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Gateshead

Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge; the town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's population in 2011 was 120,046. Part of County Durham, under the Local Government Act 1888 the town was made a county borough, meaning it was administered independently of the county council. Since 1974, the town has been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead within the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Gateshead is first mentioned in Latin translation in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People as ad caput caprae; this interpretation is consistent with the English attestations of the name, among them Gatesheued "goat's head" but in the context of a place-name meaning'headland or hill frequented by goats'.

Although other derivations have been mooted, it is this, given by the standard authorities. A Brittonic predecessor, named with the element *gabro-,'goat', may underlie the name. Gateshead might have been the Roman-British fort of Gabrosentum. There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge now stands, since Roman times; the first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable Bede who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623. In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm king of Scotland on Gateshead Fell. During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was forest with some agricultural land; the forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham. An alternative spelling may be "Gatishevede", as seen in a legal record, dated 1430; the earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344.

As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680; the pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams. William Hawks a blacksmith, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between'Hawks' Blacks' and'Crowley's Crew'; the famous ` Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie story. Throughout the Industrial Revolution the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly.

This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town. In 1854, a catastrophic explosion on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's medieval heritage, caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river. Robert Stirling Newall took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted; the submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta-percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover–Calais cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, his giant 25-inch telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence, in 1871. In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway part of the York and Berwick Railway.

In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932. Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead from 1869 to 1883, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb; the house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light. In 1870, the old town hall was built, designed by John Johnstone who designed the previously-built Newcastle town hall; the ornamental clock in front of the old town hall was presented to Gateshead in 1892 by the mayor, Walter de Lancey Willson, on the occasion of him being elected for a third time. He was one of the founders of Walter Willson's, a chain of grocers in the North East and Cumbria; the old town hall served as a magistrate's court and one of Gateshead's police stations. In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough and in 1889 it was made a county borough, independent from Durham County Council.

In the same year, one of the largest employers, Hawks and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work; the depres

Buzád Hahót

Buzád II Hahót, O. P. was the first known Ban of Severin. He gave up his position in society and entered the Dominican Order. Buzád was killed during a Mongol invasion of his homeland, is now honored as a martyr by the Catholic Church, for which he has been beatified, they are sprung from the counts of Orlamund. The first to come was called Hadolch, whose son was called by the like name of Hadolch and Arnold. From them sprang Banus Buzad; the people of this country could not pronounce Hadolch, so he was called by the similar name of Hohold. Buzád was born into the Buzád branch of the Hahót clan, the son of Buzád I. According to magister Ákos, the founder of the Hahót kindred was Buzád's grandfather, a certain German knight Hahold I, who himself was a descendant of the Counts of Weimar-Orlamünde and settled down in the Kingdom of Hungary in 1163 upon the invitation of Stephen III of Hungary to fight against his usurper uncle Stephen IV of Hungary and his allies, the Csáks. Buzád's brother was Arnold I.

Buzád had four sons from his unidentified wife: Buzád III, Csák I, Voivode of Transylvania and Lancelot. According to a non-authentic charter, Buzád served as the Ispán of Győr County in 1209. There is no record of him receiving any official positions for the coming two decades, he functioned as the Ispán of Bihar County in 1222. After that he was the head of Pozsony County between 1222 and 1224. During that time there were emerging tensions between his son, Béla; the latter rebelled against his father's rule. Buzád became a supporter of Béla, as a result of which he had to follow his lord into exile to Austria in 1223. After reconciliation between father and son, he returned to Hungary and became the Ispán of Vas County in 1225. Buzád served as the Ban of Severin from 1226 to c. 1232, when Béla governed Transylvania de facto independently from the king, holding the title of Duke of Transylvania. In 1233, he called himself "former ban" in a charter, as a result former archontological and genealogical works of Hungarian historians referred to him as the Ban of Slavonia it is more that Buzád held the office of Ban of Severin, because of his close relationship with Béla, there is reason to believe he came into contact during that period with the Dominican friars, who were engaged in proselytizing among the Cuman people.

Buzád served as Ispán of Sopron County in 1232, for this reason historian Attila Zsoldos considered he left Béla's court to return Andrew's loyalty by that year. Buzád came from the most powerful Bánfi family in Hungary, he had grown up when he was trespassing his riches and fame, he left his rank on his sons, with great enthusiasm he commenced a monastic life in the Dominican order. As he gained experience in secular sciences, he soon became a tireless propagator of God's Word; when the Tartars broke into Hungary, they perished the servants of God with exceptional cruelty, the Prior commanded their monks to flee, but Buzád did not care about the threat to his life, asking him to let stay and console the Christian people. He was so persistently asking for his permission. After his companions were in safe, Buzád set out to die for Christ and encouraged the people to do the same; when the Tatars' troops were nearby, the handful of flocks were blessed with glorious intentions of the glorious death endured for Christ.

