An adhesive bandage called a sticking plaster, medical plaster, or plaster in British English, is a small medical dressing used for injuries not serious enough to require a full-size bandage. They are known by the genericized trademarks Band-Aid or Elastoplast; the adhesive bandage protects the wound and scab from friction, bacteria and dirt. Thus, the healing process of the body is less disturbed; some of the dressings have antiseptic properties. An additional function is to hold the two cut ends of the skin together to make the healing process faster. An adhesive bandage is a small, flexible sheet of material, sticky on one side, with a smaller, non-sticky, absorbent pad stuck to the sticky side; the pad is placed against the wound, overlapping edges of the sticky material are smoothed down so they stick to the surrounding skin. Adhesive bandages are packaged in a sealed, sterile bag, with a backing covering the sticky side, they come in a variety of shapes. The backing and bag are made of coated paper, but may be made of plastic.
The adhesive sheet is a woven fabric, plastic, or latex strip. It may not be waterproof; the adhesive is an acrylate, including methacrylates and epoxy diacrylates. The absorbent pad is made of cotton, there is sometimes a thin, porous-polymer coating over the pad, to keep it from sticking to the wound; the pad may be medicated with an antiseptic solution. In some bandages, the pad is made of a water-absorbing hydrogel; this is common in dressings used on blisters, as the gel acts as a cushion. Many people have allergies to some of these materials latex and some adhesives. Special bandages are used by food preparation workers; these are waterproof, have strong adhesive so they are less to fall off, are blue so that they are more visible in food. Some include a metal strip detectable by machines used in food manufacturing to ensure that food is free from foreign objects. Transdermal patches are adhesive bandages with the function to distribute medication through the skin, rather than protecting a wound.
Butterfly closures known as butterfly stitches, are thin adhesive strips which can be used to close small wounds. They are applied across the laceration in a manner which pulls the skin on either side of the wound together, they are not true sutures, but can be used in addition to, or in place of real sutures for small wounds. Butterfly stitches can be advantageous in that they do not need a medical professional to be placed or removed, are thus a common item in first aid kits. Band-Aid Curad Elastoplast Nexcare Dressing Media related to Adhesive bandages at Wikimedia Commons
Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.
Gaza referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine. Inhabited since at least the 15th century BCE, Gaza has been dominated by several different peoples and empires throughout its history; the Philistines made it a part of their pentapolis after the Ancient Egyptians had ruled it for nearly 350 years. Under the Romans and the Byzantines, Gaza experienced relative peace and its port flourished. In 635 CE, it became the first city in Palestine to be conquered by the Rashidun army and developed into a center of Islamic law. However, by the time the Crusaders invaded the city in the late 11th century, it was in ruins. In centuries, Gaza experienced several hardships—from Mongol raids to floods and locusts, reducing it to a village by the 16th century, when it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. During the first half of Ottoman rule, the Ridwan dynasty controlled Gaza and under them the city went through an age of great commerce and peace.
The municipality of Gaza was established in 1893. Gaza fell to British forces during World War I; as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egypt administered the newly formed Gaza Strip territory and several improvements were undertaken in the city. Gaza was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War in 1967, but in 1993, the city was transferred to the Palestinian National Authority. In the months following the 2006 election, an armed conflict broke out between the Palestinian political factions of Fatah and Hamas, resulting in the latter taking power in Gaza. Egypt and Israel imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip. Israel eased the blockade allowing consumer goods in June 2010, Egypt reopened the Rafah border crossing in 2011 to pedestrians; the primary economic activities of Gaza are agriculture. However, the blockade and recurring conflicts have put the economy under severe pressure; the majority of Gaza's inhabitants are Muslim, although there is a Christian minority. Gaza has a young population, with 75% under the age of 25.
The city is administered by a 14-member municipal council. The name "Gaza" is first known from military records of Thutmose III of Egypt in the 15th century BCE. According to Shahin, the Ancient Egyptians called it "Ghazzat", the Muslims referred to it as "Ghazzat Hashem", in honor of Hashim, the great-grandfather of Muhammad, buried in the city, according to Islamic tradition. In Semitic languages, the meaning of the city name is "fierce, strong". Other proper Arabic transliterations for the Arabic name are Ġazzah. Accordingly, "Gaza" might be spelled "Gazza" in English. Although the "z" is double in Arabic, it was transliterated into Greek as a single zeta, the voiced velar or uvular fricative at the beginning was transliterated with a gamma; the Hebrew name of the city is Aza – the ayin at the beginning of the word represented a voiced velar fricative in Biblical Hebrew, but in Modern Hebrew, it is silent. Gaza's history of habitation dates back 5,000 years, making it one of the oldest cities in the world.
