A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly. The gaucho is a national symbol in Argentina and Uruguay, but is a strong culture in Chile and in southern Brazil. Gauchos became admired and renowned in legends and literature and became an important part of their regional cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, they were celebrated by South American writers; the gaucho in some respects resembled members of other nineteenth century rural, horse-based cultures such as the North American cowboy, the Chilean huaso, the Peruvian chalan or morochuco, the Venezuelan or Colombian llanero, the Hawaiian paniolo, the Mexican charro or the Portuguese campino. According to the Diccionario de la lengua española, in its historical sense a gaucho was "a mestizo who, in the 18th and 19th centuries, inhabited Argentina and Chile was a migratory horseman, adept in cattle work". In Argentina and Uruguay today a gaucho is, according to the same source "A country person, experienced in traditional livestock farming".

Because historical gauchos were reputed to be brave, if unruly, the word is applied metaphorically to mean "Noble and generous", but "One, skilful in subtle tricks, crafty". In Portuguese the word gaúcho means "An inhabitant of the plains of Rio Grande do Sul or the pampas of Argentina descended from European man and indian woman who devotes himself to lassoing and raising cattle and horses". In its purest sense, gaucho referred to the nomadic outlaw inhabitants of the great plains of Argentina and Chile. In current usage, gaucho designates the rural rancher in general." There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the term. It may derive from the Spanish term chaucho, in turn derived from a Turkish low-rank military term Chiaus, through Arabic shawsh which became broadly applied to any guard/watcher or aide; the first recorded use of the term dates to Argentine independence in 1816. Another scenario indicates the word may derive from the Portuguese gaudério, designated to the inhabitants of the vast regions of Rio Grande do Sul and Río de la Plata in the 18th century or the Portuguese garrucho that points to an instrument used by the gauchos to trap and hamstring cattle.

The 18th century chronicler Alonso Carrió de la Vandera speaks of gauderios when it mentions the gauchos or huasos as poorly dressed men. Another plausible origin is from a South American indigenous language, such as Mapudungun cauchu, kauču, or Quechua wahcha which means the state of being lonely in the wilderness. An essential attribute of a gaucho was. "He has taken his first lessons in riding before he is well able to walk". Without a horse the gaucho himself felt unmanned; the naturalist William Henry Hudson recorded that the gauchos of his childhood used to say that a man without a horse was a man without legs. He described meeting a blind gaucho, obliged to beg for his food yet behaved with dignity and went about on horseback. Richard W. Slatta, the author of a scholarly work about gauchos, notes that the gaucho used horses to collect, drive or tame cattle, to draw fishing nets, to hunt ostriches, to snare partridges, to draw well water, − with the help of his friends − to ride to his own burial.

By reputation the quintessential gaucho caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas could throw his hat on the ground and scoop it up while galloping his horse, without touching the saddle with his hand. For the gaucho, the horse was essential to his survival for, said Hudson: "he must every day traverse vast distances, see judge be ready at all times to encounter hunger and fatigue, violent changes of temperature and sudden perils". A popular copla was: It was the gaucho's passion to own all his steeds in matching colours. Hudson recalled: The gaucho, from the poorest worker on horseback to the largest owner of lands and cattle, has, or had in those days, a fancy for having all his riding-horses of one colour; every man as a rule had his tropilla — his own half a dozen or a dozen or more saddle-horses, he would have them all as nearly alike as possible, so that one man had chestnuts, another browns, silver- or iron-greys, fawns, cream-noses, or blacks, or whites, or piebalds. The caudillo El Chacho Peñalosa described the low point of his life as "In Chile − and on foot!"

The gaucho plays an important symbolic role in the nationalist feelings of this region that of Argentina and Uruguay. The epic poem Martín Fierro by José Hernández used the gaucho as a symbol against corruption and of Argentine national tradition, pitted against Europeanising tendencies. Martín Fierro, the hero of the poem, is drafted into the Argentine military for a border war and becomes an outlaw and fugitive; the image of the free gaucho is contrasted to the slaves who worked the northern Brazilian lands. Further literary descriptions are found in Ricardo Güiraldes' Don Segundo Sombra. Like the North American cowboys, as discussed in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were reputed to be strong, silent types, but proud and capable of violence when provoked; the gaucho tendency to violence over petty matters is recognized as a typical trait. Gauchos' use of the famous "fac

Nikolai Valuev

Nikolai Sergeyevich Valuev is a Russian politician and former professional boxer. He competed in boxing from 1993 to 2009, held the WBA heavyweight title twice between 2005 and 2009. Standing at a height of 2.13 metres and a peak weight of 149 kilograms, Valuev is best known for being the tallest and heaviest world champion in boxing history. Valuev was born on 21 August 1973, in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, he is of ethnic Russian descent, but he had a Tatar grandfather. Although his own parents are short—both 1.67 m tall—his Tatar great-grandfather has been described as "of mountainous proportions" and "a warrior giant of Russian folklore." His own size and appearance are due to gigantism complicated by acromegaly. Valuev has three children, daughter Irina, son Grisha, third child, son Sergei. In his professional boxing career he was defeated only twice, by David Haye. Valuev is a Russian Orthodox Christian. During his youth he played water basketball. Valuev has written a book in Russian called My 12 Rounds, with the help of prominent Russian sports journalist Konstantin Osipov.