He himself in the church, as if in a crucifixion, prayed with prowess at the altar. So he offered himself for an burnt sacrifice, he was killed on 8 December 1243. After the barbarians retreated, the returning brothers found his beheaded corpse, pierced with spears, they mourned him very. One brother had mourned Buzád for three days, while he did not take food and drink, when he was astonished, heard the mourned martyr say to him, "Did not Christ had to suffer before entering his glory? The sufferings of the present time are not proportionate to the future glory; the brother rejoiced. Around 1233, Buzád joined the Dominican Order, giving up his political career and forsaking all property; as a charter dated 14 February 1233 mentioned, he lived in a monastery at Pest. His eldest son Buzád III inherited his main estate and centre Szabar. According to tradition narrated by a contemporary chronicler Thomas of Cantimpré, not willing to leave the monastery, the invading Mongols killed Buzád before the altar in the middle of April 1241, shortly after the disastrous Battle of Mohi.

Buzád was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church because of his self-sacrifice. The narration of his martyrdom was preserved by Jesuit scholar and theologian Gábor Hevenesi at the end of the 17th century in his work Ungaricae Sanctitatis Indicia. In honor of Hahót, a wooden sculpture was erected in 2009 at Hahót, Zala County, which village was founded by his clan; the lifesize statue depicts the noble, with one hand holding a sword and a Latin cross in the other, referring to his secular and ecclesiastical careers. László Vigh, a member of the Hungarian National Assembly, gave a speech during consecration, where he said the youth should follow persons who lived out their lives with God's love and honest work, instead of false role models. Markó, László. A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig – Életrajzi Lexikon ("The High Officers of the Hungarian State from Saint Stephen

Lecce Cathedral

Lecce Cathedral is the cathedral of the city of Lecce in Apulia, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Lecce; the cathedral was first built in 1144, but underwent repairs in 1230. It was rebuilt in 1659 by the architect Giuseppe Zimbalo by order of bishop Luigi Pappacoda, whose remains are kept in the altar dedicated to Saint Orontius of Lecce, the patron saint of the city; the cathedral is located in the center of the city of Lecce and sits on the southeast corner of the Piazza del Duomo. It is accessible from the piazza through two entrances, one on the north side of the building and another on the west side; the cathedral shares the piazza with other buildings, including the bell tower, the bishop's residence, the seminary. The principal entrance is found on the northern façade, considered to be a masterpiece of Baroque art. At the center is the portal, accessible by a cascading staircase. Flanking the portal are two massive columns on square bases, outside of which are niches containing statues of Saint Giusto and Saint Fortunato.

The entablature, sitting directly above the portal, is crowned by a high balustrade alternating with columns and pilasters, above which, in the center and standing within a grand and decorated arch, is a statue of Saint Orontius. The western entrance, found directly across from the archbishop’s residence, is divided by fluted pilasters into three vertical sections corresponding to the three naves of the interior. Stautes of Peter and Paul flank the entrance. Part of the right side of the façade is covered by an adjacent diocesan building; the cathedral has a Latin cross plan with three naves divided by pilasters and columns, the main altar is placed at the eastern end of the church. The central nave and the transepts are covered by a wooden ceiling with coffers created in 1685 along with paintings by Giuseppe da Brindisi which show: the Preaching of Saint Orontius, the Protection from the Plague, the Martyrdom of Saint Orontius, the Last Supper; the cathedral contains twelve side chapels, each with its own altar.

The side chapels are dedicated to: John the Baptist Nativity of Jesus which contains a 16th-century creche the martyrdom of Saint Giusto Saint Anthony of Padua the Immaculate Conception Saint Philip Romolo Neri the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Blessed Sacrament Saint Orontius of Lecce Our Lady of Sorrows Saint Giusto Saint Charles Borromeo Saint Andrew the Apostle They are pictorally rich with images by talented artists including Giuseppe da Brindisi, Oronzo Tiso, Gianserio Strafella, G. Domenico Catalano and G. A. Coppola; the main altar is made of marble and gold-plated bronze, was constructed by bishop Sersale. It was consecrated in 1757 by bishop Sozi Carafa, who commissioned the large central painting, the Assumption of Mary by Oronzo Tiso as well as the two lateral images of the Sacrifice of the Prophet Elias and the Sacrifice of Noah after the Flood; the choir stalls and bishop's chair, made of walnut, were designed by Emanuele Manieri and were commissioned by bishop Fabrizio Pignatelli in 1797.

The 12th century cathedral crypt underwent Baroque modifications in the 16th century. It has a longitudinal space that contains two Baroque chapels with paintings, crossed by a long corridor consisting of ninety-two columns with capitals decorated with human figures; the bell tower was constructed in 1661-1662 by Lecce architect Giuseppe Zimbalo at the request of bishop Luigi Pappacoda. It was built to replace the previous Norman bell tower, erected by Goffredo d'Altavilla, which crumbled at the beginning of the 17th century, it has a square shape and appears to be made up of five tapered levels, the last of, surmounted by an octagonal majolica dome, on which there is an iron statue of Sant'Oronzo. The top four floors have a single window on each side, each has a balustrade going around its perimeter. Engraved on plaques located over the mullioned windows are Latin inscriptions taken from the writings of Giovanni Lecce Camillo Palma. At a height of 72 meters, the bell tower offers views of the Adriatic Sea, on clear days the mountains of Albania are visible.

It leans due to a sunken foundation. Lecce elegia del Barocco, Michele Paone, Congedo Editore, Galatina 1999 Diocese of Lecce official website Inizio di un VirtualTour in QuickTime with written descriptions Panorama of the campanile before restoration Panorama of the cathedral entrance