Located on the Mediterranean coastal route between North Africa and the Levant, for most of its history it served as a key entrepôt of the southern Palestine and an important stopover on the spice trade route traversing the Red Sea. Settlement in the region of Gaza dates back to Tell es-Sakan, an Ancient Egyptian fortress built in Canaanite territory to the south of present-day Gaza; the site went into decline throughout the Early Bronze Age II as its trade with Egypt decreased. Another urban center known as Tell al-Ajjul began to grow along the Wadi Ghazza riverbed. During the Middle Bronze Age, a revived Tell es-Sakan became the southernmost locality in Palestine, serving as a fort. In 1650 BCE, when the Canaanite Hyksos occupied Egypt, a second city developed on the ruins of the first Tell as-Sakan. However, it was abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age. Gaza served as Egypt's administrative capital in Canaan. During the reign of Tuthmosis III, the city became a stop on the Syrian-Egyptian caravan route and was mentioned in the Amarna letters as "Azzati".
Gaza remained under Egyptian control for 350 years until it was conquered by the Philistines in the 12th century BCE, becoming a part of their "pentapolis". According to the Book of Judges, Gaza was the place where Samson was imprisoned by the Philistines and met his death. After being ruled by the Israelites and the Egyptians, Gaza achieved relative independence and prosperity under the Persian Empire. Alexander the Great besieged Gaza, the last city to resist his conquest on his path to Egypt, for five months before capturing it 332 BCE. Alexander organized the city into a polis. Greek culture took root and Gaza earned a reputation as a flourishing center of Hellenic learning and philosophy. During the Third War of the Diadochi, Ptolemy I Soter defeated Demetrius I of Macedon in a battle near Gaza in 312 BCE. In 277 BCE, following Ptolemy II's successful campaign against the Nabataeans the Ptolemaic fortress of Gaza took control of the spice trade with Gerrha and Southern Arabian. Gaza experienced another siege in 96 BCE by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus who "utterly overthrew" the city, killing 500 senators who had fled into the temple of Apollo for safety.
Josephus notes that Gaza was resettled under the rule of Herod Antipas, who cultivated friendly relations with Gazans
A dressing is a sterile pad or compress applied to a wound to promote healing and protect the wound from further harm. A dressing is designed to be in direct contact with the wound, as distinguished from a bandage, most used to hold a dressing in place. Many modern dressings are self-adhesive. A dressing can have a number of purposes, depending on the type and position of the wound, although all purposes are focused towards promoting recovery and protecting from further harm. Key purposes of a dressing are: Stem bleeding – to help to seal the wound to expedite the clotting process; the aim of a dressing is to promote healing of the wound by providing a sterile and moist environment that facilitates granulation and epithelialization. This will reduce the risk of infection, help the wound heal more and reduce scarring. Dressings were made of a piece of material a cloth, but the use of cobwebs, dung and honey have been described. However, modern dressings include dry or impregnated gauze, plastic films, foams, alginates and polysaccharide pastes and beads.
They all provide different physical environments suited to different wounds: Absorption of exudate, to regulate the moisture level surrounding the wound- for example, dry gauzes absorb exudate drying the wound, hydrocolloids maintain a moist environment and film dressings do not absorb exudate. Pressure dressings are used to treat burns and after skin grafts, they prevent fluids from collecting in the tissue. Dressings can regulate the chemical environment of a wound with the aim of preventing infection by the impregnation of topical antiseptic chemicals. Used antiseptics include povidone-iodine, boracic lint dressings or castor oil. Antibiotics are often used with dressings to prevent bacterial infection. Medical grade honey is another antiseptic option, there is moderate evidence that honey dressings are more effective than common antiseptic and gauze for healing infected post-operative wounds. Bioelectric dressings can be effective in attacking certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and speeding up the healing process.
Dressings are often impregnated with analgesics to reduce pain. The physical features of a dressing can impact the efficacy of such topical medications. Occlusive dressings, made from substances impervious to moisture such as plastic or latex, can be used to increase their rate of absorption into the skin. Dressings are secured with adhesive tape and/or a bandage. Many dressings today are produced as an "island" surrounded by an adhesive backing, ready for immediate application – these are known as island dressings; these products are indicated for only superifical and dry wounds with minimal exudates. They can be used as secondary dressings. Examples are: Gauze, adhesive bandage, cotton wool; the main aim is to protect the wound from bacterial contamination. They are used for secondary dressing. Gauze dressing is made up of woven or non-woven fibres of cotton and polyester. Gauze dressing requires frequent changing. Excessive wound discharge would cause the gauze to adhere to the wound, thus causes pain when trying to remove the gauze from the wound.
