A theatre organ is a distinct type of pipe organ developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century. Theatre organs are identified by the distinctive horseshoe-shaped arrangement of stop tabs above and around the instrument's keyboards on their consoles. Given their prominent placement in houses of popular entertainment, theatre organ consoles were decorated in gaudy ways, with brightly colored stop tabs, painted bright red and black, or solid gold, or ivory with gold trim, with built-in console lighting. In organs installed in the UK, a common feature was large translucent surrounds extending from both sides of the console, with internal colored lighting. A spectacular original example is the so-called Rhinestone Barton, installed in 1928 in the former RKO Iowa Theatre; the console of this 3 manual 14 rank Wangerin-built Barton is covered in black felt fabric embedded with glass glitter in swirling patterns, with all edges trimmed with bands of rhinestones.
Another original example is the 3/13 Barton from Ann Arbor's historic Michigan Theatre. The organ was installed in 1927 and is played five nights during a week before most film screenings; as the concept of the theatre organ was embraced, theatre organs began to be installed in other types of venues, such as civic auditoriums, sports arenas, private residences, churches. One of the largest theatre organs built was the 6 manual 52 rank Barton installed in the massive Chicago Stadium. There were over 7,000 such organs installed in America and elsewhere from 1915 to 1933, but fewer than 40 instruments remain in their original venues. Though there are few original instruments in their original homes, hundreds of theatre pipe organs are installed in public venues throughout the world today, while many more exist in private residences. Many organ builders supplied instruments to theatres; the Rudolph Wurlitzer company, to whom Robert Hope-Jones licensed his name and patents, was the most prolific and well-known manufacturer, the phrase Mighty Wurlitzer became an generic term for the theatre organ.
Many of the design elements of the theatre organ allowed it to do its job better than anything else could. Although not all of these ideas originated with Robert Hope-Jones, he was the first to employ and combine many of these innovations within a single organ aesthetic; as described on the website of the American Theatre Organ Society, these design elements include: This uses low-voltage electricity to transmit the action of the organ keys to the pipes. Earlier church instruments used a mechanical linkage of rods and wires to connect the keys to the pipes. With the new system, the console could be placed at any distance from the organ's pipes and could be somewhat portable, as just an electrical cable and flexible wind line connected the console with other parts of the instrument; this allowed the console to achieve its ubiquitous place—on an elevator platform in front of the stage, low in the orchestra pit for accompanying the film, rising majestically to stage height for organ solos. Each rank of pipes could be played on only one manual at one pitch level.
In other words, there was one pipe for each key on the keyboard. With the advent of unification, ranks were extended by adding more pipes and made playable at different pitch levels, on different manuals. Thus, fewer ranks could be used in a wide variety of combinations and pitches, on different manuals simultaneously. To turn the pipe ranks on and off, the traditional organ console used drawknobs placed on panels on both sides of the manuals. Using electricity, Robert Hope-Jones substituted tongue-shaped tabs arranged on a curved panel around and above the manuals; these stop tabs could be and flipped up or down to select or deactivate any ranks of pipes. Real musical instruments, not associated with the pipe organ, were installed in the pipe chambers to be pneumatically operated at will by the organist; such instruments as piano, cymbals, marimba, orchestra bells, castanets, wood blocks, tuned sleigh bells could be played from the organ keyboards. Sound effects such as train and boat whistles, car horns, bird whistles, an imitation of ocean surf could be used to great effect at appropriate times during a silent film.
Higher wind pressures increased the speaking volume of theatre organ pipes, they were placed in chambers high in the auditorium. The fronts of these chambers were covered with a set of swell shades which opened and closed like venetian blinds; when closed, the sound of the organ was reduced to a whisper. With a foot pedal, the organist could open the shutters to produce louder and louder sounds from the same pipes. Although this type of swell chamber was not new, theatre organ developments permitted a much broader dynamic range than before. Tremulants are devices that create a vibrato effect by mechanically shaking the wind source or by other means. Although the organ tremulant had existed for centuries, it was refined and changed in the theatre organ, was used in new ways. Traditional organs used tremulants only on solo stops. The
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras; the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion; the stop-motion images were painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically colored by hand. Kazimierz Prószyński, born in Warsaw, was a Polish inventor active in the field of cinema, he patented his first film camera, called Pleograph, before the Lumière brothers, went on to improve the cinema projector for the Gaumont company, as well as invent the used hand-held Aeroscope camera. A more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds.
