The Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city, it was excavated in the early 20th century, a reconstruction using original bricks, completed in 1930, is now shown in Berlin’s Pergamon Museum. King Nebuchadnezzar II reigned 604 -- the peak of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, he is known as the biblical conqueror. King Nebuchadnezzar II ordered the construction of the gate and dedicated it to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar; the gate was constructed using glazed brick with alternating rows of bas-relief mušḫuššu, lions, symbolizing the gods Marduk and Ishtar respectively. The roof and doors of the gate were made according to the dedication plaque; the bricks in the gate were covered in a blue glaze meant to represent lapis lazuli, a deep-blue semi-precious stone, revered in antiquity due to its vibrancy. The blue glazed bricks would have given the façade a jewel-like shine. Through the gate ran the Processional Way, lined with walls showing about 120 lions, bulls and flowers on enameled yellow and black glazed bricks, symbolizing the goddess Ishtar.
The gate itself depicted only goddesses. These included Ishtar and Marduk. During celebrations of the New Year, statues of the deities were paraded through the gate and down the Processional Way; the gate, being part of the Walls of Babylon, was considered one of the original Seven Wonders of the World. It was replaced on that list by the Lighthouse of Alexandria from the third century BC; the front of the gate has a low-relief sculpted design with a repeated pattern of images of two of the major gods of the Babylonian pantheon. Marduk, the national deity and chief god, is depicted as a dragon with a snake-like head and tail, a scaled body of a lion, powerful talons for back feet. Marduk was seen as the divine champion of good against evil, the incantations of the Babylonians sought his protection; the second god shown in the pattern of reliefs on the Ishtar Gate is Adad, whose sacred animal was the aurochs, a now-extinct ancestor of cattle. Adad had power over beneficial rain; the design of the Ishtar gate includes linear borders and patterns of rosettes seen as symbols of fertility.
The bricks of the Ishtar gate were made from finely textured clay pressed into wooden forms. Each of the animal reliefs were made from bricks formed by pressing clay into reusable molds. Seams between the bricks were planned not to occur on the eyes of the animals or any other aesthetically unacceptable places; the bricks were sun-dried and fired once before glazing. The clay was brownish red in this bisque-fired state; the background glazes are a vivid blue, which imitates the color of the highly-prized lapis lazuli. Gold and brown glazes are used for the animal images; the borders and rosettes are glazed in black and gold. It is believed that the glaze recipe used plant ash, sandstone conglomerates, pebbles for silicates; this combination was melted and pulverized. This mixture of silica and fluxes is called a frit. Color-producing minerals, such as cobalt, were added in the final glaze formulations; this was painted onto the bisque-fired bricks and fired to a higher temperature in a glaze firing.
After the glaze firing, the bricks were assembled, leaving narrow horizontal seams from one to six millimeters. The seams were sealed with a occurring black viscous substance called bitumen, like modern asphalt; the Ishtar Gate is only one small part of the design of ancient Babylon that included the palace, temples, an inner fortress, gardens, other gates and the Processional Way. The lavish city was decorated according to estimates. Once per year, the Ishtar Gate and connecting Processional Way were used for a New Year’s procession, part of a religious festival celebrating the beginning of the agricultural year. In Babylon, the rituals surrounding this holiday lasted twelve days; the New Year’s celebrations started after the barley harvest, at the time of the vernal equinox. This was the first day of the ancient month of Nisan, equivalent to today’s date of March 20 or 21; the Processional Way, traced to a length of over half a mile, extended north from the Ishtar Gate and was designed with brick relief images of lions, the symbol of the goddess Ishtar the war goddess, the dragon of Marduk, the lord of the gods, the bull of Adad, the storm god.
Worshipped as the Mistress of Heaven, Ishtar represented the power of sexual attraction and was thought to be savage and determined. Symbolized by the star and her sacred animal, the lion, she was the goddess of war and the protector of ruling dynasties and their armies; the idea of protection of the city is further incorporated into this gateway design by the use of crenelated buttresses along both sides to this entrance into the city. Friezes with sixty ferocious lions representing Ishtar decorated each side of the Processional Way, designed with variations in the color of the fur and the manes. On the east side, they had a left foot forward, on the west side, they had the right foot forward; each lion was made of forty-six molded bricks in eleven rows. The lion is pictured upon a blue enameled tile background and an orange coloured border that runs along the bottom portion of the wall. Having a white body and yellow mane, the lion of Ishtar was an embodiment of vivid naturalism that further enhanced the glory of Babylon’s Procession Street.
