The Flats is a mixed-use industrial and residential area of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The name reflects its low-lying topography on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. In 1796, Moses Cleaveland and his survey party landed on the banks of the Cuyahoga upon their arrival from Connecticut. Early settlers included Lorenzo Carter, whose land holdings included much of what makes up today's East Bank entertainment district, including Whiskey Island, created when the mouth of the river was straightened by the Corps of Engineers. A log cabin on Merwin Road near Center Street on the East Bank is a recreation of Carter's house, further upstream. Early residents found the Flats inhospitable, with humid summers that brought airborne illness and harsh winters with strong winds and snowfall off Lake Erie. Many took to higher ground in current-day Downtown; these settlers relied on local Native American residents who lived on the West Bank and were more adept at living in the area. Cleveland developed until the arrival of the Ohio and Erie Canal, which brought a trade route from the Ohio River and other southern Ohio cities.
The Irish immigrant workforce that built the canal took residence on the West Bank of the Flats and neighboring Ohio City. Ohio City's rise, fueled by the produce that flowed from Medina County farms along U. S. 42 to the West Side Market, was soon viewed as a threat to Cleveland's development. In response, Cleveland destroyed its half of a floating bridge at Main Street, the sole river crossing. Cleveland built a new bridge further downstream which connected Cleveland Mayor John W. Willey and developer/friend Jas Clark's "Willeyville" and "Cleveland Centre" developments along the newly constructed Columbus Road; the new bridge diverted the produce trade from the West Side Market to the new Central Market. Infuriated Ohio City residents, rallying with the cry of "Two bridges or none," marched on the new bridge with guns and other tools, they met a mob of Cleveland residents ready to fight. The courts forced Cleveland to rebuild its half of the Main Street Bridge, but the damage had been done, Ohio City soon became the first area to be annexed by the larger city.
A recession in the mid-19th century caused the Cleveland Centre mixed commercial and residential plan to collapse, the land was purchased by industrialists connected to the canal and growing railroad lines. By this time, the Flats had become known as an unsavory place; the cities' poor Irish lived along the West Bank in the "Irish Ghetto" near the intersection of Columbus, Carter and Riverbed Roads. Shipmen would find services at establishments like the "Flat Iron", the oldest Irish Bar in the Flats, a four-story cafeteria and inn. Lumberyards lined the river with freshly cut wood waiting to be shipped. John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company on the East Bank was putting Cleveland on the map as an industrial power as the refineries were leaking oil into the Cuyahoga River; the Flats' industrial legacy, would be defined by its steel mills, located along the river south of the Tremont neighborhood and west of the Slavic Village. The mills were the largest consumer of water and electricity; the names have changed over the years, from J&L, to LTV to ISG to today's Mittal.
Post-war recessions and production shifts to China and Europe hit the steel industry hard. Layoffs in the late 1970s forced many to support from welfare programs. During this time, along with other industrial cities in the region like Youngstown, Pittsburgh and Gary, had become known as the Rust Belt. LTV's repeated bankruptcies led to the closing their plants in 2000, until investors formed ISG and resumed scaled-back operations; the story was similar downstream. Over the second half of the 20th century, much of the industry and manufacturing in the Flats closed, leaving decaying buildings and persistent pollution; the chemical-clotted Cuyahoga River caught fire several times. S. Environmental Protection Agencies. In the mid-1980s, the Flats saw a resurgence as an entertainment destination, a focal point of the renewed attention given to Cleveland's deteriorating downtown. Underground music venues appeared on the East Bank, while mainstream development first took place on the West Bank; the Powerhouse, built to power the city's cable cars, was renovated to include multiple bars, an outdoor music venue.
