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Gauda Kingdom

Gauda Kingdom, was a Hindu power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. King Shashanka is attributed with creating the first separate political entity in a unified Bengal called Gauda, he reigned in 7th century, some historians place his rule between 590 and 625. His capital was at Karnasubarna, 9.6 kilometres south-west of Baharampur, headquarters of Murshidabad district. The Chinese monk, Xuanzang travelled from the country of Karnasubarna to a region in the present-day state of Orissa ruled by Shashanka. There is mention of Pundravardhana being part of Gauda in certain ancient records. According to some sources the City of Gauda was founded by King Shankaladeva, he was a native of either Pragjyotisa or Kannouj. Raibahadur Padmanath Gohain Baruah in his book "Asamar Buranji" mentioned that a King from Pragjyotisa named Shankaladeva established the City of Gauda. In another translated book "History of Hindostan" by Alexander Dow, it has been stated that Shankaladeva was a native of Kannouj and established the City of Gauda during 8th century BC.

Evidence seems to be discrepant regarding links of Gauda with the Rarh region. While Krishna Mishra, in his Prabodha-chandrodaya, mentions that Gauda rashtra includes Rarh and Bhurishreshthika, identified with Bhurshut, in Hooghly and Howrah districts, but the Managoli inscription of the Yadava king Jaitugi I distinguishes Lala from Gaula. According to Jain writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Gauda included Lakshmanavati in present-day Malda district. Following his death, Shashanka was succeeded by his son, who ruled the kingdom for eight months; however Gauda was soon divided amongst Harshavardhana and Bhaskarvarmana of Kamarupa, the latter managing to conquer Karnasuvarna. The Pala emperors were referred to as Gaudesvara. Sena kings called themselves Gaudesvara. From Gauda and Vanga seem to be interchangeable names for the whole of Bengal. Gauḍa

MS Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft

Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft was a Dutch ocean liner built in 1925. An onboard fire destroyed her passenger accommodation. In 1932, another fire damaged her so that she was sold for scrapping, only to catch fire again before she was scrapped. MS Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft was built for the Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland. SMN had been founded in 1870 and its core business was the transport between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies; the line added other destinations in the Pacific, e.g, from Java to the West Coast of the U. S. A. and a line from Java to New York. The ships that carried passengers had to be comfortable. For building these, many other ships the SMN required, SMN had a long standing relation with the Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, which had built all the SMN ships since c. 1905. Between 1922 and 1926 the French Franc lost 43% of its value. From 1921-1926 there was a severe international crisis in shipbuilding. In 1923 the SMN tendered the construction of a large ship, the Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft.

The offers that came in were: Wilton shipyard combination for 6,200,000 guilders. The NSM still beat the other Dutch shipyards, because it offered a faster delivery; the NSM had offered at cost price because construction would keep 1,000 employees occupied for a year. The French shipyard Société des Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire offered for 4,900,000 guilders, its offer was for two months delivery, which counted for 50,000 guilders. The additional cost for distance, transport etc. was budgeted as 50,000 by the SMN. Possible support by the government and municipality was not sure and thought to be maximum 450,000. All in all the difference between the offer of the NSM and Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire was 6,270,000 - 4,900,000 - 50,000 - 50,000 - 450,000 = 820,000 guilders; this was such a significant amount that the SMN decided to give the order to Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire. The English competition had been invited to offer for P. C. Hooft. Indeed the majority of the 19 offers came from shipyards from the United Kingdom.

However, all of these bids except one, were higher than the Dutch offers. It's remarkable that when the first bids had come in, the SMN contacted the NSM for a second bid in case it could not agree on the payment in French Francs and the delivery term. During the Christmas week of 1923 the SMN had negotiated with the government for the 450,000 subsidy. In that same week the NSM had negotiated with its suppliers to make a new offer, which still remained 4% above the French offer. However, the negotiations with ACL about payment and delivery succeeded, so the new offer of the NSM could not be considered; the fact that so much work went to a French shipyard created a row in the Dutch press and House of Representatives. The affair was mentioned in the British parliament. In general politics and media agreed. More extreme points of view blamed it on the restricted labor hours, or on the SMN wanting to teach Dutch laborers a lesson. In fact a longer workweek could not have bridged the gap between the bids, the fact that the SMN saved 820,000 guilders by accepting the French offer cannot be denied.

