SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geertgen tot Sint Jans

Geertgen tot Sint Jans known as Geertgen van Haarlem, Gerrit van Haarlem, Gerrit Gerritsz, Geerrit, Gheerrit, or any other diminutive form of Gerald, was an Early Netherlandish painter from the northern Low Countries in the Holy Roman Empire. No contemporary documentation of his life has been traced, the earliest published account of his life and work is from 1604, in Karel van Mander's Schilder-boeck. According to van Mander, Geertgen was a pupil of Albert van Ouwater, one of the first oil painters in the northern Low Countries. Both painters lived in the city of Haarlem, where Geertgen was attached to the house of the Knights of Saint John as a lay brother, for whom he painted an altarpiece. In van Mander's book he states that Geertgen took the name of St. John without joining the order, thus his last name "tot Sint Jans" was derived from the order's name and means "unto Saint John". Though van Mander calls him Geertgen tot Sint Jans, painter from Haarlem, indicating he was from Haarlem, it is possible that he was born in Leiden in the Burgundian Netherlands in the Holy Roman Empire, around the year 1465.

The assignment of Leiden as his birthplace is traceable to a 17th-century print by Jacob Matham, where he is referred to as Gerardus van Leydanus. There is no known archival evidence for this claim by Matham; this print of The Lamentation of Christ from 1620, shows in the lower left corner "Cum privil. Sa Cae. M. – Gerardus Leydanus Pictor ad S. Ia Bapt. Harlemi pinxit" indicating in Haarlem. In the lower right hand corner it says "Theodorus Matham Sculpsit. Iac Matham excud.", which means that son Theo made the sketch from the painting, father Jacob Matham engraved it. It was printed in Haarlem in 1620. According to van Mander, this painting of the Lamentation was on the inside right door of a wood-panel triptych for the high altar of the St. John's church in Haarlem, the two side panels were sawed off from the central panel into two separate paintings after the Protestant Reformation. Both side panels are located in separate museums today. Modern acceptance of Leiden as Geertgen's birthplace is traceable to Johann Kessler's dissertation of 1930.

He died still in his twenties, around the year 1495, in Haarlem, where he was buried in the commandry. Modern scholars have attempted to calculate the artist's death date with the information from The Painting-Book by Karel van Mander, published in 1604; the reconstruction of Geertgen's active dates has been done by Kemperdick and Sander in 2007 stating: two paintings in Vienna indicate a self-assured artist. If the artist was only twenty-eight when he died the altarpiece began at about thirteen years of age and lasted four to six years, so that Geertgen can have ended his training at the earliest by the age of about eighteen. Should he have gone to work for one or two years as a journeyman the age at which he began to live by his art correspondingly rises. Accordingly, Geertgen worked a maximum of ten years independently... If one now dates the altarpiece for the Knights of St John to around 1490 Geertgen must speaking, have been born around 1462/1467 – after the inscription on Matham's engraving in Leiden – and would have begun his apprenticeship around 1475/80.

In the 14th century Haarlem was a major city. It was the second largest city in historical Holland after Dordrecht and before Delft, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. In 1429 the city gained the right to collect tolls, including ships passing the city on the Spaarne river. At the end of the Middle Ages Haarlem was a flourishing city with a large textile industry and beer breweries. Around 1428 the city was put under siege by the army of Countess of Hainaut. Haarlem had taken side with the Cods in the Hook and Cod wars, thus against Jacoba of Bavaria; the entire Haarlemmerhout wood was burnt down by the enemy. In 1469 the commandry of St. John in Haarlem was promoted to a special status that fell directly under the grand Prior of Germany. Before that it was a subordinate commandry of the Balij of Utrecht, which had 12 commandries reporting to it; the commandry of St. John became quite wealthy from donations by the local families Berkenrode, van Brederode, Tetrode and Adrichem. Schoten was the location of a St. Lazarus church that came into the possession of the St. Janskerk.