Other warehouses and buildings were renovated into nightlife destinations. At its peak in the early 1990s, the Flats had the highest concentration of bars in the Midwest, with both locally owned bars and national restaurant chains lining both sides of the river from the mouth to the Oxbow bend; the Flats and Cleveland had soon become an entertainment destination for the region. The Flats Oxbow Association was formed to help redevelop the Flats, housing development soon followed on both sides of the river, with new construction and warehouses being converted into condominiums and apartments; the Flats' 20th century heyday as an entertainment destination was short-lived. Three drowning deaths in one month in 2000, along with a city crackdown on fire and health code violations led to the closing of many bars. Patrons becoming scared off due to safety concerns led to a sharp decrease in business. While this was a boon for the re
Bicycle parking station
A bicycle parking station is a building or structure designed for use as a bicycle parking facility. Such a facility can be as simple as a lockable bike cage or shed or as complex as a purpose-built multi-level building: the common purpose is that they provide secure bicycle parking. Bicycle parking stations go by names such as bike stations, bicycle centers and cycle centers, among many others. Bicycle parking stations can offer additional facilities such as bicycle repairs, customer facilities such as showers or lockers; some are staffed. Some require users to join as members while others are on a per use basis or free of charge; some are based at railway stations to facilitate "bike and ride" multi-modal transport, while others are situated at the end of the commute and as such are located in town or city centres and workplaces. Advanced bicycle parking station provide protection from weather and vandalism not only for the vehicle but for the helmets and other personal belongings. In order to use less floor space, they store the vehicles vertically, either in a kind of towers or under the floor in shafts.
It is important that the access time is short if several users want to store or transfer their bicycles at the same time. Bicycle parking stations are operated by local governments or municipalities or they can be private businesses run by bike shops or non-profit bicycle advocacy organizations. More than half of them in the U. S. are operated by Bikestation. Some are automated. A bicycle parking station always has the following basic attributes: indoor or sheltered bike parking, bicycle parking racks to lock bicycles to, they can additionally have any of the following. Security: In terms of secure access to prevent theft or vandalism, a bike station could have: on-site staff during the day, a gate or door secured by key or by electronic card access. Customer facilities: For the customer there may be additional services, such as: lockers, changing rooms, showers and toilets, drinking fountains, food and/or beverages via vending machine information available, such as pamphlets/brochures for bicycle safety and other literature,e.g. about cycling routes or nearby points of interest.
Some may provide classes, e.g. bike maintenance or local area knowledge. Bike services: Some bike stations have staff who are able to carry out simple or complex repairs for a fee; this is handy for commuters who can leave their bike there in the morning and pick it up repaired at the end of the day when on the way home. Regardless of whether repairs are available at a station or not, the station may provide: parts and accessories for sale air pump for self-repair of flat tyres bicycle rental. Business models: As for pricing, bike stations can be free-of-charge, pay per use or by membership/subscription only, or indeed by any other financial model. To reiterate, bicycle parking stations can be: a user pays service: In this case stations cost money to use, either through daily, monthly payments or through periodic memberships. A free-of-charge service. In this case the bike stations are fully paid for by the local municipality, local regional government, or by the operating company anything in between: For example, some small charge may be required from the end-user but the bulk of the operating costs are paid for by the municipality.
The following is a list of selected bicycle parking stations located in several countries around the world at train stations. Australia Melbourne, Victoria - As of April 2014 there are 60 Parkiteer bicycle cages spread throughout Melbourne's 216 suburban railway stations and a further 11 Parkiteer cages at regional V/Line stations across the state of Victoria; these cages are accessible via registered swipe card only and most have bike racks for 26 bicycles each, though some have additional capacity. Brisbane, Queensland cycle2city, located at King George Square busway station in the CBD RBWH Cycle Centre, located at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital in Herston Europe Belgium Ghent, Gent-Sint-Pieters railway station, for 13,500 bikes. Germany Düren Münster, Radstation Netherlands Amsterdam The Hague Den Bosch Rotterdam Utrecht. New bicycle parking to be constructed from 2014-2018, for 12,500 bikes, costing € 48 million. Spain Blanes - Biceberg system at the bus station. Huesca - Biceberg system on Av de Juan XXIII.