The purpose of the New Year’s holiday was to affirm the sup
The Majapahit Empire was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java, that existed from 1293 to circa 1500. Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia, his achievement is credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada. According to the Nagarakretagama written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea. Majapahit was one of the last major empires of the region and is considered to be one of the greatest and most powerful empires in the history of Indonesia and Southeast Asia, one, sometimes seen as the precedent for Indonesia's modern boundaries, its influence extended beyond the modern territory of Indonesia and has been the subject of many studies. The name Majapahit derives from local Javanese, meaning "bitter maja". German orientalist Berthold Laufer suggested that maja came from the Javanese name of Aegle marmelos, an Indonesian tree.
The name referred to the area in and around Trowulan, the cradle of Majapahit, linked to the establishment of a village in Tarik timberland by Raden Wijaya. It was said that the workers clearing the Tarik timberland encountered some bael trees and consumed its bitter-tasting fruit that subsequently become the village's name, it is a common practice in Java to name an area, a village or settlement with the most conspicuous or abundant tree or fruit species found in that region. In ancient Java it is common to refer the kingdom with its capital's name. Majapahit is known by other names: Wilwatikta, although sometimes the natives refer to their kingdom as Bhumi Jawa or Mandala Jawa instead. Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains, some details of the history are rather abstract. Local Javanese people did not forget Majapahit as Mojopait is mentioned vaguely in Babad Tanah Jawi, a Javanese chronicle composed in the 18th century. Majapahit did produce physical evidence: the main ruins dating from the Majapahit period are clustered in the Trowulan area, the royal capital of the kingdom.
The Trowulan archaeological site was first documented in the 19th century by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java of British East India Company from 1811 to 1816. He reported the existence of "ruins of temples.... Scattered about the country for many miles", referred to Trowulan as "this pride of Java". By the early 20th century, Dutch colonial historians began to study old Javanese and Balinese literature to explore the past of their colony. Two primary sources were available to them: the Pararaton manuscript was written in the Kawi language c. 1600, Nagarakretagama was composed in Old Javanese in 1365. Pararaton focuses on Ken Arok, the founder of Singhasari, but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit; the Nagarakretagama is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk, after which some events are covered narratively. The Dutch acquired the manuscript in 1894 during their military expedition against the Cakranegara royal house of Lombok.
There are some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese. The Javanese sources incorporate some poetic mythological elements, scholars such as C. C. Berg, an Indies-born Dutch naturalist, have considered the entire historical record to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined. Most scholars do not accept this view, as the historical record corresponds with Chinese materials that could not have had similar intention; the list of rulers and details of the state structure show no sign of being invented. The Chinese historical sources on Majapahit acquired from the chronicles of Yuan and following Ming dynasty; the Chinese accounts on Majapahit owed to the 15th century Zheng He's account — a Ming Dynasty admiral reports during his visit to Majapahit between 1405 and 1432. Zheng He's translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description of Majapahit and where the king of Java lived; the report was composed and collected in Yingya Shenglan, which provides a valuable insight on the culture, customs various social and economic aspects of Chao-Wa during Majapahit period.
The Trowulan archaeological area has become the center for the study of Majapahit history. The aerial and satellite imagery has revealed extensive network of canals criss-crossing the Majapahit capital. Recent archaeological findings from April 2011 indicate the Majapahit capital was much larger than believed after some artifacts were uncovered. After defeating the Melayu Kingdom in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute, insulted the Mongol envoy, challenged the Khan instead. In response, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java in 1293. By that time, the Adipati of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura's regent, Arya Wiraraja.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau; the style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession. Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, graphic art, interior design, furniture, ceramics, glass art, metal work. By 1910, Art Nouveau was out of style, it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing that featured the new style. In France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style" due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the Arts and Crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the "Glasgow" style. In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was called Stile Liberty, Stile floreale, or Arte nuova. In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time. In Austria and the neighboring countries part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a similar style emerged, called Secessionsstil in German, or Wiener Jugendstil, after the artists of the Vienna Secession; the style was called Modern in Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. In Spain the related style was known as Modernismo, Arte joven.