Bandages are made up of cellulose, or polyamide materials. Cotton bandages can act as a secondary dressing while compression bandages provides good compressions for venous ulcers. On the other hand, tulle gras dressing, impregnated with paraffin oil is indicated for superficial clean wound. Several types of interactive products are: semi-permeable film dressings, semi-permeable foam dressings, hydrogel dressings, hydrocolloid dressings, alginate dressings. Apart from preventing bacteria contamination of the wound, they keep the wound environment moist in order to promote healing. Semi-permeable film dressing - This dressing is a transparent film made up of polyurethane, it allows the movement of water vapor and carbon dioxide into and out of the dressing. It plays an additional role in autolytic debridement, less painful when compared to manual wound debridement inside the operating theater, it is elastic and flexible, thus is adhered to the skin. As the dressing is transparent, wound inspection is possible without removing the dressing.
Due to the limited absorption capacity, such dressing is only used in superficial wounds with low amount of discharge. Semi-permeable foam dressing- This dressing is made up of foam with hydrophilic properties and outer layer of hydrophobic properties with adhesive borders; the hydrophobic layer protects the wound from the outside fluid contamination. Meanwhile, the inner hydrophilic layer is able to absorb moderate amount of discharge from the wound. Therefore
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
A fence is a structure that encloses an area outdoors, is constructed from posts that are connected by boards, rails or netting. A fence differs from a wall in not having a solid foundation along its whole length. Alternatives to fencing include a ditch. Agricultural fencing, to keep livestock in and/or predators out Blast fence, a safety device that redirects the high energy exhaust from a jet engine Sound barrier or acoustic fencing, to reduce noise pollution Crowd control barrier Privacy fencing, to provide privacy and security Temporary fencing, to provide safety, to direct movement. Decorative fencing, to enhance the appearance of a property, garden or other landscaping Boundary fencing, to demarcate a piece of real property Newt fencing, amphibian fencing, drift fencing or turtle fence, a low fence of plastic sheeting or similar materials to restrict movement of amphibians or reptiles. Pest-exclusion fence Pet fence, an underground fence for pet containment Pool fence Snow fenceA balustrade or railing is a fence to prevent people from falling over an edge, most found on a stairway, landing, or balcony.
Railing systems and balustrades are used along roofs, cliffs and bodies of water. Brushwood fencing, a fence made using wires on either side of brushwood, to compact the brushwood material together. Chain-link fencing, wire fencing made of wires woven together Close boarded fencing and robust fence constructed from mortised posts, arris rails and vertical feather edge boards Expanding fence or trellis, a folding structure made from wood or metal on the scissor-like pantograph principle, sometimes only as a temporary barrier Ha-ha Hedge, including: Cactus fence Hedgerows of intertwined, living shrubs Live fencing is the use of live woody species for fences Turf mounds in semiarid grasslands such as the western United States or Russian steppes Hurdle fencing, made from moveable sections Pale fence, composed of pales - vertical posts embedded in the ground, with their exposed end tapered to shed water and prevent rot from moisture entering end-grain wood - joined by horizontal rails, characteristically in two or three courses.
Known as "post and rail" fencing. Palisade, or stakewall, made of vertical pales placed side by side with one end embedded in the ground and the other sharpened, to provide protection. Picket fences a waist-high, painted decorative fence Roundpole fences, similar to post-and-rail fencing but more spaced rails, typical of Scandinavia and other areas rich in raw timber. Slate fence, a type of palisade made of vertical slabs of slate wired together. Used in parts of Wales. Split-rail fence, made of timber laid in a zig-zag pattern in newly settled parts of the United States and CanadaVaccary fence, for restraining cattle, made of thin slabs of stone placed upright, found in various places in the north of the UK where suitable stone is had. Vinyl fencing Solid fences, including: Dry-stone wall or rock fence agricultural Stockade fence, a solid fence composed of contiguous or closely spaced round or half-round posts, or stakes pointed at the top. A scaled down version of a palisade wall made of logs, most used for privacy.* Wattle fencing, of split branches woven between stakes.
Wire fences Smooth wire fence Barbed wire fence Electric fence Woven wire fencing, many designs, from fine chicken wire to heavy mesh "sheep fence" or "ring fence" Welded wire mesh fence Wood-panel fencing Wrought iron fencing known as ornamental iron In most developed areas the use of fencing is regulated, variously in commercial and agricultural areas. Height, material and aesthetic issues are among the considerations subject to regulation; the following types of areas or facilities are required by law to be fenced in, for safety and security reasons: Facilities with open high-voltage equipment. Transformer stations are surrounded with barbed-wire fences. Around mast radiators, wooden fences are used to avoid the problem of eddy currents. Railway lines fixed machinery with dangerous mobile parts Explosive factories and quarry stores Most industrial plants Airfields and airports Military areas Prisons Construction sites Zoos and wildlife parks Pastures containing male breeding animals, notably bulls and stallions.
