Troma Entertainment is an American independent film production and distribution company founded by Lloyd Kaufman and Michael Herz in 1974. The company produces low-budget independent films of the horror genre. Many of them play on 1950s horror with elements of farce, parody and splatter. In 2012, the company released many of its films on YouTube. Troma has produced and distributed over 1,000 independent films since its creation, its slogan in 2014 was "40 years of Disrupting Media". Another slogan the company has used is "Movies of the Future." Troma films are B-movies known for their surrealistic or automatistic nature, along with their use of shocking imagery. They contain overt sexuality and intentionally sadistic and blatant graphic violence, so much that Troma film has become a term synonymous with these characteristics. Troma reuses the same props and scenes sometimes to save money. At a certain point, this became another hallmark of Troma. Examples include a severed leg, a penis monster, the flipping and exploding car filmed for the movie Sgt.
Kabukiman N. Y. P. D. Which is used in place of any other car that needs to explode. Troma produced or acquired early films featuring several rising talents, such as Carmen Electra, Billy Bob Thornton, Vanna White, Kevin Costner, J. J. Abrams, Samuel L. Jackson, Marisa Tomei, Michael Jai White, Vincent D'Onofrio, David Boreanaz, Paul Sorvino, James Gunn, Trey Parker and Matt Stone, before they were discovered. Another Academy Award-winning director, Oliver Stone, made his debut as an actor in The Battle of Love's Return, their latest productions, Return to Nuke'Em High Vol.1 and its sequel Return to Return to Nuke Em High AKA Vol 2, were released in 2013 and 2018, respectively. In the mid-1970s, Kaufman and Herz began producing and distributing raunchy sex comedies such as The First Turn-On! and Squeeze Play!. Troma provided production support for Louis Malle's My Dinner With Andre, for which Kaufman served as a production manager. In 1985, Troma had a hit with the violent comedy horror superhero film The Toxic Avenger.
The film went on to become Troma's most popular, spawning sequels and an animated television program. However, following the financial demise of the company Troma itself, the sequels to the film were box office bombs, the cartoon adaptation ended; the Toxic Avenger character is now Troma's official mascot. Kaufman's follow-up film to The Toxic Avenger was Class of Nuke'Em High, co-directed with Richard W. Haines; the film was a hit nearly as successful, though it inspired two unsuccessful sequels, both following the financial demise of Troma. At one time, it was the highest-selling VHS release for Troma; the Toxic Avenger was turned into a musical which debuted at the George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey and opened in New York in the fall of 2008. The Toxic Avenger Musical book by Joe DiPietro, the author of the long-running I Love You, You're Perfect, Now Change and All Shook Up, was released the same year; the music is by keyboardist of the rock band Bon Jovi. Soon after Class of Nuke'Em High was completed and distributed, Kaufman directed Troma's War.
Intended as a criticism of what it saw as Ronald Reagan's attempt to glamorize war, the story concerns a group of everyday people who crash land on a remote island, only to find it populated by an isolationist militia that intends to overthrow the US government. Troma's War was a box office bomb. In the aftermath of the film's poor performance, despite another stab at the superhero genre with Sgt. Kabukiman N. Y. P. D. Troma experienced financial hardship and tried to reestablish itself as a smaller company out of necessity. Today, the majority of Troma films are viewed for the first time on VHS or DVD, with some theatrical releases for their films in smaller art houses, college campuses, independent cinemas. In August 2012, Troma released over 100 of its back catalog films on YouTube, many for free, some for 48-hour paid viewing. From 1995 to 2000, Troma produced some of their greatest work. Kaufman directed three independent films, all distributed in limited theatrical releases: Tromeo and Juliet, a loose parody of Shakespeare's play.