Vitoria - Biceberg system at Club Deportivo Mendizorrotza, Vitoria-Gasteiz. Zaragoza - Biceberg system. United Kingdom Greater Manchester - Transport for Greater Manchester has developed several Cycle Hubs. North America Bikestation: Long Beach, Claremont, Santa Barbara, Palo Alto, CA, Washington DC, Seattle WA. Chicago, Illinois - The McDonald's Cycle Center in Millennium Park. St. Louis, Missouri - Located downtown at 10th & Locust. South America Mauá, a suburb southwest of São Paulo, Brazil at the Mauá railway station on Line 10 of the CPTM. Video of the bike station on Streetfilms; this bicicletário is operated by Assoçiâo dos Condutores de Bicicletas. The bike station in Washington, D. C. opened in 2009 and cost 4 million US dollars for 1,700 square feet of space and storage for 150 bicycles. The King George Square Cycle Centre in Brisbane, Queensland opened in June 2008
In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices. This link may be an actual physical link or it may be a logical link that uses one or more physical links or shares a physical link with other telecommunications links. A telecommunications link is one of several types of information transmission paths such as those provided by communication satellites, terrestrial radio communications infrastructure and computer networks to connect two or more points; the term link is used in computer networking to refer to the communications facilities that connect nodes of a network. When the link is a logical link the type of physical link should always be specified A point-to-point link is a dedicated link that connects two communication facilities. Broadcast links connect two or more nodes and support broadcast transmission, where one node can transmit so that all other nodes can receive the same transmission. Ethernet is an example. Known as a multidrop link, a multipoint link is a link that connects two or more nodes.
Known as general topology networks, these include ATM and Frame Relay links, as well as X.25 networks when used as links for a network layer protocol like IP. Unlike broadcast links, there is no mechanism to efficiently send a single message to all other nodes without copying and retransmitting the message. A point-to-multipoint link is a specific type of multipoint link which consists of a central connection endpoint, connected to multiple peripheral CEs. Any transmission of data that originates from the central CE is received by all of the peripheral CEs while any transmission of data that originates from any of the peripheral CEs is only received by the central CE. Links are referred to by terms which refer to the ownership and / or accessibility of the link. A private link is a link, either owned by a specific entity or a link, only accessible by a specific entity. A public link is a link that uses the public switched telephone network or other public utility or entity to provide the link and which may be accessible by anyone.
Pertaining to radiocommunication service, an uplink is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from an earth station to a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station. Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the mobile station to a base station. Traffic and signalling flowing within the BSS and NSS may be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to computer networks, an uplink is a connection from data communications equipment toward the network core; this is known as an upstream connection. Pertaining to radiocommunication service, a downlink is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station to an earth station. In the context of satellite communications, a downlink is the link from a satellite to a ground station. Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a cell site to the cell phone.
Traffic and signalling flowing within the base station subsystem and network switching subsystem may be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to computer networks, a downlink is a connection from data communications equipment towards data terminal equipment; this is known as a downstream connection. A forward link is the link from a fixed location to a mobile user. If the link includes a communications relay satellite, the forward link will consist of both an uplink and a downlink; the reverse link is the link from a mobile user to a fixed base station. If the link includes a communications relay satellite, the reverse link will consist of both an uplink and a downlink which together constitute a half hop. Data transmission Telecommunications network This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C"; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Defense document "Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms"
Richard Frank "Dick" Celeste is an American former diplomat, university administrator and politician from Ohio, he is a member of the Democratic Party and served as the 64th Governor of Ohio from 1983 to 1991. Celeste was born in Cleveland and grew up in Lakewood, graduating from Lakewood High School in 1955. In 1959, he graduated magna cum laude from Yale University. Celeste received a Rhodes Scholarship to attend Exeter College at Oxford University, where he is an Honorary Fellow. There he met Dagmar Ingrid Braun, whom he married in Austria in 1962. After returning to the United States, Celeste served as staff liaison office in the Peace Corps and as special assistant to Chester Bowles. Celeste was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives from Cuyahoga County in 1970, his Ohio House District included western Cleveland and Lakewood, where his father Frank, had once served as mayor. He was subsequently elected the 55th Lieutenant Governor in 1974. In 1978, Celeste lost to incumbent Rhodes. President Carter appointed Celeste Director of the Peace Corps from 1979 to 1981, where he was responsible for programs in 53 countries.