In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector. In 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene; the pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector, they made their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, publicly screened at L'Eden, La Ciotat a year later. The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895; the cinematograph was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a large screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital cinema projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres; these early projectors played the movie stored on a computer, sent to the projector electronically. Due to their low resolution compared to digital cinema systems, the images at the time had visible pixels.
By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection reduced pixel visibility. The systems became more compact over time. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing film projectors with digital projectors. In 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film. In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase a minimum amount of 35 mm film from Kodak; the decision ensured. Although more expensive than film projectors, high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely, are compact and have no film to break, scratch or change reels of, they allow for much easier, less expensive, more reliable storage and distribution of content. All-electronic distribution eliminates all physical media shipments. There is the ability to display live broadcasts in theaters so equipped.
In 1912 Max Wertheimer discovered the phi phenomenon. In each the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images; this theory is said to account for the illusion of motion which results when a series of film images is displayed in quick succession, rather than the perception of the individual frames in the series. Persistence of vision should be compared with the related phenomena of beta movement and phi movement. A critical part of understanding these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera, i.e.: there is no frame rate for the human eye or brain. Instead, the eye/brain system has a combination of motion detectors, detail detectors and pattern detectors, the outputs of all of which are combined to create the visual experience; the frequency at which flicker becomes invisible is called the flicker fusion threshold, is dependent on the level of illumination. The frame rate of 16 frames per second is regarded as the lowest frequency at which continuous motion is perceived by humans.
This threshold varies across different species. Because the eye and brain have no fixed capture rate, this is an elastic limit, so different viewers can be more or less sensitive in perceiving frame rates, it is possible to view the black space between frames and the passing of the shutter by blinking ones eyes at a certain rate. If done fast enough, the viewer will be able to randomly "trap" the image between frames, or during shutter motion; this will not work with cathode ray tube displays due to the persistence of the phosphors nor with LCD or DLP light projectors because they refresh the image with no blackout intervals as with film projectors. Silent films were not projected at constant speeds, but rather were varied throughout the show at the discretion of the projectionist with some notes provided by the distributor; this was more a function of hand-cranked projectors than the silence. When the electric motor supplanted hand cranking in both movie cameras and projectors, a more uniform frame rate became possible.
Speeds ranged from about 18 frame/s on up - sometimes faster than modern sound film speed. 16 frame/s - though sometimes used as a camera shooting speed - was inadvisable for projection, due to the high risk of the nitrate-base pri
The magic lantern known by its Latin name lanterna magica, is an early type of image projector employing pictures painted, printed or produced photographically on transparent plates, one or more lenses, a light source. It was developed in the 17th century and used for entertainment purposes, it was applied to educational purposes during the 19th century. Since the late 19th century smaller versions were mass-produced as a toy for children; the magic lantern was in wide use from the 18th century until the mid-20th century, when it was superseded by a compact version that could hold many 35 mm photographic slides: the slide projector. The magic lantern used a concave mirror in back of a light source to direct as much of the light as possible through a small rectangular sheet of glass—a "lantern slide"—on, the image to be projected, onward into a lens at the front of the apparatus; the lens was adjusted to optimally focus the plane of the slide at the distance of the projection screen, which could be a white wall, it therefore formed an enlarged image of the slide on the screen.
Some lanterns, including those of Christiaan Huygens and Jan van Musschenbroek, used 3 lenses. The pictures were hand painted on glass slides. Figures were rendered with black paint but soon transparent colors were used. Sometimes the painting was done on oiled paper. Black paint was used as a background to block superfluous light, so the figures could be projected without distracting borders or frames. Many slides were finished with a layer of transparent lacquer, but in a period cover glasses were used to protect the painted layer. Most hand-made slides were mounted in wood frames with a square opening for the picture. After 1820 the manufacturing of hand colored printed slides started making use of decalcomania transfers. Many manufactured slides were produced on strips of glass with several pictures on them and rimmed with a strip of glued paper; the first photographic lantern slides, called "Hyalotypes", were invented by the German-born brothers Ernst Wilhelm and Friedrich Langenheim in 1848 in Philadelphia and patented in 1850.
Apart from sunlight, the only light sources available at the time of invention in the 17th century were candles and oil lamps, which were inefficient and produced dim projected images. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s helped to make the images brighter; the invention of limelight in the 1820s made them much brighter. The invention of the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s eliminated the need for combustible gases or hazardous chemicals, the incandescent electric lamp further improved safety and convenience, although not brightness. Several types of projection systems existed before the invention of the magic lantern. Giovanni Fontana, Leonardo Da Vinci and Cornelis Drebbel did describe and/or draw image projectors that may have been quite similar to the magic lantern. In the 17th century there was an immense interest in optics; the telescope and microscope were invented and apart from being useful to some scientists, such instruments were popular as entertaining curiosities with people who could afford them.