Some names refer to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal in France. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris, in the Arts and Crafts movement founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House of Morris, the lavish Peacock Room by James Abbott McNeill Whistler; the new movement was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite painters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones, by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including Selwyn Image, Heywood Sumner, Walter Crane, Alfred Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley. In France, the style combined several different tendencies. In architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur l'architecture, he wrote, "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture.
For each function its material. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí; the French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, in other media. Another important influence on the new style was Japonism: the wave of enthusiasm for Japanese woodblock printing the works of Hiroshige and Utagawa Kunisada which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s; the enterprising Siegfried Bing founded a monthly journal, Le Japon artistique in 1888, published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891.
It influenced both artists, including Gustav Klimt. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain and furniture. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and color lithographs, played an essential role in popularizing the new style; the Studio in England, Arts et
The Castel Béranger is a residential building with thirty-six apartments located at 14 rue de la Fontaine in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. It was designed by the architect Hector Guimard, built between 1895 and 1898, it was the first residence in Paris built in the style known as Art Nouveau. Architect Hector Guimard was born in Lyon and attended the School of Decorative Arts and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he was in charge of the construction of the Pavilion of Electricity at the 1889 Paris International Exposition, between 1891 and 1893 he built several private houses and a school in Paris, all in the traditional styles. In 1894, at the age of twenty-seven, Guimard traveled to England and to Belgium, where he met the Belgian architect Victor Horta, saw the Hotel Tassel which Horta had built in 1893-94 in what became known as the Art Nouveau style, it was inspired not by classical models but by nature by the curving stems of plants and flowers. Horta stressed to Guimard the importance of unity in a building.
Guimard had undertaken the project of designing an apartment building in a traditional style for a widow named Madame Fournier before he went to Brussels and met Horta. When he returned, her persuaded his client to allow him to build the structure in the new style, he began designing the Castel Béranger in 1895, Guimard became involved in every detail of the project, designing the furniture, ornamental ironwork, glass, wall paper, door locks and doorknobs. Guimard did not forget his debt to Horta. Describing the Castel Béranger, the architectural historian and critic Simon Texier wrote: "The Art Nouveau had as its characteristic trait a naturalist approach, which made a building or a simple object into a work, at the same time complex, in motion, unified by its lines." There were many elements of the new building that were neo-Gothic, though Guimard's interpretation was far from the pure 13th century style advocated by Viollet-le-Duc. It was suggested by the name Castel, rather than Hotel, by its modern version of echauguettes, the overhanging turrets that were a feature on the corners of medieval castles.
Guimard put into the building a multiplicity of different forms and colors, some of them inspired by the colors of the villas of seaside towns. The ornament was abundant, but designed and not overwhelming; the interior decoration was diverse and personal. In the late 1890s, there was growing criticism of the identical facades of the buildings along the Paris boulevards built during the Second Empire of Napoleon III and his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugene Hausmann. In 1898 the City government encouraged variety by organizing a competition for the most beautiful and original new building facades. In the same year, Guimard was selected to design the entrances of the new stations of the Paris Metro, making him the most prominent figure in the French Art Nouveau. Guimard took the step, unusual at the time, of launching a public relations campaign based on the building, promoting the new style as a step forward, it was the first time. Guimard built one other Art Nouveau house in Paris. For his own house, he moved away from ornament and expressed the Art Nouveau idea of modeling after nature in the form of the building itself.
Beside the Metro station, Guimard's other Paris works included a Theater/Concert Hall, the Salle Humbert de Romans, opened in 1901 and demolished in 1905, the Synagogue on Rue Pave in the Marais. Between World War I and World War II Guimard turned his attention to experiments in building houses with prefabricated materials, including bricks of molded concrete, covered with a glaze molded metal windowframes, a roof covered with zinc. In 1922 he built a house on square Jasmin with these materials. In 1930 he designed a country house, la Guimardiere, where the pipes for the plumbing became a decorative element, featured on the outside, a precursor of the Centre Pompidou, it was demolished in 1969. As World War II approached, he left France and died in New York in 1942. Nearly all of his Metro stations were removed, he was nearly forgotten as an architect until the 1970s, when there was renewed interest in the Art Nouveau; the Castel Béranger was classified as an historical monument on 3 July 1972.
