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Gates Cambridge Scholarship

The Gates Cambridge Scholarships were established in October 2000 by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation with a $210 million donation to support outstanding graduate students from all around the world to study at the University of Cambridge. The scholarships are the University's most prestigious programme for postgraduate students and the gift remains the largest single donation to a United Kingdom university in history; each scholarship covers the full cost of a postgraduate degree in any subject at the University of Cambridge and includes a range of discretionary funding for academic and professional development. The first Scholars arrived at Cambridge in October 2001 and between and 2019 more than 1,800 individuals from over 110 countries have been awarded the scholarship. There are more than 200 Gates Cambridge Scholars studying at Cambridge at any one time. Scholars have access to the Scholars Room located in University Center and contribute to many elements and communities at Cambridge.

Applicants from any country other than the United Kingdom are eligible to apply for the Gates Cambridge Scholarships. Candidates must apply to pursue one of the following full-time residential degrees at the University of Cambridge: Doctor of Philosophy Master of Science, Master of Letters, Master of Philosophy Other one-year postgraduate course Applicants concurrently apply to a course and department and the offer of a Gates Cambridge Scholarship is conditional on the student gaining full placement in each; the Gates Cambridge Trustees use four criteria to choose Scholars-Elect: Academic excellence: Competitiveness is evaluated through academic transcripts, references and the potential to succeed on the chosen course. A departmental nomination is crucial for demonstrating this criterion, Choice of course: The Trust seeks Scholars who will have an academically transformative experience at Cambridge. Candidates must demonstrate intellectual superiority and the necessary skills and expertise to complete the course which they have chosen, A commitment to improving the lives of others: A defining characteristic of Scholars is their deep devotion to improving lives of others as evident by their past and future commitment to the societies in which they will live and work, a capacity for leadership: Candidates must show exceptional leadership elements and a pledge to ‘take others with them’ as future leaders of their fields and communities.

Each class of Gates Cambridge Scholars is composed of 2⁄3 PhD and 1⁄3 one-year Scholars. The Gates Cambridge Trust uses a three-stage selection process to select its Scholars; the application process begins with prospective students applying to study for an eligible degree at the University of Cambridge, either during the U. S. or the global round. Following the initial application, each academic department at the University of Cambridge ranks and nominates eligible applicants for the scholarship. Departmental nominees are the most academically outstanding applicants for postgraduate studies in the department who wish to be considered for the Gates Cambridge Scholarship; the list of departmental nominees is forwarded to the Gates Cambridge Trust, where it is divided into broad subject areas and passed to the Shortlisting Committees. Each Committee reviews the entirety of a departmental nominee and applies the Gates Cambridge selection criteria to shortlist applicants for interview. All shortlisted candidates are interviewed to assess how they meet all Gates Cambridge criteria and Scholars-Elect are selected only after the interview.

In 2018, 92 Scholars were selected from a pool of more than 5,500 applicants. The aim of the Gates Cambridge programme is to build a global network of future leaders committed to improving the lives of others. Scholars and alumni are becoming leaders in their fields and contributing to finding solutions to some of the world's most pressing problems. In 2002, Gates Cambridge Scholars organized and elected a student committee titled "The Gates Scholars' Council"; the Council aims to represent the Gates Scholars at Cambridge and to build a scholar community interwoven into the fabric of the University. In cooperation with the Gates Cambridge Trust, the University and various academic and professional organizations, the Scholars' Council organizes a number of academic and professional events that have distinguished and built the reputation of the Gates Scholars at Cambridge University; the scholarship is known for its strong academic and social community at Cambridge. In 2005, the Scholars once again self-organized to create the Gates Scholars Alumni Association.