The magic lantern would prove to be a perfect successor. The magic lantern can be seen as a further development of camera obscura; this is a natural phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen is projected through a small hole in that screen as an inverted image on a surface opposite to the opening. It was known at least since the 5th century BCE and experimented with in darkened rooms at least since circa 1000 CE; the use of a lens in the hole has been traced back to circa 1550. The portable camera obscura box with a lens was developed in the 17th century. Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel is thought to have sold one to Dutch poet and diplomat Constantijn Huygens in 1622, while the oldest known clear description of a box-type camera is in German Jesuit scientist Gaspar Schott's 1657 book Magia universalis naturæ et artis; the 1645 first edition of German Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher's book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae included a description of his invention, the "Steganographic Mirror": a primitive projection system with a focusing lens and text or pictures painted on a concave mirror reflecting sunlight intended for long distance communication.
He saw limitations in the increase of size and diminished clarity over a long distance and expressed his hope that someone would find a method to improve on this. In 1654 Belgian Jesuit mathematician André Tacquet used Kircher's technique to show the journey from China to Belgium of Italian Jesuit missionary Martino Martini, it is sometimes reported that Martini lectured throughout Europe with a magic lantern which he might have imported from China, but there's no evidence that anything other than Kircher's technique was used. However, Tacquet was a correspondent and friend of Christiaan Huygens and may thus have been a early adapter of the magic lantern technique that Huygens developed around this period. Prominent Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, is nowadays accepted as the true inventor of the magic lantern, he knew Athanasius Kircher's 1645 edition of Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae which described a primitive projection system with a focusing lens and text or pictures painted on a concave mirror reflecting sunlight.
Christiaan's father Constantijn had been acquainted with Cornelis Drebbel who used some unidentified optical techniques to transform himself and summon wonderful appearances in magical performances. Constantijn Huygens wrote very
The Lady Vanishes
The Lady Vanishes is a 1938 British mystery thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring Margaret Lockwood and Michael Redgrave. Written by Sidney Gilliat and Frank Launder based on the 1936 novel The Wheel Spins by Ethel Lina White, the film is about a beautiful English tourist travelling by train in continental Europe who discovers that her elderly travelling companion seems to have disappeared from the train. After her fellow passengers deny having seen the elderly lady, the young woman is helped by a young musicologist, the two proceeding to search the train for clues to the old lady's disappearance; the Lady Vanishes was filmed in the Gainsborough Studios at London. Hitchcock caught Hollywood's attention with the film and relocated to Hollywood soon after its release. Although the director's three previous efforts had done poorly at the box office, The Lady Vanishes was successful, confirmed American producer David O. Selznick's belief that Hitchcock indeed had a future in Hollywood cinema.
The British Film Institute ranked. In 2017 a poll of 150 actors, writers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the 31st best British film ever. Having remained one of Hitchcock's most renowned British films, a remake was released in 1979, in March 2013 the BBC broadcast a TV adaptation starring Tuppence Middleton as Iris. Bill Kenwright has adapted the 1938 film to a stage version which will be on a national tour in 2019; the play stars Maxwell Caulfield and Lorna Fitzgerald. English tourist Iris Henderson arrives at the "Gasthof Petrus" inn in the country of Bandrika, "one of Europe's few undiscovered corners". Iris is returning to Britain to marry a "blue-blooded cheque chaser", but an avalanche has blocked the railway line; the stranded passengers are forced to stay the night at the inn, including Charters and Caldicott, cricket enthusiasts who want to return to England to see the last days of the Test match. That evening, Iris complains about loud folk music coming from the room above her.
She has the guilty musician, Gilbert Redman, thrown out of his room, only to have him move into hers, forcing her to capitulate. Miss Froy, a former governess and music teacher, listens to a tune performed by a folk singer under her window. Unseen by her, the singer is killed; the next morning, before catching the train, Iris is hit on the head by a planter aimed at Miss Froy, who helps Iris onto the train. On board are Charters and Caldicott, Gilbert, a lawyer named Todhunter and his mistress "Mrs. Todhunter"; as a result of her injury, Iris blacks out. After the train is moving, Iris wakes up in a compartment with several strangers, she joins Miss Froy in the dining car for tea. Unable to be heard above the train noise, the elderly lady writes her name on the window with her finger. Soon after, they return to their compartment; when Iris awakens, Miss Froy has vanished. The strangers in her compartment say. Todhunter, who spoke with Miss Froy earlier, pretends not to remember her in an attempt to avoid any possible scandal.
