparta is nearby in the Pentland Hills, the fictional Midculter, which features in Dorothy Dunnetts Lymond Chronicles novels, is set here. The town hosts an arts festival, the Biggar Little Festival. The town has held a huge bonfire at Hogmanay.
In 2007 a group of Biggar residents launched the Carbon Neutral Biggar project, the launch of the project, covered in both local and national media, took place at the towns annual eco forum in May 2007. The group has formed links with the town of Ashton Hayes in Cheshire and this town has two schools, one primary, and one secondary. The secondary school, Biggar High School, admits pupils from surrounding small towns, Biggar Primary is a small school, located on South Back Road, with a current roll of 238 pupils. Primary pupils have lunch just offsite in the Biggar Primary Sports Barn, the High School, located on John’s Loan and adjacent to the primary, shares its sports facilities with the primary school when the occasion demands it. The annual primary Sports Day is held on the High School playing field, Biggar occupies a key location close to two of Scotlands great rivers, the Clyde flowing to the west, and the Tweed flowing to the east. Stone and Bronze-age artefacts have been found in the area but the strongest evidence of settlement occurs on the surrounding the town.
One of these is Bizzyberry Hill where Iron Age remains dating back almost 2000 years have been found, the present day A702 follows the route of a Roman road, which linked the Clyde Valley with Musselburgh. In the 12th century, in return for the promise of support, King David I gave the lands of Biggar to Baldwin and he built a motte and bailey castle, which can still be seen north-west of the High Street. The first permanent crossing of the Biggar Burn was built and it is thought that there has been a church at Biggar since the 6th or 7th century, although the first stone kirk was built in 1164, on the site of the existing kirk