This association aims to build upon the friendships and contacts that were first made at Cambridge and to bridge the gap between the different generations of scholars. It is an active and growing organization. In 2015, Gates Cambridge Scholars and Alumni forwarded an open letter to the Trustees of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation urging the non-profit philanthropic organization to divest from fossil fuels. Following additional divestment calls by environmental activist groups, the Foundation scaled back its investments in non-renewable energy sources in 2016. Following the controversial decision by Narendra Modi's government to withdraw the special status given to the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir, more than 100 Gates Cambridge Scholars and Alumni signed an open letter condemning the Foundation's decision to award PM Modi the Global Goalkeeper Award for 2019. Despite such condemnations, the Foundation awarded the recognition to PM Modi for the Swachh Bharat Mission and "... the progress India has made in providing safe sanitation under his leadership" during its

Alixa Naff

Alixa Naff was a Lebanese-born American historian. She focused much of her research on the first wave of Arab American immigration to the United States at the turn of the 20th Century. Alixa Naff was born to Faris and Yamna Naff in Rashaya al-Wadi, a village located in present-day Lebanon within the Anti-Lebanon mountains, her family immigrated to the United States in 1921. They arrived in Spring Valley, Illinois on January 1, 1922, lived there until moving to Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1929, they moved to Michigan in June 1931, where her father worked in the grocery industry. She resided in Falls Church, for many years before moving to Mitchellville, Maryland. Naff documented Arab immigration to the United States during the late early 20th centuries; this first wave of Christian immigrants was the first major emigration from the Middle East to the U. S. Naff donated her collection of artifacts and oral histories from early Arab immigrants to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C. Naff had driven throughout the nation to collect oral histories and family heirlooms for the collection.

She amassed more than 450 oral histories, 2,000 photographs, more than 500 artifacts. The personal and household objects included kibbe pounder, Middle Eastern musical instruments, clothing; the Faris and Yamna Naff Collection, named in honor of her parents, is available for research through the National Museum of American History. Alixa Naff died from a short illness at her home in Mitchellville, Maryland, on June 1, 2013, at the age of 93

Compadre Stadium

Compadre Stadium was a stadium located in Chandler, Arizona. It was the spring training home of the Milwaukee Brewers from 1986 to 1997 and the home field of the Arizona Fall League Chandler Diamondbacks; the ballpark was financed by local developers and built at a cost of $1.6 million in 1985. It closed in 1997 and sat abandoned for a number of years, with the outfield being used for grazing, before being demolished in 2014; the stadium was named after the local non-profit Chandler Compadres, who were allowed to keep the parking fees as a fundraiser. The organization offered to purchase the stadium from Maricopa County after the Brewers moved out in 1997 for $1.6 million. In 1982, Chandler mayor Jim Patterson first approached the Brewers about moving their spring training facility from Sun City to Chandler. Patterson was aware that the owners of the Brewers' minor league ballpark in Sun City had sold the facility to private developers and the Brewers would soon need a new spring home. After leaving office, Patterson built a 2,700-acre development he named Ocotillo, in which he placed the ballpark.

In April 1985, the Brewers agreed to move their spring training camp from Sun City, Arizona, to Chandler where local authorities planned to build a 20-acre complex in exchange for the Brewers signing a 10-year lease. The Brewers moved into Compadre Stadium for the 1986 Cactus League spring training; the facility was the first Cactus League stadium with grass seating in the outfield. It featured an artificial lake; the Compadre Stadium complex offered the Brewers a number of state-of-the art features at the time, including an infield diamond, several batting cages, on-site practice fields. The stadium faced problems upon opening. A gas explosion inside the Brewers' locker room at Compadre Stadium during the 1986 spring training burned several of the Brewer coaches, including third base coach Tony Muser. Muser did not because of his injuries; the facility had only been open four days. The Chandler fire department downplayed speculation hasty construction on the stadium had led to the explosion. Parking was far away from the entrance, the stadium was on the outskirts of Phoenix, the proximity to nearby farms led a local paper to comment the stadium "smells like hell."