The Société des Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire was a shipyard of far more renown than any Dutch shipyard. It consisted of two companies at different locations. In Nantes there was a shipyard, it had four slipways of 135 - 165 m length. It had built many torpedo boats, light cruisers and the like. In Saint-Nazaire there was a shipyard, it had five slipways suitable to build bigger ships. It was favorably located near the floating docks of Penhoët and the metal works Forges de Trignac; the ACL Saint-Nazaire had a factory in Saint-Denis near Paris for the construction of turbines and explosion engines. Except for the engine factory, all locations could be modernized. At the Saint-Nazaire location ACL had built many battleships and two dreadnoughts; these dreadnoughts were bigger than P. C. Hooft and had far more powerful machines, so there is no reason to doubt the technical skill of the ACL; however that may be, the February 1922 Washington Naval Treaty made any battleship construction unlikely for the near future.

The logical alternative was to build big merchant ships. While many ocean liners had been built in Saint-Nazaire, this had not been done by the ACL, but by the Ateliers et Chantiers de Saint-Nazaire Penhoët located in Saint-Nazaire, only separated from it by a wall. Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft was laid down as yard number 256; the ship was launched on 23 April 1925. Present were: Jhr. mr. A. Röell governor of North-Holland and member of the supervisory board of the SMN. In his speech the president of the ACL Mr. Naud recalled the crisis in the shipping industry: the surplus of merchant ships, the low freight prices, decreasing international transport, the Washington treaties, it all made that the ACL had been satisfied with the order for P. C. Hooft. Naud continued by naming some of the ships built by ACL Saint-Nazaire, mentioning the dreadnought France, the ocean liners Sphinx, Compiègne and Fontainebleau of the Messageries Maritimes, the

Mary Warner

Mary Amelia Warner, née Huddart was an English actress and theatre manager. Mary was born in Manchester in 1804 to Thomas Huddart, a chemist from Dublin, his wife, Ann née Gough of Limerick, her father had acted at the Crow Street Theatre in Dublin. After playing at Greenwich for her father's benefit, Mary Huddart became at the reputed age of fifteen a member of Brunton's company at Plymouth, Exeter and Birmingham. In 1829 she was acting in Dublin. On 22 November 1830, as Miss Huddart from Dublin, she appeared at Drury Lane Theatre, playing Belvidera in Venice Preserved to the Pierre of William Macready, to whose recommendation she owed her engagement by the managers Polhill and Lee, she had been seen in London at the Surrey and Tottenham Street theatres. She returned to Dublin, played leading business under Calcraft. In 1836, under Alfred Bunn's management, Mary Huddart was again at Drury Lane, where she supported Edwin Forrest as Lady Macbeth and other characters, was the original Marian in Sheridan Knowles's The Wrecker's Daughter: her success in it led to her engagement at the Haymarket for the first production in London of The Bridal, an adaptation by Knowles of The Maid's Tragedy.

In this she played on 26 June 1837 Evadne, opposite Macready as Melantius. She played Portia to Samuel Phelps's Shylock, Helen McGregor to his Rob Roy. At about this period she married. In the autumn of 1837 Mrs. Warner joined Macready at Covent Garden Theatre, where she stayed two years, supporting him in many Shakespearean parts and building a reputation, she was the original Joan of Arc in Thomas James Serle's play of the name. She had been prevented by illness from playing at Covent Garden the heroine of Thomas Noon Talfourd's Athenian Captive, but took the part at the Haymarket on 4 August 1838. Mrs. Warner accompanied Macready to Drury Lane, was on 29 April 1842 the Queen in Hamlet, on 10 December the original Lady Lydia Lynterne in Westland Marston's Patrician's Daughter. In 1843 she acted with Samuel Phelps in Bath, on 27 May 1844, with him and T. L. Greenwood, began the management of Sadler's Wells, opening as Lady Macbeth, speaking an address by Serle. Warner retired from the management of Sadler's Wells, took on that of the Marylebone Theatre, which opened on 30 September 1847 with The Winter's Tale.