Art Nouveau Paris architecture of the Belle Époque Fierro, Alfred. Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris. Robert Laffont. ISBN 2-221-07862-4. Lahor, Jean. L'Art Nouveau. Baseline Co. LTD. ISBN 978-1-85995-667-0. Plum, Gilles. Paris architectures de la Belle Époque. Éditions Parigramme. ISBN 978-2-84096-800-9. Renault, Christophe. Les Styles de l'architecture et du mobilier. Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot. ISBN 978-2-877474-658. Texier, Simon. Paris Panorama de l'architecture de l'Antiquite a nos jours. Parigramme. ISBN 978-2-84096-667-8
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble; this is distinct from a palace, not fortified. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were commonplace. European-style castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes; these nobles built castles to control the area surrounding them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures. Although their military origins are emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration and symbols of power.
Urban castles were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, rural castles were situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills, fertile land, or a water source. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced by stone. Early castles exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged; this led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castle's firepower; these changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power.
Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it did not affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. While castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live; as a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose; the word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, a number of words in other languages derive from castellum.
The word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a private fortified residence"; this contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon burhs and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for military service and the expectation of loyalty, the lord would grant the vassal land. In the late 20th century, there was a trend to refine the definition of a castle by including the criterion of feudal ownership, thus tying castles to the medieval period. During the First Crusade, the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which would not be considered as such under the modern definition. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military and domestic.
As well as defensive structures, castles were offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were established by Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the country's inhabitants; as William the Conqueror advanced through England, he fortified key positions to secure the land he had taken. Between 1066 and 1087, he established 36 castles such as Warwick Castle, which he used to guard against rebellion in the English Midlands. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications. A castle could act as a stronghold and prison but was a place where a knight or lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design became more important, as the castle's appearance and size began to refle
Candi bentar, or split gateway, is a classical Javanese and Balinese gateway entrance found at the entrance of religious compounds, kraton palaces, or cemeteries. It is a candi-like structure split in two to create a passage in the center for people to walk through; the passage is elevated with a flight of stairs to reach it. A candi bentar is found in Java and Lombok. Candi bentar has a candi-like form but split in two to create a symmetrical image. Candi bentar characteristically has a stepped profile, which can be decorated in the case of Balinese candi bentar; the two inner surfaces are always left sheer and unornamented, as if the structure has been split in two. There are several different styles of candi bentar, from plain red bricks structure of Majapahit-style with its derivations of Cirebon, Demak and early Mataram Sultanate style, the stucco-coated split gates of Kaibon Palace in Banten in city of Surakarta and Yogyakarta, to the richly adorned split gates of Balinese temples and palaces compound.
Other than narrowing the passage, candi bentar do not serve a real defensive purpose, since this type of split gates are designed not to have doors. Additional iron fences are to never installed in the passage, if so they added and not part of the original design; the symbolism of a candi bentar is unclear. Candi bentar only serve for aesthetic purpose, to create a sense of grandeur before entering a compound. Candi bentar and paduraksa are integral features of a Balinese temple architecture, the classical Javanese Hindu temple. Both gateways mark the threshold between different level of sanctity within a temple compound. Candi bentar marks the boundary between the outer world with the outer realm of the Hindu temple, the nista mandala; the paduraksa marks the boundary between the madya mandala with the innermost and the most sacred utama mandala. The compound within Balinese temples and palaces are used for rituals; the candi bentar used as a background of dance performances, as the performers appears from behind the split gates.
Sometimes the dance performance took place in inner compound with roofed paduraksa gate as a background. Candi bentar is thought to dates back to the Hindu period of Singhasari and Majapahit in 13th to 14th-century Java. Reliefs showing a candi bentar and paduraksa have been discovered in 13th-century Candi Jago in East Java. In the archaeological site of Trowulan – the 14th-century capital of the Majapahit empire – a candi bentar named Wringin Lawang, is among the oldest candi bentar that still stands; the Wringin Lawang took the shape of a typical Majapahit temple structure evenly split into two mirroring structures, creating a passage in the center. The grand gate portals are made from red brick, with a base of 13 x 11 metres and a height of 15.5 metres The current prevalence of candi bentar is owed to the influence of Majapahit aesthetics on Javanese and Balinese architecture. The candi bentar is still used upon the arrival of Islam period in the 15th-century; the Sultanate palace of The Keraton Kasepuhan used candi bentar to mark access into the public audience pavilion.