The players had to go through the stadium to reach the locker room, each dugout had only a portable toilet. The Brewers drew 51,800 fans to Compadre in 1986 and 69,158 in 1987, but after two seasons the stadium did not break on spring training alone, the stadium began to look for other events to fill its schedule after sitting idle for most of 1986 to help the Bermuda grass field grow; the stadium hosted a number of concerts during the spring training offseason. The then-record Cactus League attendance of 9,812 fans was set on March 26, 1988 at Compadre for a game against the Chicago Cubs; the stadium was not built with lights and the Brewers negotiated with Chandler about their installation in 1989. Additional practice fields were built on the complex grounds in 1990. Maricopa County bought the stadium from Patterson's group in 1993; the stadium became outdated as other Cactus League stadiums were completed or renovated. While state-of-the-art when it opened, the facility fell behind other facilities – for instance, Compadre was the only Cactus League stadium where players had to walk through the bleachers to get from the clubhouse to the dugout.

After newer stadiums such as the Peoria Sports Complex or Scottsdale Stadium were completed for other Cactus League teams in the early 1990's, the Brewers requested $12 to $14 million from the city of Chandler to improve the stadium. However, the city of Chandler was only prepared for $9 million in renovations, half of which would have been paid for by Maricopa County. After a $5 million bond election failed in 1996 the Brewers decided to move out; the Brewers departed Compadre after the 1997 season and began Cactus League play the following year at the newly built Maryvale Baseball Park on the west side of the city of Phoenix, where the team holds spring training to this day. The stadium structure and field went unused and fell into a state of disrepair after only being used for twelve seasons. After the Brewers departed, some of the minor league practice fields on the site were taken over by the city of Chandler to create a local park, the Snedigar Recreation Center; the seats were removed from the grandstand and animals were allowed to graze in the outfield area, but otherwise the facility was left intact.

The facility's concourse was used as office space by a local non-profit. In January 2014, Standard Pacific Homes purchased the property and three months submitted a proposal to tear down the ballpark and redevelop the lot as a new residential community. Demolition of the remaining complex began in late July 2014. Flickr: Compadre Stadium Digital Ballparks: Compadre Stadium

Wolfgang Kaim

Wolfgang Kaim is a German chemist, the chair of coordination chemistry at the University of Stuttgart. He is co-author of the internationally recognized book, Bioinorganic Chemistry, awarded with the Literature Award of the German Chemical Industry. Kaim studied chemistry and mathematics at the University of Frankfurt and the University of Konstanz, his diplom thesis in physical organic chemistry was supervised by E. Daltrozzo, he started working on main group radicals in Hans Bock’s group at the University of Frankfurt, where he earned his PhD in 1978. After a post-doctoral year with F. A. Cotton at Texas A&M University, supported by a postdoctoral Liebig Fellowship, he completed his habilitation for inorganic chemistry in 1982. Kaim continued his independent research career at the University of Frankfurt with a Winnacker Fellowship followed by a Heisenberg Fellowship. In 1987 he moved to the University of Stuttgart to take up a chaired position for coordination chemistry where he continues till today.

Kaim is an adjunct professor at the Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, has been visiting professor at the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, guest professor at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, University of Concepción and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. He has been the advisor of more than 55 PhD students. In 2014 he was awarded Alfred Stock Memorial Prize by Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. Kaim’s interdisciplinary research covers the areas of radical stabilization by metal coordination, coenzyme models, the extension of mixed-valence chemistry, electron transfer effects on M-C and M-H bonds, the crystallization of new organic radicals and the electron transfer properties of boron compounds, as well as spectroelectrochemistry in the IR, UV/VIS/near-infrared regions as spectroscopic probes for electron transfer sites and the consequences of electron transfer or charge transfer on structure and bonding, EPR spectroscopy as a less common but useful methodology and CV.