In 1982, Celeste defeated Attorney General William J. Brown and former Cincinnati Mayor Jerry Springer in the primary, the Republican candidate Clarence J. "Bud" Brown Jr. to become governor of Ohio. In 1986, Celeste was re-elected, defeating the Republican candidate, former governor James Rhodes who had served four prior terms, thus Celeste served as governor of Ohio from 1983 to 1991. In 1988 he served as the Chairman of the Midwestern Governors Association; as governor, Celeste increased support for human services, mental health & addiction recovery services, funding for education and children services including providing onsite daycare for state employees. Before the Celeste era, Ohio ranked near the bottom among states in funding for these programs. Celeste and the Democratic-controlled legislature increased the state income tax by 40% while retaining a temporary tax of 50% instituted by the Republican predecessors. Celeste is noted for opening many government positions to African Americans and women—he hired more women to cabinet positions than all previous governors combined.
Celeste allowed state employee unions to negotiate wages and benefits, rather than just working conditions. At the end of his last term he commuted several Ohio prisoners death sentences to life terms. Among them was Debra Brown's along with the sentences of most alleged battered women serving sentences at Marysville state prison for murdering their alleged aggressors, he commuted Donald Lee Maurer to life in prison. Maurer had been convicted of raping and killing his 8 year old Massillon neighbor Dawn Marie Hendershot in the early 1980s, he opposed nuclear power in Ohio over evacuation plans. Under the Celestes, the Governor's art exhibits, chamber music concerts and First Lady's spiritual retreats and theology gatherings as well as Christmas and Hanukkah parties for neighborhood kids became regular seasonal events; the Residence Gardens the rose garden, one of the oldest in the nation, were reconstituted and The Friends of the Residence were formed, with Les Wexner as their first president, to help raise private funds to defray the cost of those improvements.
Celeste established the consulting firm Celeste & Sabety Ltd. in Columbus. After he served as the director of the DNC's healthcare campaign in 1993, President Clinton appointed him as United States Ambassador to India, a position he served in from 1997 to 2001. Celeste is a member of the advisory board of the Roosevelt Institution, a student think tank, he is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Celeste, along with Thomas Kean who co-chaired the 9/11 Commission, co-chairs the Homeland Security Project for The Century Foundation, he sits on the board of the Independent Strategic Assessment Group, United States Northern Command, the military command over the USA established in the wake of the attacks of September 11. Celeste joined the board of Directors of Glimcher Realty Trust in September 2007. Celeste has been a member of the CHF International Board of Trustees since January 2012, he is on the board of directors for Battelle for Kids, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to moving education forward for students by supporting the educators who work with them every day.
Celeste was inaugurated as the 12th President of Colorado College in 2002. During his tenure as president, Celeste raised $200 million for such things as capital improvements and scholarships to help disadvantaged and minority students, his other accomplishments included Addition of 20 tenure-track faculty positions, a large increase in the size of the student applicant pool, from 3,533 in 2003 to 4,455 in 2010, an increase in selectivity, with 55.9 percent of applicants accepted in 2003 to 33.3 percent accepted in 2010. Celeste oversaw major renovations of campus buildings, including Palmer Hall, Cossitt Hall and Packard Hall. In 2004, a Jewish group upset called for Celeste's resignation after he invited a high-profile Palestinian to give a lecture. Celeste was known for bringing the college together, he was the president of the Colorado Springs Downtown Partnership, the Colorado Economics Future Panel, the NCAA Presidential Task Force on the Future of Intercollegiate Athletics, the Colorado Forum, which tackles pub
James M. Petro is an American politician from the Republican Party, a former Ohio Attorney General. Petro served as Ohio State Auditor. Petro was a candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor of Ohio during the 2006 Ohio primaries, but lost to Ken Blackwell. Petro was born October 1948 in Brooklyn, Ohio. A Brooklyn High School graduate, he attended Denison University in Granville, Ohio where he received his Bachelor of Arts degree and joined the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity, he earned his J. D. degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Law in Cleveland, Ohio. Petro served as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney for Franklin County as a trial lawyer responsible for felony prosecutions, as Assistant Director of Law for the city of Cleveland, Ohio. After starting his private practice, Petro became prosecuting attorney for the city of Rocky River, Ohio. Petro began his political career in 1977 when he was elected to the Rocky River city council, served as the director of the city. In 1980, he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives.