Iris can not find her. She meets up with Gilbert. Dr. Hartz, a brain surgeon, says. Charters and Caldicott claim not to remember Miss Froy, because they are afraid a delay would make them miss the cricket match. Another lady appears, dressed like Miss Froy, but Iris and Gilbert continue to search, they are attacked by Signor Doppo. They start to suspect. Dr. Hartz tells his fellow conspirator, a British woman dressed to drug Iris and Gilbert. Convinced they will soon be asleep, Hartz admits to them that he is involved in the conspiracy; the false nun does not follow Hartz's instructions out of loyalty to her fellow countrywoman. When the train stops near the border, Dr. Hartz discovers the switch, he has part of the train diverted onto a branch line. Gilbert and Iris inform their fellow passengers of; the train pulls to a uniformed soldier requests that they all accompany him. They take his gun. Another soldier fires, wounding Charters in the hand, a shootout begins. During the gunfight, Miss Froy reveals to Gilbert and Iris that she is a British agent who must deliver a message to the Foreign Office in Whitehall.
The message is encoded in the tune. Gilbert memorises the tune. With his help, Miss Froy slips away into the forest. Todhunter attempts to surrender, waving a white handkerchief, is shot dead. Gilbert and Caldicott commandeer the locomotive, the group escape across the border. In London and Caldicott discover the Test Match has been abandoned. Iris jumps into a cab with Gilbert in order to avoid her fiancé, Gilbert kisses her, they arrive at the Foreign Office. He hears the melody on the piano; the Lady Vanishes was called The Lost Lady, Irish director Roy William Neill was assigned by producer Edward Black to make it. A crew was dispatched to Yugoslavia to do background shots, but when the Yugoslav police accidentally discovered that they were not well-portrayed in the script, they kicked the crew out of the country, Black scrapped the project. A year late
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
Bell & Howell
Bell and Howell is a U. S.-based services organization and former manufacturer of motion picture machinery, founded in 1907 by two projectionists, was headquartered in Wheeling, Illinois. The company is now headquartered in Durham, North Carolina, provides services for automated equipment in enterprise-level companies. According to its charter, the Bell & Howell Company was incorporated on February 17, 1907, it was duly recorded in the Cook County Record Book eight days later. The first meeting of stockholders took place in the office of Attorney W. G. Strong on February 19 at 10 a.m. The first board of directors was chosen for a term of one year: chairman. Bell & Howell Co. was an important supplier of many different media technologies. The firm built its name making such products as: A rotary framer on 35mm film projectors in 1907 A 35mm film perforator in 1908 Professional 35mm motion-picture film cameras from 1909 on Printing equipment used by motion-picture film laboratories since 1911 The Standard Cinematograph Type 2709 hand-cranked camera Newsreel and amateur film cameras such as the Filmo and Eyemo, Autoload EE Military 16mm film gun camera TYPE N-6A Regular-8 and Super-8 film cameras and projectors 16mm silent and sound projectors.
Slide projectors 35 mm filmstrip projectors. Overhead presentation projectors In 1934, Bell & Howell introduced their first amateur 8mm movie projector, in 1935 the Filmo Straight Eight camera, in 1936 the Double-Run Filmo 8; the 1938 Kodak cassette holding 25 feet of Double-Eight film was taken by the Filmo Auto-8 in 1940. In 1954, Bell & Howell purchased DeVry Industries' 16mm division. Although known for manufacturing their film projectors, a partnership with Canon between 1961 and 1976 offered still cameras. Many of their 35mm SLR cameras were manufactured by Canon with the Bell & Howell logo or Bell & Howell/Canon in place of the Canon branding; the firm dropped the production of movie cameras by the end of the 1970s. Bell & Howell was a supplier of media equipment for offices; the film laboratory line is now a separate company, BHP Inc, a division of Research Technology International. The firm added microfilm products in 1946, it purchased University Microfilms International in the 1980s. UMI produced.
In the 2000s, Bell & Howell decided to focus on their information technology businesses. The imaging business was sold to Eastman Kodak and the international mail business was sold to Pitney Bowes. On June 6, 2001, Bell & Howell became a ProQuest Company, a publicly traded company, but is now a subsidiary of the private Cambridge Information Group. In September 2001, the remaining industrial businesses, along with the Bell & Howell name were sold to private equity firm Glencoe Capital; the company merged with the North American arm of Böwe Systec Inc. In 2003, Böwe Systec acquired the entire company, it was known as Böwe Bell & Howell until 2011, when Versa Capital Management bought the company out of bankruptcy and renamed the company "Bell and Howell, LLC". They had an Electronics and Instrumentation Division on Lennox Road, Basingstoke, UK; this facility produced several different types of transducers for applications such as North Sea oil platforms and the Ariane Space vehicles. Bell & Howell marketed a specially designed Apple II Plus computer to the educational market beginning in July 1979.