The 16th-century Menara Kudus Mosque, one of the oldest mosque in Java, still has a candi bentar in its compound, marking the gateway into the mosque compound. A Muslim cemetery complex of Sendang Duwur in the village of Sendang Duwur, Lamongan Regency, East Java, contains both candi bentar and paduraksa to marks the level of sanctity within the cemetery complex, with the tomb of Sunan Sendang Duwur being the most sacred part of the cemetery complex. Other Javanese tombs employing the candi bentar is the Sunan Giri cemetery complex. In modern period, construction of candi bentar is encouraged by the Indonesian government; this policy is encouraged by municipal and regional kabupaten government as a form of regional identity. The government of Banten province for example, encouraged the construction of candi bentar — modelled after Kaibon Palace of Old Banten, in the entrance gate of houses those located along the main road. In the city of Cirebon, West Java, the red brick candi bentar has become the identity of the city.
Candi bentar mark the entrance gateway toward various civic buildings e.g. the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Jakarta. Balinese temple
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and unguarded. Other borders are or controlled, may be crossed only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may foster the setting up of buffer zones. A difference has been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries. In the past, many borders were not defined lines. Special cases in modern times were the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone from 1922 to 1981 and the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone from 1922 until 1970. In modern times, marchlands have been replaced by defined and demarcated borders.
For the purposes of border control and seaports are classed as borders. Most countries have some form of border control to regulate or limit the movement of people and goods into and out of the country. Under international law, each country is permitted to legislate the conditions that have to be met in order to cross its borders, to prevent people from crossing its borders in violation of those laws; some borders require presentation of legal paperwork like passports and visas, or other identity documents, for persons to cross borders. To stay or work within a country's borders aliens may need special immigration documents or permits. Moving goods across a border requires the payment of excise tax collected by customs officials. Animals moving across borders may need to go into quarantine to prevent the spread of exotic infectious diseases. Most countries prohibit carrying endangered animals across their borders. Moving goods, animals, or people illegally across a border, without declaring them or seeking permission, or deliberately evading official inspection, constitutes smuggling.
Controls on car liability insurance validity and other formalities may take place. In places where smuggling and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, institute formal border control procedures; these can extend inland, as in the United States where the U. S. Customs and Border Protection service has jurisdiction to operate up to 100 miles from any land or sea boundary. On the other hand, some borders are signposted; this is common in countries within the European Schengen Area and on rural sections of the Canada–United States border. Borders may be unmarked in remote or forested regions. Migration within territorial borders, outside of them, represented an old and established pattern of movement in African countries, in seeking work and food, to maintain ties with kin who had moved across the porous borders of their homelands; when the colonial frontiers were drawn, Western countries attempted to obtain a monopoly on the recruitment of labor in many African countries, which altered the practical and institutional context in which the old migration patterns had been followed, some might argue, are still followed today.
The frontiers were porous for the physical movement of migrants, people living in borderlands maintained transnational cultural and social networks. A border may have been: Agreed by the countries on both sides Imposed by the country on one side Imposed by third parties, e.g. an international conference Inherited from a former state, colonial power or aristocratic territory Inherited from a former internal border, such as within the former Soviet Union Never formally defined. In addition, a border may be a de facto military ceasefire line. Political borders are imposed on the world through human agency; that means that although a political border may follow a river or mountain range, such a feature does not automatically define the political border though it may be a major physical barrier to crossing. Political borders are classified by whether or not they follow conspicuous physical features on the earth. Natural borders are geographical features that present natural obstacles to communication and transport.
Existing political borders are a formalization of such historical, natural obstacles. Some geographical features that constitute natural borders are: Oceans: oceans create costly natural borders. Few countries span more than one continent. Only large and resource-rich states are able to sustain the costs of governance across oceans for longer periods of time. Rivers: some political borders have been formalized along natural borders formed by rivers; some examples are: the Niagara River, the Rio Grande, the Rhine, the Mekong. If a precise line is desired, it is drawn along the thalweg, the deepest line along the river. In the Hebrew Bible, Moses defined the middle of the river Arnon as the border between Moab and the Israelite tribes settling east of the Jordan; the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1910 that the boundary between the American states of Maryland and West Virginia is the south bank of the Potoma