He is the co-author of more than 600 publications in peer-reviewed journals. “Non-innocent ligands in bioinorganic chemistry – an overview”, W. Kaim and B. Schwederski, Coord. Chem. Rev. 254 1580-1588. “Electronic structure alternatives in nitrosylruthenium complexes”, G. K. Lahiri and W. Kaim, Dalton Trans. 39 4471-4478. “Boron Atoms as Spin Carriers in Two- and Three-Dimensional Systems”, W. Kaim, N. S. Hosmane, S. Záliš, J. A. Maguiere and W. N. Lipscomb, Angew. Chem. 121 5184-5193. Chem. Int Ed. 48 5082-5091. “A Five-Center Redox System: Molecular Coupling of Two Non-Innocent Imino-o-benzoquinonato-Ruthenium Functions through a p Acceptor Bridge”, A. K. Das, B. Sarkar, J. Fiedler, S. Záliš, I. Hartenbach, S. Strobel, G. K. Lahiri and W. Kaim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 8895-98902. “Unconventional Mixed-Valent Complexes of Ruthenium and Osmium” W. Kaim and G. K. Lahiri, Angew. Chem. 119 1808-1828. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 1778-1796. "Odd Electron on Nitrogen: A Metal-Stabilized Aminyl Radical" W. Kaim, Science 307 216-217. "Long-Range Electronic Coupling in Various Oxidation States of a C4-Linked Trisruthenium Dimer" Y.

Hoshino, S. Higuchi, J. Fiedler, C.-Y. Su, A. Knödler, B. Schwederski, B. Sarkar, H. Hartmann and W. Kaim, Angew. Chem. 115 698. Chem. Int. Ed. 42 674. "Multi-Frequency EPR Study and Density-Functional g-Tensor Calculations of Persistent Organorhenium Radical Complexes" S. Frantz, H. Hartmann, N. Doslik, M. Wanner, W. Kaim, H.-J. Kümmerer, G. Denninger, A.-L. Barra, C. Duboc-Toia, J. Fiedler, I. Ciofini, C. Urban and M. Kaupp, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 10563


STS-38 was a Space Shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. It was the 37th shuttle mission, carried a classified payload for the U. S. Department of Defense, it was the 7th flight dedicated to the Department of Defense. The mission was a 4-day mission that traveled more than 2 million miles and completed 79 revolutions. Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility's runway 33; the launch was scheduled for July 1990, but was rescheduled due to a hydrogen leak found on Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-35 countdown. During a rollback to the Orbiter Processing Facility Atlantis was damaged during a hail storm; the eventual launch date of 15 November 1990 was set due to a payload problem. The launch window was between 18:30 and 22:30 EST; the launch occurred at 18:48 EST. The launch occurred on 15 November 1990, 18:48:13 EST, it was scheduled for July 1990, however, a liquid hydrogen leak found on Columbia during the STS-35 countdown prompted three precautionary tanking tests on Atlantis at the pad on 29, 13 June July – 25 July 1990.

Tests confirmed the hydrogen fuel leak on the external tank side of the external tank/orbiter 432 millimetres quick disconnect umbilical. This could not be repaired at the pad and Atlantis was rolled back to the VAB on 9 August, demated transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility. During rollback, the vehicle remained parked outside the VAB for about a day while the Columbia/STS-35 stack was transferred to the pad for launch. While outside, Atlantis suffered minor hail damage to its tiles during a thunderstorm. After repairs were made in the OPF, Atlantis was transferred to the VAB for mating on 2 October. During hoisting operations, the platform beam, to have been removed from the orbiter's aft compartment fell and caused minor damage, repaired; the vehicle rolled out to Pad A on 12 October 1990. The fourth mini-tanking test was performed on 24 October, with no excessive hydrogen or oxygen leakage detected. During the Flight Readiness Review, the launch date was set for 9 November 1990; the launch was reset for 15 November due to payload problems.

Liftoff occurred during a classified launch window lying within a launch period extending from 18:30 to 22:30 EST on 15 November. According to Aviation Week, the shuttle entered a 204 kilometres x 519 kilometres orbit at an inclination of 28.45° to the equator. It executed three OMS burns, the last on orbit #4; the first of these circularized the orbit at 519 kilometres. The first classified payload was code-named USA-67, deployed from Atlantis' cargo bay on the 7th orbit and ignited its rocket motor at the ascending node of the 8th orbit to place it in a geo-synchronous transfer orbit. Aviation Week reported that USA-67 was a secret ELINT gathering satellite headed for geosynchronous orbit and launched to monitor the events during the first Gulf War in 1990; as a result of there being two upper stages aboard STS-38, USA-67 was believed to be a Magnum satellite like those deployed on STS-51-C and STS-33, which were launched via a two-stage IUS. Today it is believed that USA-67 was instead a secret SDS-2 military communications satellite, like those deployed on STS-28 and STS-53.

It is believed that USA-67 was not the only satellite deployed during STS-38. A publicly released image of Atlantis' vertical stabilizer and upper aft bulkhead, similar to the one released from STS-53, confirms that the ASE for the IUS was absent from this flight. An explanation is. Rumors that appear to have been substantiated by the identification of an "unknown" geostationary satellite by amateur observers insist that the second payload was a stealth satellite known as Prowler intended to covertly inspect other nation's geostationary satellites; the mission was extended by one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at the original planned landing site of Edwards Air Force Base. Continued adverse conditions led to a decision to shift the landing to KSC. Landing occurred at the Kennedy Space Center; the rollout distance was 9,032 feet and rollout time was 57 seconds. STS-38 marked the first KSC landing for Atlantis, the first shuttle landing at KSC since April 1985. Atlantis weighed 191,091 pounds at landing.

List of human spaceflights List of Space Shuttle missions Outline of space science Space Shuttle This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Astronatix: STS-38 NASA mission summary STS-38 Video Highlights

Herbert Bowyer Berkeley

Herbert Bowyer Berkeley was an English photographer as well as a chemical engineer. He was the fourth son of The Reverend William Comyns Berkeley and Harriet Elizabeth Bowyer Nichols Berkeley. Berkeley was educated at Uppingham School, was a member of the Royal Photographic Society and exhibited work from 1874 until 1889. Herbert Bowyer Berkeley was born on 27 March 1851 at Cotheridge Court, Worcestershire, England. During his years at Uppingham he was introduced to chemistry by his science teacher, a German PhD. After Uppingham he lived at Cotheridge Court. During the 1870s he became an amateur photographer as well as a chemical engineer, experimented with the developing processes and photographic materials available to him during that time. Many of his early photographs were scenes taken around the extensive woods and pastures in the vicinity of his family home. By early 1881 he was living in lodgings in London. During the 1870s photographers used the common wet-plate, which required a lot of on-the-spot preparation for immediate exposure.

Although not a new idea, photography was still in its early stages of experimentation. Berkeley experimented with the pre-coated, semi-dry collodion plates which were commercially available at that time, he discovered that with the addition of sulfite to Samman's developing solution, to absorb the sulphur dioxide, given off by the chemical dithionite, that dithionite was no longer required in the developing process. Berkeley published his discovery in 1881. In 1882 the British Journal of Photography Almanac included his new formula of pyrogallol and citric acid in their publication. In Berkeley's new formula, just before use, ammonia was added to make it more alkaline. In London, Berkeley was a member of the Platinotype Company where he worked in association with William Willis; the company marketed Berkeley's Sulpho-pyrogallol Developer. Berkeley displayed his landscape photographic works in exhibitions of the Royal Photographic Society between the years 1874 and 1889. In 1886, he was awarded a medal for a scene taken in the Dove Valley, England.

Berkeley's health was beginning to fail and in 1889 he left England and travelled to Algiers with the hope that a drier climate would be of benefit to him. He died in Algiers at age 39, unmarried. A plaque in memoriam to him hangs inside St. Leonard's church, located a short distance from his family home. Herbert Bowyer Berkeley was not recognised for his important discovery and contribution to the developing process; the Photographic Journal, May 1993, an article written by Dr. G I P Levenson HonFRPS. William Page. A History of the County of Worcester. Volume 4. London – via British History Online