The book discusses his boxing career in particular. For that book, Valuev received an award from the government of St. Petersburg; the book was presented in St. Petersburg on 5 February 2007. In January 2006, Valuev was accused of assaulting a security guard at the Spartak Ice Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia. No criminal investigation was launched by local police. Russian National Championships, St. Petersburg, May 1994: 1/4: Lost to Alexei LezinGoodwill Games, St. Petersburg, July 1994: 1/4: Lost to Alexei Lezin on points, 8–+8Valuev is one of a few boxers to try to resume his amateur career after the original pro debut. In 2005, Valuev squared off with WBA heavyweight champion John Ruiz, won a twelve-round majority-decision, becoming both the tallest and heaviest champion in boxing history. In his first defense he defeated challenger Owen Beck by a third-round technical knockout in Hannover, Germany. In October 2006, Valuev fought Monte Barrett and defeated him with a technical knockout in the 11th round.

In January 2007, Valuev fought Jameel McCline in St. Jakobshalle, Switzerland. Valuev won the match defending his title, after McCline was not able to continue the bout after injuring his knee when throwing a punch near the end of the 3rd round; the title defense was held on 14 April 2007. Chagaev defeated Valuev by a majority decision. Valuev changed trainers, from Manuel Gabrielian to Alexander Zimin, who coached the old Soviet Union amateur boxing team. On 29 September 2007, Valuev won against Jean-Francois Bergeron in Oldenburg, Germany, by a 12-round unanimous decision. On 16 February 2008, in a title eliminator, Valuev defeated former titleholder Siarhei Liakhovich, winning every round at the Nuremberg Arena in Germany; the victory earned Valuev the right to face Chagaev for the WBA title again, the only man who had defeated him in his boxing career. He was scheduled to face Chagaev for his WBA title on 5 July 2008, but Chagaev pulled out with an injury. Valuev instead fought John Ruiz for the vacant title on 30 August 2008 and the WBA decided to make Chagaev "Champion In Recess".

Valuev defeated Ruiz by unanimous decision to regain the WBA heavyweight championship, with Valuev and Chagaev set to fight no than 26 June 2009 to determine whom the WBA regarded as their champion. Their scheduled rematch on 30 May 2009 was cancelled due to Chagaev's viral infection and on 24 July 2009, when the WBA published their Official Ratings as of June 2009, Chagaev was no longer the "Champion In Recess" but the No. 1 challenger instead. Valuev's first title defense of his second reign as WBA Champion was against the 46-year-old, four-time heavyweight champion of the world, Evander Holyfield, on 20 December 2008. Before the match, Valuev weighed 310.8 pounds, nearly 100 pounds heavier than Holyfield at 214.3 pounds. After a rather uneventful match with no knockdowns and few punches thrown by either fighter, Valuev won a disputed majority decision. In response to the controversial result the WBA announced plans to investigate the decision. In his second defense on 7 November 2009, billed as'David vs. Goliath', Valuev faced off against former unified and lineal cruiserweight champion David Haye at the Arena Nürnberger Versicherung in Nuremberg.

Valuev lost on points. Valuev announced his retirement from boxing in a Russian newspaper three days after the loss to Haye on 10 November 2009. In 2010, Valuev's doctor went on record saying that he is treating Valuev for "serious bone and joint problems". Valuev underwent two operations. Valuev confirmed in 2013 that medical advice was one of the reasons he is not planning to make a comeback in boxing. Valuev is one of five heavyweight champions to have retired without having suffered a stoppage loss during his career; the others are Rocky Marciano, Riddick Bowe and Sultan Ibragimov. Valuev's first role in a film was a cameo appearance in the German film 7 Zwerge – Der Wald ist nicht genug in 2006. In 2008, Valuev played the main role in the film Stonehead by Philip Yankovskiy, playing an ex-boxer who lost his memory; the film took the main prize at the film festival "Window to Europe". After the success of Stonehead, it was announced Valuev is being filmed in two new films at the same time. Valuev has

David Stevenson (cricketer)

David Craig Stevenson was a Scottish first-class cricketer and administrator. Stevenson was born at Kilmarnock in May 1890, he worked for the Inland Revenue as an inspector of taxes. He made his debut in first-class cricket for Scotland against the Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's in 1922, he played first-class cricket for Scotland until 1925. He scored 96 runs across his six matches, at an average of 8.72, with a high score of 35. With his slow left-arm orthodox bowling, he took 4 wickets with best figures of 2 for 29, he played minor counties cricket for Northumberland, making a single appearance against Durham in the 1932 Minor Counties Championship. He served as president of the Scottish Cricket Union in 1954, he died at Dundee in March 1977. David Stevenson at ESPNcricinfo