He served four years as a state representative. In 1991, Petro became County Commissioner for Cuyahoga County. Petro was elected Ohio Auditor in 1994 and re-elected in 1998, serving two terms from 1995 to 2003; as Auditor he served as the chief supervisor of public offices in the state. In November 2002, Petro was elected the Ohio attorney general, serving from 2003 to 2007. In 2005, Petro became the first Ohio attorney general to argue a case in front of the United States Supreme Court in over thirty years; as Ohio's Attorney General he defended the law banning late term abortions in the state. As attorney general, Petro launched an effort that added 210,000 criminal DNA profiles from Ohio to the national Combined DNA Index System. On January 30, 2006, Petro announced that Joy Padgett would be his running mate for the Governor's position. Padgett, a Republican state senator from Coshocton, was selected after Petro's first running mate, Hamilton County Commissioner Phil Heimlich, dropped out of the campaign to run for re-election as Commissioner of Hamilton County.
Petro was defeated in the May 2, 2006 primary by Ohio's then-Secretary of State. Petro became the first attorney general in the country to intervene in a case spearheaded by the Innocence Project, a non-profit legal clinic that pioneered the use of DNA testing to prove wrongful conviction; the case exonerated Clarence Elkins, a family man with no prior criminal record, sentenced to life in prison for the murder of his mother-in-law. After his involvement in subsequent high-profile cases including Dean Gillispie. Petro and his wife Nancy co-authored "False Justice: Eight Myths that Convict the Innocent," which raises questions regarding the fairness of our justice system and identifies flaws in how police and prosecutors handle evidence in capital cases; the book examines how the authors believe DNA evidence has played a critical role in exonerating convicted people and highlight what the authors call the unreliability of eyewitness testimony. Petro was appointed chancellor of the Ohio Board of Regents in March 2011 by Governor John Kasich.
Chancellor Petro leads the University System of Ohio, one of the largest comprehensive systems of public higher education in the nation. The University System of Ohio bears the primary responsibility for raising Ohioans' educational attainment. Petro was named 2011 recipient of the Champion of Justice Award for Public Service by the Innocence Network. In 2010, Petro received with the Ohio Government Finance Officers Association Timothy I. Murphy Excellence in Government Award. Petro was selected "Ohio Super Lawyer" by Law & Politics magazine, he received a Legacy Award from the Ohio Assoc.of Chiefs of Police in 2005 & 2006. Petro, Jim. False Justice: Eight Myths That Convict the Innocent. Kaplan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60714-467-0
Arthur Bertram "Art" Modell was an American businessman and National Football League team owner. He owned the Cleveland Browns franchise for 35 years and established the Baltimore Ravens franchise, which he owned for nine years. Assuming control of the Browns franchise in 1961, Modell was a key figure in helping promote the NFL and was popular in Cleveland for his active role in the community and his efforts to improve the team. However, he made controversial actions during his ownership, which included the firing of Paul Brown, the franchise's first coach and namesake. In 1995, Modell faced widespread scorn in Cleveland when he attempted to relocate the Browns to Baltimore. While the Browns' namesake was able to remain in Cleveland, Modell retained the contracts of all Browns personnel and moved the franchise to Baltimore, forming the Ravens in 1996 as a nominal expansion team. Praised in Baltimore for returning football to the city after the departure of the Colts, Modell remains a controversial figure in Cleveland due to the relocation and, in particular, for his decision-making around the management of Cleveland Stadium and the construction of a replacement.
Modell was born to a Jewish family in New York. His father George was a wine sales manager who went bankrupt after the stock market crash of 1929 and died when Modell was 14. Modell attended New Utrecht High School. At the age of 15, Modell left high school to help support his family, his first job was cleaning the hulls of ships in a Brooklyn shipyard. In 1943, when he was 18, he joined the US Army Air Corps. After World War II, he enrolled in a New York City television school under the G. I. Bill. In 1947, he founded his own production company with a fellow student and in 1949, they produced one of the first daytime shows in the country, Market Melodies, dedicated to cooking and decorating. Modell sold the idea of his show to the Grand Union grocery store chain and Modell installed televisions, at his expense, in the aisles of the chain's stores where the show soon became popular. At the time few households had televisions so the store format was wildly successful. In 1954, using the lucrative Grand Union account as leverage, he was hired as a senior account executive at the advertising company L.
