Gatwick Airport known as London Gatwick, is a major international airport near Crawley in West Sussex, southeast England, 29.5 miles south of Central London. It is the second-busiest airport by total passenger traffic in the UK, after Heathrow Airport. Gatwick is the ninth-busiest airport in Europe, it covers a total area of 674 hectares. Gatwick opened as an aerodrome in the late 1920s; the airport has two terminals, the North Terminal and the South Terminal, which cover areas of 98,000 m2 and 160,000 m2 respectively. It operates as a single-runway airport. A secondary runway is available but, due to its proximity to the main runway, can only be used if, out of use. In 2018, 46.1 million passengers passed through the airport, a 1.1% increase compared with 2017. As of 2019, Gatwick is the second busiest airport in the world to operate only one runway with a passenger use of 46 million in 2018; the land on which Gatwick Airport stands was first developed as an aerodrome in the late 1920s. The Air Ministry approved commercial flights from the site in 1933, the first terminal, "The Beehive", was built in 1935.
Scheduled air services from the new terminal began the following year. Major development work at the airport took place during the 1950s; the airport buildings were designed by Yorke Rosenberg Mardall between 1955 and 1988. In the 1960s, British United Airways and Dan-Air were two of the largest British independent airlines at Gatwick, with the former establishing itself as the dominant scheduled operator at the airport as well as providing a significant number of the airport's non-scheduled services and the latter becoming its leading provider of inclusive tour charter services. Further rapid growth of charter flights at Gatwick was encouraged by the Ministry of Aviation, which instructed airlines to move regular charter flights from Heathrow. Following the takeover of BUA by Caledonian Airways at the beginning of the following decade, the resulting airline, British Caledonian, became Gatwick's dominant scheduled airline during the 1970s. While continuing to dominate scheduled operations at Gatwick for most of the 1980s, BCal was one of the airport's major charter airlines until the end of the 1970s.
As a result of conditions imposed by Britain's Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the takeover of BCal by the newly privatised British Airways at the end of the 1980s, Dan-Air and Air Europe assumed BCal's former role as Gatwick's dominant scheduled short-haul operator while BA continued in BCal's erstwhile role as the airport's most important scheduled long-haul operator. Following the demise of Air Europe and Dan-Air in the early 1990s, BA began building up Gatwick into a secondary hub; these moves resulted in BA becoming Gatwick's dominant airline by the turn of the millennium. BA's subsequent decision to de-hub Gatwick provided the space for EasyJet to establish its biggest base at the airport and to become its dominant airline. BAA Limited and its predecessors, BAA plc and the British Airports Authority and operated Gatwick from 1 April 1966 to 2 December 2009. From 1978 to 2008, many flights to and from the United States used Gatwick because of restrictions on the use of Heathrow implemented in the Bermuda II agreement between the UK and the US.
US Airways, Gatwick's last remaining US carrier, ended service from Gatwick on 30 March 2013. This left Gatwick without a scheduled US airline for the first time in 35 years. Delta Air Lines will launch service between Gatwick and Logan International Airport in Boston on 22 May 2020, making this the first US airline to service Gatwick since the withdrawal of the US Airways service in 2013. On 17 September 2008, BAA announced it would sell Gatwick after the Competition Commission published a report about BAA's market dominance in London and the South East. On 21 October 2009, it was announced that an agreement had been reached to sell Gatwick to a consortium led by Global Infrastructure Partners, who have a controlling interest in Edinburgh airport, for £1.51 billion. The sale was completed on 3 December. In February 2010, GIP sold minority stakes in the airport of 12% and 15% to the South Korean National Pension Service and the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority for £100 million and £125 million, respectively.
The sales were part of GIP's strategy to syndicate the equity portion of the original acquisition by issuing bonds to refinance bank debt. Although this entails bringing additional investors into the airport, GIP aims to retain management control; the Californian state pension fund CalPERS acquired a 12.7% stake in Gatwick Airport for about $155 million in June 2010. On 21 December 2010, the A$69 billion Future Fund, a sovereign wealth fund established by the Australian government in 2006, agreed to purchase a 17.2% stake in Gatwick Airport from GIP for £145 million. This transaction completed GIP's syndication process for the airport, reducing its stake to 42%; the airport is owned and operated by Gatwick Airport Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ivy Holdco Limited, owned by Global Infrastructure Partners, among others. In December 2018, Vinci announced that it would acqu
Corinne Calvet, born Corinne Dibos, was a French actress who appeared in American films. According to one obituary, she was promoted "as a combination of Dietrich and Rita Hayworth, but her persona failed to live up to this description, though the fault lay as much with a string of mediocre films as with a lack of a compelling talent, for Calvet's sultry looks and flashing eyes were allied with an impish sense of humour, she became better known for her fiery private life... and some well- publicised legal battles." Calvet was born in Paris. Her mother was a scientist. One of her sisters, a doctor, died, she and her father had to flee Paris. Calvet studied criminal law at the Sorbonne. "A lawyer needs what an actor needs, strong personality, persuasive powers and a good voice," she said later. While studying law, she went to the Deux Magots café where her group of friends included Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean Cocteau and Jean Marais, which prompted her to try acting. Marais advised her to join Charles Dullin's acting school, where he had trained alongside Simone Signoret and Gerard Philipe.
