SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Phillip Livas

Phillip Anthony Livas is a former American football wide receiver. In 2011, he was signed by the Miami Dolphins as an undrafted free agent in 2011 before being cut before the start of the regular season, the Omaha Nighthawks of the United Football League before being released in the season, he signed with the Saskatchewan Roughriders in October 2012, but has since been removed from the roster. He played college football at Louisiana Tech. Livas played football at South Terrebonne High School in Louisiana for four years, he began his high school playing career as a starting safety in his freshmen year, but moved to the starting running back position for the remaining three years in high school. Livas was the starting kick returner for South Terrebonne during his four years with the school, he received numerous individual awards including All-District honors, first team All-State honors. Livas was the District 6-5A Offensive Player of the Year and the Houma Courier all-Regional MVP during both his junior and senior years.

He ended his high school career in 2007 by helping to lead South Terrebonne High to the District 6-5A Title. While at South Terrebonne High, Phillip Livas played on the school's basketball team for three years and competed on the track and field team in the 100-meters race and for the 4x100-meter relay team. In his junior year, Livas's 4x100-meter relay team won regional titles. After graduating in 2007, Livas attended Louisiana Tech University. Livas tied the NCAA record for most career touchdown returns with eight. Livas signed as an undrafted free agent with the Miami Dolphins on July 26, 2011. In the Dolphins' first preseason game of the 2011 season, Livas handled the kickoff returns and punt returns for the team in the second half. Phillip Livas returned three kickoffs for a combined 84 yards and three punts for a combined 90 yards. Livas returned a punt 75 yards for a touchdown in the third quarter to help the Dolphins defeat the Atlanta Falcons 28–23. After handling most of the Dolphins' kickoff and punt return duties for the remainder of the preseason, Livas was cut by the Miami Dolphins on September 3, 2011.

On September 6, 2011, Livas was signed by the Omaha Nighthawks of the United Football League. On October 3, 2012, Livas was signed by the Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League and placed on its Practice Roster. Livas was added to the Eskimos practice roster on July 2, 2013, he was released on July 12. Edmonton Eskimos bio Louisiana Tech Bulldogs bio

Arundinaria

Arundinaria known as canes, is a genus of bamboo in the grass family. The question of which bamboo species should be included in Arundinaria has been debated for many years; some authors maintain that only the North American species should be included, while others include Asian species otherwise considered members of other genera. Arundinaria is the only bamboo native to North America; the genus is native to the south-central and southeastern United States from Maryland south to Florida and west to the southern Ohio Valley and Texas. Within this region they are found from the Coastal Plain to medium elevations in the Appalachian Mountains, its members have running rhizomes and are woody and tree-like, attaining heights from 0.5 to 8 metres. They produce seeds only and reproduce vegetatively, forming large genets; when seed production does occur, the colony dies afterwards. Among the distinctive features of the canes is a fan-like cluster of leaves at the top of new stems called a top knot; the genus Arundinaria has a complex taxonomic history spanning over two centuries.

The canes of the southeastern U. S. were described as two species of reed grasses in the genus Arundo by Thomas Walter in 1788. André Michaux, working in 1803 and unaware of Walter's work interpreted the canes as a distinct group and created the genus Arundinaria with one species. However, neither of these researchers left enough information to their successors, leading to confusion surrounding the identity of the species they had described; the workers G. H. E. Muhlenberg and A. S. Hitchcock each changed the circumscriptions of the species within the group, but it wasn't until epitypes, type specimens that clarify older ambiguous names, were applied to Walter's and Michaux's species in 2009 that the taxonomy could be stabilised. Meanwhile, many similar Asian and African bamboos were placed in this genus under a broad concept for the group. Preliminary phylogenetic studies in 2006 using molecular and morphological evidence have suggested that the genus forms three natural species confined to the southeastern United States.

Early explorers in the U. S. described vast monotypic stands of Arundinaria called canebrakes that were common in river lowlands. These covered hundreds of thousands of hectares; these have declined due to clearing and fire suppression. Prior to the European colonization of the Americas, cane was an important resource for local Native Americans; the plant was used to make everything from weapons to jewelry and medicines. It was used extensively as a fuel, parts of the plant were eaten; the canebrakes provided ideal land for crops, habitat for wild game, year-round forage for livestock. After colonisation, cane lost its importance due to the destruction and decline of canebrakes, forced relocation of indigenous people, the availability of superior technology from abroad. There are three recognized species of the genus Arundinaria accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of March 2016. For each species listed below, binomial name is followed by author citation. Plants treated in the genus Arundinaria were first described scientifically by Thomas Walter in his Flora Caroliniana, 1788.

However, Walter did not recognise the canes as bamboo, instead placed them in the superficially similar, but only distantly related grass genus Arundo. He described two species: Arundo gigantea Walt. and Arundo tecta Walt.. In 1803, the French botanist André Michaux, unaware of the flora prepared by Walter published a description of the canes he encountered. Michaux recognised only one species, but created a new monotypic genus for it: Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.. The name of the genus he used is derived from the Latin word used by Walter for the plants he described. A decade in 1813, G. H. E. Muhlenberg noticed the affinities between the two previous authors' work and transferred Walter's two species to Michaux's new genus, yielding a combinatio nova for each, namely Arundinaria gigantea Muhl. and Arundinaria tecta Muhl.. Muhlenberg considered the genus to consist of these two species in addition to Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.. After over a century, A. S. Hitchcock reviewed the taxonomic state of the North American bamboos in 1951.

He interpreted Michaux's Arundinaria macrosperma Michx. as a synonym of Walter's Arundinaria gigantea Muhl. Reducing the genus to two species. Most in 2006 researchers from Iowa State University and the University of North Carolina recognised and described a third species, Arundinaria appalachiana Triplett, Weakley & L. G. Clark; the plants that form this species were thought to form part of the natural genetic diversity of Arundinaria gigantea Muhl. but upon in depth analysis using modern phylogenetic methods based on morphology and amplified fragment length polymorphisms, the researchers determined that the canes form three species. Despite the work done by Walter and Michaux, current researchers have had difficulty interpreting their circumscriptions of species boundaries. Walter designated no type specimens, his Latin protologues, which describe the species, are vague and include features that could be any of the three species recognised. Michaux did designate a type specimen for the species he described, but it does not include enough of the plant to determine with confidence which species it represents, while his protologues were not detailed enough to avoid ambiguity.

Researchers, such as Muhlenberg and Hitchcock, were thus unable to resolve the taxonomy satisfactorily. In 2009, epitypes, a