Open-air areas that charge an entry fee Amusement equipment which may pose danger for passers-by Swimming pools and spas Servitudes are legal arrangements of land use arising out of private agreements. Under the feudal system, most land in England was cultivated in common fields, where peasants were allocated strips of arable land that were used to support the needs of the local village or manor. By the sixteenth century the growth of population and prosperity provided incentives for landowners to use their land in more profitable ways, dispossessing the peasantry. Common fields were aggregated and enclosed by large and enterprising farmers—either through negotiation among one another or by lease from the landlord—to maximize the productivity of the available land and contain livestock. Fences redefined the means by which land is used. In the United States, the earliest settl
A chain-link fence is a type of woven fence made from galvanized or LLDPE-coated steel wire. The wires run vertically and are bent into a zig-zag pattern so that each "zig" hooks with the wire on one side and each "zag" with the wire on the other; this forms the characteristic diamond pattern seen in this type of fence. In the United Kingdom, the firm of Barnard, Bishop & Barnard was established in Norwich to produce chain-link fencing by machine; the process was developed by Charles Barnard in 1844 based on cloth weaving machines. The Anchor Post Fence Co. established in 1891, bought the rights to the wire-weaving machine and was the first company to manufacture chain-link fencing in the United States. Anchor Fence holds the first United States patent for chain-link; the machine was purchased from a man in 1845 from Belgium who invented the wire bending machine. In the United States, fencing comes in 20 ft and 50 ft rolls, which can be joined by "unscrewing" one of the end wires and "screwing" it back in so that it hooks both pieces.
Common heights include 3 ft, 3 ft 6 in, 4 ft, 5 ft, 6 ft, 7 ft, 8 ft, 10 ft, 12 ft, though any height is possible. Common mesh gauges are 9, 11, 11.5. Mesh length can vary based on need, with the standard mesh length being 2". For tennis courts and ball parks, the most popular height is 10 ft, tennis courts use a mesh length of 1.75". The popularity of chain-link fence is from its low cost and that the open weave does not obscure sunlight from either side of the fence. One can make a chain-link fence semi-opaque by inserting slats into the mesh. Allowing ivy to grow and interweave itself is popular; the installation of chain-link fence involves setting posts into the ground and attaching the fence to them. The posts may be steel tubing, timber or concrete and may be driven into the ground or set in concrete. End, corner or gate posts referred to as "terminal posts", must be set in concrete footing or otherwise anchored to prevent leaning under the tension of a stretched fence. Posts set between the terminal posts are called "line posts" and are set at intervals not to exceed 10 feet.
The installer attaches the fence at one end, stretches it, attaches at the other removing the excess by "unscrewing" a wire. The installer ties the fence to the line posts with aluminum wire. In many cases, the installer stretches a bottom tension wire, sometimes referred to as "coil wire", between terminal posts to help minimize the in and out movement that occurs at the bottom of the chain-link mesh between posts. Top horizontal rails are used on most chain-link fences. Bottom rails may be added in lieu of bottom tension wires, for taller fences, 10 feet or more, intermediate horizontal rails are added. Once stretched, a bottom wire should be secured to the line posts and the chain-link mesh "hog ringed" to the tension wire 2' on center. One installs this wire before installing the chain-link mesh; the manufacturing of chain-link fencing is called weaving. A metal wire galvanized to reduce corrosion, is pulled along a rotating long and flat blade, thus creating a somewhat flattened spiral; the spiral continues to rotate past the blade and winds its way through the previous spiral, part of the fence.
When the spiral reaches the far end of the fence, the spiral is cut near the blade. Next, the spiral is pressed flat and the entire fence is moved up, ready for the next cycle; the end of every second spiral overlaps the end of every first spiral. The machine clamps both gives them a few twists; this makes the links permanent. An improved version of the weaving machine winds two wires around the blade at once to create a double helix. One of the spirals is woven through the last spiral, part of the fence; this improvement allows the process to advance twice as fast. Used to notable effect in the Gehry Residence by Frank Gehry In Professional Wrestling, several wrestling match variations require that chain-link fencing surround the ring in an open "cage" style. Most popularly, in the steel cage match variation and the larger, closed cage match type specific to WWE, Hell in a Cell. Backstops used in baseball and softball fields Before the advent of gravel trap in the half of the 1980s, racetracks used chain-link fencing as catch fences to slow out-of-control cars before they hit barriers.
In the 2000s, American dirt tracks still used them. London fitted many parks with chain-link fencing during the Second World War after removing the original iron and steel railings as scrap for the war effort. Temporary fencing Chicken wire Iron Wire gauze Chain-link Fence Manufacturers Institute