H. Hartman Co. in New York City becoming a partner. Formed after the Prohibition era, the L. H. Hartman was involved in liquor advertising. In 1958, Modell bought Gold Seal Vineyards Inc.. In 1960, L. H. Hartman was dissolved, Modell again used his Grand Union account to land a job as senior vice president at the advertising firm Kastor, Chesley, Clifford & Atherton. During the 1940s and 1950s, Modell worked in the advertising, public relations businesses and television production in New York City, he purchased the Cleveland Browns in 1961 for $4 million. He found partners to cover the rest. Unlike the Browns' previous owners, Modell took an active role in the management of the team, fired legendary coach Paul Brown on January 9, 1963. Paul Brown had won seven league championships prior to Modell's acquisition of the team. After firing Brown, Modell named Brown's assistant, Blanton Collier, as the new coach on January 16, 1963. After three non-playoff seasons, the 1964 Browns' team would finish 10–3–1 and appear in the 1964 NFL Championship Game against a favored Don Shula coached Baltimore Colts team with Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas as its signal caller.
The Browns beat the Colts 27–0 in Cleveland Municipal Stadium. This particular Browns team consisted of many players drafted and acquired by Brown. During the next 30 years in Cleveland, not a single Modell team won the league title, although they would go on to appear in a total of seven NFL/AFC championship title games during the period. Prior to Modell's arrival, the Browns had dominated the NFL and the AAFC, winning seven championships in 17 years. Using his background in advertising to market the team, Modell showed a flair for promotions, with one popular innovation coming in 1962 by scheduling pro football preseason doubleheaders at Cleveland Stadium. Modell became active in NFL leadership, serving as NFL President and using his television connections to help negotiate the league's lucrative television contracts. Modell was willing to provide his team as an opponent for both the first prime time Thanksgiving game in 1966 and the opening Monday Night Football broadcast in 1970. Modell took an active role in Cleveland community life and was a leading fundraiser for charities and various Republican Party candidates.
He married TV soap opera star Patricia Breslin in 1969, having been a well-known bachelor and man about town. For many years he was able to disarm TV reporters with his quick wit. For example, with regard to the NFL's innovative policy of sharing all network television revenue on an equal basis per team, so that the Green Bay Packers and New York Giants each got an equal slice of the revenue, he joked, "We're 26 Socialists who hate America!" In 1967, five African American members of the Browns involved in a contract dispute refused to report to training camp. Modell traded or released four of the players, with only standout running back Leroy Kelly staying. Kelly would go on to "play out his option" but the restrictive nature of free agency in the NFL at the time limited his options. Subsequent contract battles with defensive end Jack Gregory in 1972 and second-round draft pick Tom Skladany in 1977 only served to damage Modell's image among Cleveland fans. Feeling that the constant sellouts the team had
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Cuyahoga County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2016 United States Census estimates, the population was 1,249,352, making it the second most populous county in the state, its county seat is Cleveland. The county is named after the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means'crooked river'; the name is assigned to the Cuyahoga River, which bisects the county. Cuyahoga County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Former U. S. President James A. Garfield was born in. After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Cuyahoga County was part of the French colony of Canada, ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807 and organized on May 1, 1810, it was reduced by the creation of Huron and Lorain Counties. It was named after the Cuyahoga River. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 square miles, of which 457 square miles is land and 788 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section. Lake County Geauga County Summit County Medina County Lorain County Portage County As of the 2010 census, there were 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800 people per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,346 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. 4.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak and 3.1% Hungarian, ancestries. There are sizable numbers of Russians, Arabs and Greeks.
88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, 4.9% some other Indo-European language. 7.3% of the population were foreign-born. There were 571,457 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.40% were married couples living together, 15.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.90% were non-families. 32.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 89.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603, the median income for a family was $58,631; the per capita income for the county was $26,263.
About 10.30% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,280,122 people, 545,056 households, 319,996 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,800.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 621,763 housing units at an average density of 1,360.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% white, 29.7% black or African American, 2.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.0% were Irish, 9.2% were Italian, 8.6% were Polish, 6.3% were English, 2.8% were American. Of the 545,056 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families, 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,603 and the median income for a family was $58,064. Males had a median income of $47,182 versus $36,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,263. About 12.4% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County; as of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Olmsted Township. Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities and villages across Cuyahoga County; the investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business.
The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora.