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Gateway Arch

The Gateway Arch is a 630-foot monument in St. Louis, United States. Clad in stainless steel and built in the form of a weighted catenary arch, it is the world's tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, Missouri's tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, dedicated to "the American people," the Arch referred to as "The Gateway to the West" is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Park and has become an internationally recognized symbol of St. Louis, as well as a popular tourist destination; the Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967, it is located at the site of St. Louis's founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Around late 1933, civic leader Luther Ely Smith, returning to St. Louis from the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Vincennes, saw the St. Louis riverfront area and envisioned that building a memorial there would both revive the riverfront and stimulate the economy He communicated his idea to mayor Bernard Dickmann, who on December 15, 1933, raised it in a meeting with city leaders.

They sanctioned the proposal, the nonprofit Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association was formed. Smith was appointed chairman and Dickmann vice chairman; the association's goal was to create: A suitable and permanent public memorial to the men who made possible the western territorial expansion of the United States President Jefferson, his aides Livingston and Monroe, the great explorers and Clark, the hardy hunters, trappers and pioneers who contributed to the territorial expansion and development of these United States, thereby to bring before the public of this and future generations the history of our development and induce familiarity with the patriotic accomplishments of these great builders of our country. Many locals did not approve of depleting public funds for the cause. Smith's daughter SaLees related that when "people would tell him we needed more practical things", he would respond that "spiritual things" were important; the association expected that $30 million would be needed to undertake the construction of such a monument.

It called upon the federal government to foot three-quarters of the bill. The suggestion to renew the riverfront was not original, as previous projects were attempted but lacked popularity; the Jefferson memorial idea emerged amid the economic disarray of the Great Depression and promised new jobs. The project was expected to create 5,000 jobs for three to four years. Committee members began to raise public awareness by writing pamphlets, they engaged Congress by planning budgets and preparing bills, in addition to researching ownership of the land they had chosen, "approximately one-half mile in length... from Third Street east to the present elevated railroad." In January 1934, Senator Bennett Champ Clark and Representative John Cochran introduced to Congress an appropriation bill seeking $30 million for the memorial, but the bill failed to garner support due to the large amount of money solicited. In March of the same year, joint resolutions proposed the establishment of a federal commission to develop the memorial.

Although the proposal aimed for only authorization, the bill incurred opposition because people suspected that JNEMA would seek appropriation. On March 28 the Senate bill was reported out, on April 5 it was turned over to the House Library Committee, which reported favorably on the bills. On June 8, both the Senate and House bills were passed. On June 15, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the bill into law, instituting the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission; the commission comprised 15 members, chosen by Roosevelt, the House, the Senate, JNEMA. It first convened on December 19 in St. Louis, where members examined the project and its planned location. Meanwhile, in December, the JNEMA discussed organizing an architectural competition to determine the design of the monument. Local architect Louis LeBeaume had drawn up competition guidelines by January 1935. On April 13, 1935, the commission certified JNEMA's project proposals, including memorial perimeters, the "historical significance" of the memorial, the competition, the $30 million budget.

Between February and April, the Missouri State Legislature passed an act allowing the use of bonds to facilitate the project. On April 15 Governor Guy B. Park signed it into law. Dickmann and Smith applied for funding from two New Deal agencies—the Public Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration. On August 7, both Ickes and Hopkins assented to the funding requests, each promising $10 million, said that the National Park Service would manage the memorial. A local bond issue election granting $7.5 million for the memorial's development was held on September 10 and passed. On December 21, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 7253 to approve the memorial, allocating the 82-acre area as the first National Historic Site; the order appropriated $3.3 million through the WPA and $3.45 million through the PWA. The motivation of the project was two-fold—commemorating westward expansion and creating jobs; some taxpayers began to file suits to block the construction of the monument, which they called a "boondoggle".

Using the 1935 grant of $6.75 million and $2.25 million in city bonds, the NPS acquired the buildings withi

A482 road

The A482 road is a major link in Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, connecting Aberaeron on the coast and the A40 road at Llanwrda near Llandovery and is 29 miles in length. The road from Aberaeron to Lampeter was styled the B4340. By 1927, it had been upgraded to the A4115. In 1935, during a widespread revision of road numbering, the Newcastle Emlyn to Lampeter road became the A475 and the number A482 was allotted to the Aberaeron to Lampeter road. At the eastern end of the road, the original terminus was with the A481 in Landovery, half a mile from where that road joins the A40; this changed with the 1936 revision and the eastern terminus of the A482 was rerouted to Llanwrda. The road is orientated from northwest to southeast; the northwesterly terminus is at Aberaeron on the coast of Cardigan Bay, where it branches off the A487. This stretch of road is in pleasant countryside in the Aeron Valley, it passes the Grade 1 listed manor house of Llanerchaeron near Ciliau Aeron, the B4339 branches off to the right and the A482 continues on to the village of Ystrad Aeron where the B4342 branches off to the right.

It continues through the village of Temple Bar, Ceredigion after which it enters Lampeter and is joined by the A485 Tregaron road. Within a few hundred metres the A475 Cardigan, Ceredigion road branches off to the right and just south of the town the A482 crosses the River Teifi and enters Carmarthenshire and the A485 Carmarthen road branches off to the right. Still travelling southeastwards, the A482 climbs to higher elevations and passes through grasslands and wooded areas, it crosses the River Cothi at Pumsaint and continues winding through rural scenery to join the A40 at Llanwrda. British road numbering scheme A482 at SABRE

Hundred-Dollar Baby

Hundred-Dollar Baby is the 34th Spenser novel by Robert B. Parker; the novel was alternatively titled, Dream Girl ISBN 1-84243-186-2. The story follows Boston-based PI Spenser as he tries to help an old runaway prostitute he helped several years earlier, April Kyle. April Kyle appears in Spenser's office after several years without any contact. She's been put in charge of a new upscale brothel by the madame Patricia Utley, she says. Thugs scare off her customers. Spenser and Hawk manage to fend off the thugs, but things are not as they seem as soon as Spenser starts asking questions. April begs him to stop investigating, Spenser being Spenser, can't stop until he unravels the mystery. What surfaces is a web of deceit and the fragile psyche of April Kyle. Spenser Hawk April Kyle Dr. Susan Silverman, Ph. D Cpt. Martin Quirk, Boston Police Department Sgt. Frank Belson, Boston Police Department Teddy Sapp Patricia Utley Tony Marcus Leonard Ty-Bop Junior Page on the book from Parker's official website