She took on parts such as Julia in The Hunchback, Lady Teazle, Lady Townley in The Provoked Husband for which her years began to disqualify her. She revived in November The Scornful Lady, playing in it the Lady. Retiring with a financial loss, Warner supported Macready at the Haymarket during his farewell performances. On 28 July 1851 Sadler's Wells was opened for a few nights before the beginning of the regular season, to give her an opportunity of playing her best known characters before starting for America. What proved to be her last appearance in England was made in August as Mrs. Oakley in The Jealous Wife, she met with great success in America. Signs of cancer showing themselves, Warner came to England, underwent an operation, revisited New York. Unable to fulfil her engagements, she returned to London an invalid. On 10 December 1853, in part through her husband's fault, Warner went through the insolvency court. A fund, to which the Queen and Angela Burdett-Coutts contributed, was raised, a benefit was run at Sadler's Wells.

Charge of her children, a boy and a girl, was taken by Macready and Burdett-Coutts. After enduring a prolonged agony, Warner died on 24 September 1854 at 16 Euston Place, Euston Square. In public esteem as an actress she was surpassed in her time only by Helen Faucit and Mrs. Charles Kean. Around 1837 Mary Huddart married Robert William Warner, the landlord of the Wrekin Tavern, Broad Court, Bow Street, frequented by actors and literary men. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Warner, Mary Amelia". Dictionary of National Biography. 59. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Isaac Mann

Isaac Mann was Church of Ireland Bishop of Cork and Ross from 1772 to 1788. Mann was born in Norwich in 1710 and was brought to Ireland as a child, being supported by Lord Chancellor of Ireland Robert Jocelyn, 1st Viscount Jocelyn, he served as Jocelyn's household chaplain for several years. It was a standing joke in Dublin that Mann was mistaken for Jocelyn, since Mann had far more of the grand manner than Jocelyn, notably modest and unassuming. Mann was educated at Trinity College, obtaining a scholarship in 1730, he was Archdeacon of Dublin from 1757 until his elevation to the Episcopate. Mann died in Bath, Somerset in 1788, he was buried in Ballinaspic his remains were transferred to Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral in 1861

Pittsburg, Oregon

Pittsburg is an unincorporated community in Columbia County, United States. Pittsburg is located on the Nehalem River near its confluence with the East Fork Nehalem River; the Scappose-Vernonia road and the St. Helens-Pittsburg road join Oregon Route 47 near Pittsburg. Pittsburg's elevation is 584 feet. Pittsburg was named by early area resident Peter Brous, who settled there in 1879 and built a sawmill and a gristmill. Brous named the community for Pittsburgh, having lived in that state; the Oregon post office was established with the name "Pittsburgh" on April 17, 1879, with Brous as the postmaster. The name was changed to "Pittsburg" in 1892 and the post office was discontinued in 1908. Pittsburg, Oregon history from VanNatta Forestry

Bust of Pope Paul V

The Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini made two Busts of Pope Paul V. The first is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. 1618 is the accepted date for the portrait of the pope. In 2015, a second bust was acquired by the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, it was created by Bernini 1621, shortly after the death of Paul V, commissioned by his nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese. A bronze version of this sculpture exists in the Statens Museum for Kunst, Denmark. For most of the twentieth century, the second bust had been presumed lost, it was sold by the Borghese family in 1893, an art historian recorded its existence in Vienna in 1916. However, little more was known about the presence of the bust until it appeared in auction in Slovakia in 2014 - the piece had been in the private collection of the Slovakian artist Ernest Zmeták. Unrecognised by the sellers, it was bought by a resident of Bratislava, Clément Guenebeaud, who sold the bust via Sotheby's to the current holders, the Getty Museum. Https://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21656128-important-17th-century-carving-gets-attention-it-merits-last-getty-got-it-good http://spectator.sme.sk/c/20058936/slovak-auction-house-sold-original-bust-by-bernini.html http://www.rozhlas.cz/zpravy/vytvarno/_zprava/sochu-od-berniniho-prodali-na-slovensku-za-zlomek-ceny-nepoznali-ze-jde-o-original--1514007 http://www.tyzden.sk/spolocnost/25227/kulturny-skandal-aky-tu-dlho-nebol/ http://www.soga.sk/aukcie-obrazy-diela-umenie-starozitnosti/aktuality/berniniho-busta-papeza-stanovisko-vedenia-aukcnej-spolocnosti-soga