The modified Apple had additional security elements for classroom use such as a tamper-proof cover. The case color was black but the inside was a standard Apple II Plus; the modified Apple II became known colloquially among computer enthusiasts as the "Darth Vader" Apple II due to its black case design. Bell & Howell founded an Education Group within their company in 1907; this Education Group created Bell & Howell Schools in 1966. In that same year, the Education Group purchased a controlling share of DeVry Institute of Technology. Two years in 1968, Bell & Howell’s Education Group, via a controlling interest in DeVry, acquired Ohio Institute of Technology in Columbus, Ohio. Over the years, the Education Group has bought and sold large interests in a variety of educational organizations and institutions. Charles H. Percy Abraham Zapruder BH Film perforation TeleMation Inc. In 1977, TeleMation inc. became a division of Howell. Pocket comparator Notes BibliographyUnlocking the Vault Dated November 13, 2000, viewed December 7, 2006 BHP Inc Website viewed December 7, 2006 Official website European & International Sector.
The Zapruder Camera Bell & Howell 414PD Director Series - Overview and User's Manual. Bell & Howell at Made in Chicago Museum
Shepherd's Bush is a district of west London, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham 4.9 miles west of Charing Cross, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the Westfield London shopping centre a short distance to the north; the main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all with small and independent shops and restaurants. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherd's Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers. In 2011, the population of the area was 39,724; the district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton and Chiswick to the west. White City forms the northern part of Shepherd's Bush. Shepherd's Bush comprises the Shepherd's Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Wormholt and White City wards of the borough; the area's focal point is Shepherd's Bush Green, a triangular area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops, with Westfield shopping centre to its north.
The Green is a hub on the local road network, with four main roads radiating from the western side of the green and three roads approaching its eastern apex, meeting at the large Holland Park Roundabout. This position makes it an important node of the bus network, with eighteen bus routes arriving there, it is served by five London Underground stations: Shepherd's Bush and White City both on the Central line, Shepherd's Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane all on the Hammersmith & City line. To the east, Shepherd's Bush is bounded by the physical barrier of the West London railway line and the grade-separated West Cross Route. Most of the areas to the east of the barrier differ in character, being associated with the more affluent Holland Park and Notting Hill. Commercial activity in Shepherd's Bush is now focused on the Westfield shopping centre next to Shepherd's Bush Central line station and on the many small shops which run along the northern side of the Green. Built in the 1970s with a rooftop car park and connecting bridge to the station, the older West 12 Shepherds Bush shopping centre was redeveloped in the 1990s.
The bridge was removed, the centre now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice and a supermarket. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, another set of shops and restaurants line Goldhawk Road from the Green to the southwest. Many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. Running parallel to, under, an elevated section of the Hammersmith & City line there is a large permanent market, the Shepherd's Bush Market, selling all types of foodstuffs, cooked food, household goods and bric-à-brac; the Westfield Group opened a shopping centre in October 2008. As well as the offices within the BBC TV Centre on Wood Lane, opposite this is Network House, 1 Ariel Way, a 20,000 sq ft building, let by Frost Meadowcroft on behalf of Westfield to Zodiak Entertainment in September 2009 and in Rockley Road is the 160,000 sq ft Shepherds Building where Endemol another TV company are based and where Jellycat, a soft toy company, relocated their head office to in February 2010.
The same building houses Escape Studios, a digital art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherd's Bush are located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, subsequently divided up into small flats. Shepherd's Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate, constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s, it was built on the site of the grounds of the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition and close to the White City Stadium and has given its name to the northern part of Shepherd's Bush, now better known as White City. The name Shepherd's Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the common land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London.
An alternative theory is that it could have been named after someone in the area, because in 1635 the area was recorded as "Sheppard's Bush Green". Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age. Shepherd's Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the "Fulanham" estate. A map of London dated 1841 shows Shepherd's Bush to be undeveloped and chiefly rural in character, with much open farmland compared to fast-developing Hammersmith. Residential development began in earnest in the late 19th century, as London's population expanded relentlessly. In 1904 the Catholic Church of Holy Ghost and St Stephen, built in the Gothic style with a triple-gabled facade of red brick and Portland stone, was completed and opened to the public. Like other parts of London, Shepherd's Bush suffered from bomb damage during World War II from V-1 flying bomb a