She studied at L'Ecole du Cinema. Calvet made her debut in French radio, stage plays, cinema in the 1940s, she appeared uncredited in the film Blind Desire and was the French voice of Rita Hayworth in dubbed versions of American movies. She had a speaking part in Petrus starring Fernandel, her father did not want her to use the family name, so she chose "Calvet" from a name on a bottle of wine. Calvet played a model in We had a support role in Last Chance Castle. According to one obituary, "Just after the Second World War, most of the major Hollywood studios were importing female talent from Europe in the hopes of finding another Garbo, Dietrich or Bergman to lend exoticism to their product. Alida Valli, Hildegard Knef and Denise Darcel were among those who had varying success during the period, Corinne Calvet was the choice of Paramount."The studio were looking for a Frenchwoman to play a suspected collaborator in Sealed Verdict. They signed Calvet in February 1947. In April the studio announced she would be called "Corinne Calvat".
The studio decided Calvet was too young and in August cast Florence Marly instead. Paramount did not use her for a year. Calvet spent that time training and working on her English although Hedda Hopper claimed she spent that time "in nightclubs instead of learning English." Her visa was nearly rescinded because her association with the existentialist element in France was suspicious to the House Un-American Activities Committee. Paramount dropped her. Calvet did a test for MGM, who signed her for six months from July 1948, she recovered. She married actor John Bromfield, under contrat to Hal B. Wallis. Wallis saw a test of Calvet and in August 1948 took her back to Paramount for a role in Rope of Sand opposite Burt Lancaster and Paul Henreid, directed by William Dieterle, she was given star billing in her second Hollywood film, When Willie Comes Marching Home, starring Dan Dailey and directed by John Ford for 20th Century Fox. Fox bought half her contract from Paramount. Wallis put her in My Friend Irma Goes West a film best remembered for being the second movie released starring Martin and Lewis.
"I couldn't believe he would cast me in such a script," she recalled. "Rope of Sand had made me a valuable property. Doing this film would ruin my chances of rising higher as a dramatic star."In January 1950 actress and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper claimed that Calvert's "ego s so inflated I doubt if she could get inside a jumping rope... Corinne thinks she's god's gift to America instead of being grateful for the opportunity after flopping at two studios."At Paramount she did a film about the Lower Canada Rebellion, Quebec with John Drew Barrymore. 20th Century Fox borrowed her to play Danny Kaye's leading lady in On the Riviera, which earned her a Roscoe by the Harvard Lampoon for giving one of the worst film performances of 1951. Wallis co starred her with Joseph Cotten in Martin and Lewis in Sailor Beware. John Ford reteamed her with Dailey in What Price Glory. Calvet began appearing on television shows like Lux Video Theatre, she made a rare television appearance on the Colgate Comedy Hour with Donald O'Connor on February 3, 1952, televised nationwide by NBC.
She appeared on the game show The Name's the Same, in the "I'd Like to Be" segment, where she stumped the panel with her choice of Rocky Marciano. At Paramount she did Thunder in the East with Alan Ladd at Fox was Rory Calhoun's leading lady in a Western, Powder River. Paramount put her in a low budget thriller, Flight to Tangier, she appeared on The Ford Television Theatre, she toured the country performing it. In April 1954 she unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide. Calvert made two films at Universal: The Far Country with James Stewart, So This Is Paris with Tony Curtis. In 1955 she became an American citizen. Calvet returned to France to star in One Step to Eternity went to Italy to appear in Le ragazze di San Frediano and Sins of Casanova. In February 1955 it was announced she would star in a TV series based on the radio show Cafe Istanbul but it appears to not have been made, she did make Operazione notte in Italy. Calvet went back to Hollywood to appear in episodes of Climax!, Studi
The Beretta 682 is a competition grade over-under shotgun. It is manufactured and distributed by Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta, in Gardone Val Trompia, Italy; the 682 comes in various grades for sporting clays and skeet shooting. It is distributed in the UK by GMK Ltd, in the United States by Beretta USA. Wide vs Narrow Beretta 682 Receivers There are two primary versions of the action of the Beretta 682 shotgun; the first version of the action is the original version, designated by a model number such as S682305T, made at least through 1994. These earlier models are known as "wide" or "large" frame 682s. At some point, Beretta dropped the "S" from the front of the 682 model number, narrowed the receiver, introduced a new choke system, reduced the barrel weight as well; this new model is consistent in width with the 687 lines. It is important to know the version of the 682 in question, as the wood components from a current narrow 682/686/687 will not fit on an older S682 wide receiver shotgun.
Other than serial number lookup for production year, measurement of the frame size is the width measured in front of the breech across the recoil shoulders. The older and newer models share many of the same parts, barrel sets from narrow 682 shotguns can be used without issue in the wide S682 shotgun. However, there is only a 10% chance that a new model 682 barrel with drop in place and work properly on an older wide frame S682. There will be a small lip present where the narrow barrel doesn't match the wide receiver. One of the most common issues with dropping an unfitted barrel into a S682 is that the ejectors may not work properly; the primary reason given for the design changes are general thought to be related to weight savings for competition shotguns. Beretta USA Product Catalog Beretta Over and Unders / Side by Sides Instruction Manual Beretta 682 Gold E - ratings and reviews