Troma's financial hardship worsened after the botched funding of a low-budget video feature titled Tales from the Crapper, which cost $250,000 despite most of the footage being unusable. India Allen, one of the producers, backed out of the film halfway through, sued Troma, citing breach of contract, sexual harassment, trade slander, intentional infliction of emotional distress. Kaufman supervised a reshoot in an attempt to salvage the film, dividing the footage into two parts and recasting the film as a double feature. Tales from the Crapper was released on DVD in September 2004. Troma produces and acquires independent films, despite financial hardships and limitations. Troma Films has distributed many films from third parties including Trey Parker's Cannibal! The Musical. Lloyd encourages independent filmmaking, making cameo appearances in many low-budget horror films without fee. Among his more recent appearances is in former collaborator
The Hunt for Red October (film)
The Hunt for Red October is a 1990 American espionage submarine film produced by Mace Neufeld, directed by John McTiernan, that stars Sean Connery, Alec Baldwin, Scott Glenn, James Earl Jones, Sam Neill. The film is a namesake based on Tom Clancy's 1984 bestselling eponymous novel; the story is set during the late Cold War era and involves a rogue Soviet naval captain who wishes to defect to the United States with his officers and the Soviet Navy's newest and most advanced nuclear missile submarine. An American CIA analyst deduces his motive and must prove his theory to the U. S. Navy before a violent confrontation between the Soviet and the American navies spirals out of control; the film was a co-production between the motion picture studios Paramount Pictures, Mace Neufeld Productions, Nina Saxon Film Design. Theatrically, it was commercially distributed by Paramount Pictures and by the Paramount Home Entertainment division for home media markets. Following its wide theatrical release, the film won a number of accolades.
At the 63rd Academy Awards, the film was honored with the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing, along with nominations for Best Sound Mixing and Best Film Editing. On June 12, 1990, the original soundtrack and conducted by Basil Poledouris, was released by MCA Records; the Hunt for Red October received positive reviews from critics and was the 6th top-grossing film of the year, generating $122 million in North America and more than $200 million worldwide in box office business. The film was the first in a series involving the fictional character Jack Ryan, played additionally by Harrison Ford, Ben Affleck, Chris Pine, John Krasinski. In November 1984, Soviet submarine captain Marko Ramius is given command of Red October, a new Typhoon-class nuclear missile submarine with a stealth "caterpillar drive", rendering it undetectable to passive sonar. Ramius leaves port to conduct exercises with attack submarine V. K. Konovalov, commanded by his former student Captain Tupolev. Once at sea, Ramius secretly kills political officer Ivan Putin and relays false orders that they are to conduct missile drills off America's east coast.
At the same time, American attack submarine USS Dallas, tasked with identifying and shadowing Soviet subs as they leave port, detects Red October as it begins its mission, but loses contact once the sub's caterpillar drive is engaged. The next morning, CIA analyst and former Marine, Jack Ryan, after consulting with Vice Admiral James Greer, briefs government officials on Red October and the threat it poses; the U. S. fears. They learn that the bulk of the Soviet Navy has been deployed to the Atlantic to find and sink the sub. During the briefing, Ryan hypothesizes that Ramius instead plans to defect, NSC chairman Jeffrey Pelt gives Ryan three days to confirm his theory. Meanwhile, though unable to track Red October, guesses his former mentor's route and sets a course to intercept. Due to the actions of an unknown saboteur, Red October's caterpillar drive malfunctions during risky maneuvers through a narrow undersea canyon. Petty Officer Jones, a sonar technician aboard Dallas, has discovered a way to detect Red October using his underwater acoustics software, Dallas plots their own intercept course.
Ryan arranges a hazardous mid-ocean rendezvous to board Dallas, where he attempts to persuade its captain, Commander Bart Mancuso, to contact Ramius and determine his intentions. The Soviet ambassador informs the U. S. government that Ramius is a renegade, asks for help in sinking Red October. That order is sent to the U. S. fleet, including Dallas, which has found the Soviet sub. Ryan, however, is convinced that Ramius plans to defect with his officers and convinces Mancuso to contact Ramius and offer assistance. Ramius, stunned that the Americans guessed his plan, accepts, he stages a nuclear reactor "emergency", ordering his crew to abandon ship. After a U. S. frigate is spotted, Ramius submerges. Meanwhile, Ryan and Jones come aboard via a rescue sub, at which point Ramius requests asylum for himself and his officers. Red October is attacked by V. K. Konovalov, which has tracked them across the Atlantic; as the two Soviet subs maneuver, one of Red October's cooks, Loginov, an undercover KGB agent and the secret saboteur, opens fire on the bridge, fatally wounding first officer Vasily Borodin before retreating to the nuclear missile bay.
Ryan and Ramius pursue him, Loginov wounds Ramius in the shoulder, but Ryan kills Loginov before he can detonate a missile. Meanwhile, Red October makes evasive maneuvers with a diversion provided by Dallas, causing V. K. Konovalov to be destroyed by its own fired torpedo; the crew of Red October, now rescued, watch the explosion from the deck of the U. S. frigate. Ryan and Ramius, their subterfuge complete, navigate Red October to the Penobscot River in Maine. Ramius admits that the reason he defected was that after he was handed the plans for Red October, a nuclear war first strike weapon, he concluded that he could never support such an action. From atop the submarine's sail deck, pleased to have made it to America, offers Ryan a quote from Christopher Columbus. Ryan nods in agreement and offers in return, "Welcome to the New World, sir". Producer Mace Neufeld optioned Tom Clancy's novel after reading galley proofs in February 1985. Despite the book becoming a best seller, no Hollywood studio was interested because of its content.
Neufeld said, "I read some of the reports from the other studios, the story was too complicated to understand". After a year and a half he got a high-level executive at
Taking Care of Business (film)
Taking Care of Business is a 1990 American comedy film directed by Arthur Hiller and starring James Belushi and Charles Grodin. It is named after the song of the same name by Randy Bachman, recorded by the Canadian rock group Bachman–Turner Overdrive; the film is known for being the first screenplay work written by J. J. Abrams who went on to make Super 8 and Star Wars: The Force Awakens. A convicted car thief and diehard Chicago Cubs fan, Jimmy Dworski wins tickets to the World Series, he still has a couple of days left to serve in prison and the warden will not let him leave and come back. With the help of other inmates, Jimmy stages a riot. On the way, he finds the Filofax of uptight and spineless advertising executive Spencer Barnes, which promises a reward if it is found. Over the next day, Jimmy takes on Barnes' identity—staying in the Malibu beach house of Spencer's boss, flirting with the boss's daughter taking a meeting with a powerful Japanese food company magnate named Sakamoto; the fake "Spencer"'s unorthodox methods, such as beating the magnate at tennis and telling him about the poor quality of his food products, gets the attention of the taken aback Sakamoto.
However his unconventional negotiations with the food company insult some of the executives ruining Spencer's reputation. Meanwhile, lacking his precious Filofax, the real Spencer Barnes is spiraling into the gutter. Losing all his clothes, his car and money, he has to rely on an old high school flame, the neurotic and overbearing Debbie Lipton who keeps trying to rekindle a relationship with him. Jimmy and Spencer come together at a meeting with the advertising executives, where Spencer is sacked by his boss; as a consolation Jimmy takes Spencer to the World Series, where Jimmy makes a spectacular catch on a home-run ball hit by Mark Grace, who makes a cameo. When security goes after Jimmy, spotted on the Jumbotron, they escape by using Spencer's Filofax to slide down a support wire and out of the stadium. Spencer patches up his marriage with his wife. Jimmy sneaks back into prison with Spencer's help, serves his last couple of hours and is released, only to find Spencer waiting to pick him up.
With the promise of a beautiful girlfriend and a well-paying job in advertising working with Spencer, Jimmy's future looks bright, as does that of his beloved Cubs, who won the World Series. James Belushi as Jimmy Dworski Charles Grodin as Spencer Barnes Mako as Mr. Sakamoto Héctor Elizondo as the Warden Veronica Hamel as Elizabeth Barnes Stephen Elliott as Walter Bentley Loryn Locklin as Jewel Bentley John de Lancie as Ted Bradford Jr. Gates McFadden as Diane Connors Anne De Salvo as Debbie Lipton Burke Byrnes as Prison Guard The film received negative reviews, with Caryn James of The New York Times labeling it as a film that "plays it safe and boring."On Rotten Tomatoes the film has a score of 29% based on reviews from 14 critics. Baseball scenes for Taking Care of Business were filmed at Angel Stadium of Anaheim in California; the film grossed US$20 million in the United States. List of American films of 1990 Taking Care of Business on IMDb Taking Care of Business at Box Office Mojo Taking Care of Business at Rotten Tomatoes
Star Trek: The Next Generation – A Final Unity
Star Trek: The Next Generation – A Final Unity is an adventure game by Spectrum HoloByte, based on the Star Trek universe. It puts the player in control of Captain Picard and his crew of the Enterprise D and features traditional point-and-click adventure gameplay as well as free-form space exploration, diplomatic encounters and tactical ship-to-ship combat; the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation reprise their roles, providing the voices of their respective characters. While on routine patrol of the Romulan neutral zone, the Enterprise intercepts a distress signal from the crew of a Garidian scout ship, seeking asylum in Federation space. After a brief confrontation with the commander of a Garidian Warbird, the crew of the scout ship is beamed aboard the Enterprise. One of the refugees mentions to Captain Picard that they are in search of the Lawgiver's legendary "Fifth Scroll", which could aid in preventing war on Garid. Picard agrees to assist them, the crew of the Enterprise sets out in search of clues to the location of the scroll.
After searching various star systems and completing several away missions, the crew of the Enterprise realizes that the scroll points to the existence of an enormous and powerful ancient structure, known as the Unity Device, created by the Chodak, an unknown alien race, during the peak of their civilization. The storyline takes place according to the opening sequence of the game; this would place the events of the game between the first two episodes of the seventh season of the series, "Descent" and "Liaisons". The non-canonical Chodak race reappear in the Star Trek video games Star Trek Generations and Birth of the Federation. Gameplay is linear in nature, sometimes branching depending on choices made during various conversations. On board the Enterprise, gameplay amounts to waiting until the ship arrives at its next destination, conversing with various crewmembers for advice. There are various areas of the main bridge that can be interacted with to control the ship and consult with various people.
The conference lounge allows the player to ask advice from the Garidian refugees. The Conn can be used to change the ship's speed; when a mission begins destination and speed are set automatically, but the player has the liberty to visit bases and systems at will, though this will not affect anything in the main scenario. Various information on planets, alien species, previous missions can be accessed from the Ops console, manned by Lt. Cmdr. Data; the tactical console is manned by Lt. Worf. Accessing it automatically brings the ship to red alert status. During the occasional battle with an enemy ship, control of the tactical console can be delegated to Lt. Worf, or controlled by the player; the turbolift allows for access to other areas of the ship. From engineering, power levels can be adjusted and resources applied toward damaged systems can be designated. Control of engineering can be delegated to Lt. Cmdr. Geordi La Forge. Players can manipulate engineering to such a degree it is possible to cause a warp core breach or eject the warp core.
In the transporter room, an away team can be assembled and an inventory chosen, though each mission has an automatically assigned away team. On the holodeck, any previous cutscenes can be viewed, as well as a brief tutorial going over the various controls of the ship; the majority of the gameplay takes place by controlling an away team on various space stations and alien worlds, the pure adventure game part of the game. The away team is selected by the player and is controlled in a point-and-click manner by selecting the desired command from the interface in the lower area of the screen. Items in the inventory can be used to interact with the environment in much the same way; as in most adventure games, inventory items are used to solve various puzzles. The comments and responses of the characters vary. Upon completion of the away mission, the team is beamed up, the Enterprise awaits further orders or acts with the new information provided by the away mission. A Final Unity was penned for a release shortly after Interplay's Star Trek: 25th Anniversary.
Since 25th Anniversary was released at the end of 1992, A Final Unity was scheduled to be released in 1993, but did not make the projected release date. Seven principal actors of the TV show plus Majel Barrett, the voice of the computer, were hired to reprise their roles in voice-overs for the game. A Final Unity was Spectrum HoloByte's second Star Trek video game, following the 1994 game Star Trek: The Next Generation: Future's Past. Spectrum Holobyte acquired MicroProse shortly thereafter, continued developing Star Trek games under the MicroProse name. A version for the Atari Jaguar CD was in development by MicroProse but it never released. A Final Unity required a floating point coprocessor, unusual for DOS games at the time, it could still be played on a computer not equipped at reduced performance. A Final Unity was a commercial success, selling 500,000 copies by 1996. Upon release, A Final Unity was met with positive reviews. Andy Butcher from PC Gamer UK noted that the game "translates the atmosphere and'feel' of The Next Generation perfectly" and praised the way it is structured as well as its visual presentation and sound design.
Computer Gaming World's Allen L. Greenberg criticized the game's tactical battles as "often tedious and inconclusive", but found the away missions "extremely enjoyable" and the
Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio
Cuyahoga Falls is a city in Summit County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 49,652, it is the second-largest city in Summit County and part of the Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city was founded in 1812 by William Wetmore and was named Manchester, but renamed for the Cuyahoga River and the series of waterfalls that run along the southern boundary of the city. Cuyahoga Falls is bordered by Akron to the south and the Cuyahoga Valley National Park to the northwest. Cuyahoga Falls was formed in 1812 near the junction of what was Northampton, Stow and Portage townships; the focus was the series of Cuyahoga River waterfalls. In 1812, Kelsey and Wilcox built a dam on the Cuyahoga River at a place where a railroad bridge crossed it in 1876, they built a flour mill, an oil mill, a saw mill. This led to the construction of a number of houses; this area was known as the old village. Development moved downstream, when the power was discovered to be better there; the old village was destroyed in 1826, when a dam built by William Wetmore flooded the dam at the old village and its mills were torn down.
The earliest settler of Cuyahoga Falls included William Wetmore. In 1815, a saw mill was operating near Gaylord's Grove, using power generated by a dam on the Cuyahoga River there; the town was called Manchester, but was renamed Cuyahoga Falls at the request of the Post Office since several other Manchesters were in Ohio. The village proper was first laid out in 1826 by Judge Richardson; the town was incorporated in 1836, occupying 240 rods from Tallmadge townships. In 1853, seeing that the village and township of Cuyahoga Falls occupied the same territory, the village council disbanded and the community was only a township until 1868. In 1841, the Summit County Board of Commissioners named Cuyahoga Falls the county seat; the state legislature intervened and put the location of the county seat up to a popular vote. Akron won and has been the county seat since. In spite of being named the county seat, Cuyahoga Falls never functioned as such. In March 1851, the township of Cuyahoga Falls was created out of the village limits.
They covered the same territory, so the village council voted to adjourn sine die, letting the village be run under township jurisdiction until June 3, 1868, when the municipal government returned. On July 3, 1940, the Doodlebug Disaster train wreck killed 43 people, the worst disaster in the history of the city. In 1985, a referendum of merger between the city and neighboring Northampton Township was approved by local voters. In 1986, Cuyahoga Falls merged with Northampton Township, the first merger of a city and township in Ohio. Cuyahoga Falls had been founded as an industrial city. By the 1970s, though, it had become a residential community; this changed. He had been in favor of the merger with Northampton Township because of the additional land that could be used for development. Parts of that area have since been used for industrial development. Commercial development has picked up in the Howe Avenue area at the southern border of the city; the city had one professional sports team, the Cuyahoga Falls Cougars, of the International Basketball League.
They became the Akron Cougars. The Cathedral of Tomorrow, founded by televangelist Rex Humbard in 1958, is in Cuyahoga Falls, it was renamed Grace Cathedral. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 25.75 square miles, of which 25.65 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 49,652 people, 22,250 households, 12,693 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,935.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,859 housing units at an average density of 930.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 3.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 22,250 households, of which 26.1% had children under age 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.0% were non-families.
35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 39.4 years. 20.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 49,374 people, 21,655 households, 13,317 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,932.9 people per square mile. There were 22,727 housing units at an average density of 889.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.80% White, 1.87% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.63% of the population. There were 21,655 households, of which 27.0% had children under age 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families.
32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3
Diana Charlton Muldaur is an American film and television actress. Muldaur's television roles include L. A. Law's Rosalind Shays and Dr. Katherine Pulaski in the second season of Star Trek: The Next Generation, she has been nominated for an Emmy three times: twice for L. A. Law and once for Born Free, she was nominated twice for a Q award for L. A. Law. Born in Brooklyn, New York, raised on the Massachusetts island of Martha's Vineyard, Muldaur started acting in high school and continued on through college, graduating from Sweet Briar College in Virginia in 1960, she made her name on the New York stage. She was at one point a board member of the Screen Actors Guild and was the first woman to serve as president of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. In 1965, Muldaur landed the role of Ann Wicker in the CBS daytime soap opera The Secret Storm, she did a five-episode arc as Jeannie Orloff in the final season of Richard Chamberlain's NBC medical drama, Dr. Kildare. Various roles as a guest star in episodes of numerous television shows followed, including Gunsmoke, Bonanza, I Spy, The Courtship of Eddie's Father, The Invaders, Mod Squad, Hawaii Five-O, The F.
B. I; the Virginian, a two-episode arc on the Ben Gazzara drama Run for Your Life. Multiple collaborations between Muldaur and Burt Reynolds began when Muldaur appeared in an episode of Hawk, a weekly procedural with Reynolds in the title role. Subsequently, they both guest-starred in a third-season episode of The F. B. I. and Muldaur turned in a memorable guest performance in an episode of Reynolds' series Dan August. In 1967, Muldaur guest-starred on the Gunsmoke episode "Fandango" with James Arness. An excerpt of that episode's dialogue was sampled on the Pink Floyd album The Wall, after "Hey You" and before the brief song "Is There Anybody Out There?"In 1968, she appeared in the original Star Trek episodes "Return to Tomorrow", in "Is There in Truth No Beauty?" as Dr. Miranda Jones. During this time, a friendship with creator Gene Roddenberry formed that led to him casting Muldaur as Marg in the television movie Planet Earth with John Saxon, she appeared as Dr. Katherine Pulaski in 20 episodes of the second season of Star Trek: The Next Generation.
Harold Robbins' The Survivors afforded Muldaur her first big break, when in 1969, she landed the role of Belle in the high-profile new ABC primetime serial. The soap, a comeback vehicle for Hollywood icon Lana Turner, was canceled early into the 1970 television season after 15 episodes; the cast included Ralph Bellamy and George Hamilton. After the cancellation of The Survivors, Muldaur accepted a bevy of critically acclaimed supporting roles in many high-profile motion pictures: She received critical acclaim for a pivotal supporting role in The Swimmer with Burt Lancaster, which she filmed prior to gaining renown in Star Trek and The Survivors. In actuality, her more substantial film roles during this time were those that garnered the most commercial success: Sidney J. Furie's The Lawyer, One More Train to Rob with George Peppard, the John Wayne crime drama McQ. Muldaur appeared in the ensemble-apocalypse thriller Chosen Survivors with Jackie Cooper, Richard Jaeckel and Barbara Babcock. In 1977, she played Elaine Mati, the concerned wife of mentally-unstable doctor Telly Savalas in the independent film Beyond Reason.
Muldaur guest starred in a first-season episode of Alias Smith and Jones, "The Great Shell Game" in 1971. In the second season of Kung Fu in 1973, opposite David Carradine, she guest-starred in the episode "The Elixir" playing a traveling show-woman who yearned for freedom from men—topical at the time—and starred in the pilot episode of Charlie's Angels. In a 1972 Hawaii Five-O episode she was guest star along with Ricardo Montalban, she had a recurring role as Judge Eleanor Hooper on The Tony Randall Show during the show's 1976–1978 run, was a guest star in season 2 of Fantasy Island. Muldaur guest-starred on The Incredible Hulk, playing the part of Helen Banner, David Banner's sister, in the Season 3, episode "Homecoming" in November 1979. In 1981, she played a nun in the fifth-season episode "Sanctuary". In 1975, she made a guest appearance in an episode of The Rockford Files as "Mrs. Bannister", a woman who has an affair with a former cellmate of the series' title character. During this time, Muldaur appeared on Police Woman, Quincy M.
E. The Streets of San Francisco, The Love Boat, The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries and Hart to Hart, among others, she appeared in the first season of Angela Lansbury's Murder, She Wrote. During the seven season course of the show, Muldaur had a recurring role on the Dennis Weaver mystery anthology McCloud as dependable fan-favorite Chris Couglin, her character is introduced in the pilot episode in 1970 and makes her last of 16 appearances in April 1977. She reprised her role as Chris for the 1989 reunion movie The Return of Sam McCloud. Muldaur was cast as conservationist Joy Adamson in the television drama Born Free about Elsa the Lioness. Filming for the ambitious project, which co-starred Gary Collins, took place in Kenya and the NBC series, which debuted in Fall of 1974, lasted one season; the series was released on DVD in 2012 by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Guest stars on Born Free included Peter Lawford and several of Muldaur's future co-stars, including: Alex Cord and Susan Dey. In 1979, Muldaur starred with David Huddleston in the short-live
Symbiosis is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic. The organisms, each termed a symbiont, may be of different species. In 1879, Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms"; the term was subject to a century-long debate about whether it should denote mutualism, as in lichens. Symbiosis can be obligatory, which means that one or both of the symbionts depend on each other for survival, or facultative when they can live independently. Symbiosis is classified by physical attachment; when one organism lives on the surface of another, such as head lice on humans, it is called ectosymbiosis. The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for 130 years. In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the term symbiosis to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms".
The definition has varied among scientists, with some advocating that it should only refer to persistent mutualisms, while others thought it should apply to all persistent biological interactions, in other words mutualisms, commensalism, or parasitism, but excluding brief interactions such as predation. Current biology and ecology textbooks use the latter "de Bary" definition, or an broader one where symbiosis means all interspecific interactions. In 1949, Edward Haskell proposed an integrative approach, proposing a classification of "co-actions" adopted by biologists as "interactions". Biological interactions can involve individuals of the same species or individuals of different species; these can be further classified by either the mechanism of the interaction or the strength and direction of their effects. Relationships can be obligate, meaning that one or both of the symbionts depend on each other for survival. For example, in lichens, which consist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts, the fungal partners cannot live on their own.
The algal or cyanobacterial symbionts in lichens, such as Trentepohlia, can live independently, their symbiosis is, facultative. Endosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont lives within the tissues of the other, either within the cells or extracellularly. Examples include diverse microbiomes, nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules on legume roots. Ectosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands. Examples of this include ectoparasites such as lice. Competition can be defined as an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limited supply of at least one resource used by both facilitates this type of interaction, although the competition may exist over other'amenities', such as females for reproduction. Mutualism or interspecies reciprocal altruism is a long-term relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals benefit.
Mutualistic relationships may be either obligate for both species, obligate for one but facultative for the other, or facultative for both. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora to help them digest plant matter, more difficult to digest than animal prey; this gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines. Coral reefs are the result of mutualisms between coral organisms and various types of algae which live inside them. Most land plants and land ecosystems rely on mutualisms between the plants, which fix carbon from the air, mycorrhyzal fungi, which help in extracting water and minerals from the ground. An example of mutualism is the relationship between the ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones; the territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators. A special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles.
A further example is a fish which sometimes lives together with a shrimp. The shrimp cleans up a burrow in the sand in which both the shrimp and the goby fish live; the shrimp is blind, leaving it vulnerable to predators when outside its burrow. In case of danger, the goby touches the shrimp with its tail to warn it; when that happens both the shrimp and goby retreat into the burrow. Different species of gobies clean up ectoparasites in other fish another kind of mutualism. A non-obligate symbiosis is seen in encru