Geertgen painted The Lamentation of Christ for the altarpiece of the church of the Knights of Saint John in Haarlem. The painting Lamentation was copied by Jacob Matham in 1620, a mirror image engraving, that includes a Latin poem by Joan Albert Ban, a dedication to Jacob van Campen, Latin quote by Albrecht Dürer, showing that three men were inspired by this painting; the other side of this altarpiece is showing the burning of the bones of St. John. Contains a group portrait of the Haarlem members of the order of St. John, with the Commandeur or Precepteur holding the finger of St. John; the St. John's church in Haarlem is where this painting formed the main altarpiece home for the North Holland Archives. Of the paintings mentioned by Van Mander, the only one to survive is one wing of his triptych for an altar of the Knights of St. John at Haarlem, the two sides of which were sawn apart in about 1600, are now in Vienna as The Legend of the Relics of St. John the Baptist, the Lamentation of Jesus.

The rest was destroyed during the siege of Haarlem in 1573. As is ty

HMS Fowey (1744)

HMS Fowey was a fifth rate warship of the Royal Navy, launched on 14 August 1744 in Hull, England. She spent only four years in commission before she struck a reef and sank in what is known today as Legare Anchorage in Biscayne National Park, off the coast of Florida, she was armed with six and eighteen pounder guns and crewed with over 200 men. She was built to carry 20 guns, was commanded from her commissioning until 1747 by Captain Policarpus Taylor, who would rise to the rank of rear admiral. Fowey was first active in the waters off Gibraltar, her first engagement was with the French ship Mentor, whilst escorting merchants from Jamaica to Great Britain. She took her as a prize. In 1745, she was rearmed to carry 44 guns, that year engaged the French ship Griffon, wrecked in the ensuing battle. In 1746 Fowey escorted troop transports to the captured Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton in Nova Scotia. For most of her career Fowey was assigned to a split duty station cruising the coast of North America from South Carolina to Boston during the summer and operating out of Port Antonio and the Caribbean in the winter.

On 2 November 1747 Policarpus Taylor was reassigned to HMS Warwick, was replaced by Captain Francis William Drake. In June 1748, Fowey captured the St. Juan y Tadicos. While escorting this prize and two British colonial merchant vessels to her summer duty station off Virginia, Fowey ran onto a reef and sank on 26 June; the English crew crowded onto the merchant vessels and navigated the hostile waters of Spanish Florida to Charleston. The crew of the St. Juan sailed for Havana. Two hundred and twenty-seven years would pass before the remains of the Fowey would be identified in 1975 by archaeologist George Fischer of the National Park Service. For many years, those searching for the wreck site had been distracted by the named obstacle, Fowey Rocks, which lie some distance to the north. However, from work commenced in the United Kingdom, by Major Paul Payne, who held an artefact from the original crew, navigational data became available, from which Mr Fischer narrowed the search. Four years in 1979 a sport diver from Miami requested title in Admiralty Court to a "wrecked and abandoned sailing vessel with Legare Anchorage in Biscayne National Park."

At this time the Abandoned Shipwreck Act was a decade in the future. The United States intervened in the lawsuit as the defendant seeking title, arguing that the shipwreck was public property in a National Park and, as such should be preserved as a part of the Nation's patrimony. In 1983, the United States won the case; the court decision constituted a landmark in United States historic shipwreck preservation case law. It stated that the remains of HMS Fowey were an archaeological site, not a ship in terms of Admiralty salvage. In the twenty five years since the wreck was identified, HMS Fowey has been broadly studied in the surviving documentary records of the United States and Great Britain and has been the subject of three National Park Service field projects; the largest and best documented of these was conducted in 1983. Evidence of the wreck's function as a Royal Naval vessel include iron ballast blocks and guns, copper gunpowder barrel hoops marked with the Broad Arrow denoting ownership by the crown.

Its cultural affiliation is further denoted by the presence of English-made pewter and ceramic tablewares. Skowronek, Russell K. 2002. HMS Fowey. Encyclopedia of Historical Archaeology, Charles E. Orser, editor. Routledge, London. A history of HMS Fowey. Binkley, Cameron Science and the'Big Dig': a History of the Southeast Archeological Center and the Development of Cultural Resources Management in the Southeast. Cultural Resources Division, Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, Atlanta, GA. Skowronek, Russell K. and George R. Fischer HMS Fowey Lost and Found: Being the Discovery and Identification of a British Man-of-War Lost off the Cape of Florida in 1748. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Skowronek, R. K. R. E. Johnson, R. H. Vernon and G. R. Fischer The Legare Anchorage Shipwreck Site-Grave of HMS Fowey. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 16:313-324. May, W. E; the Wreck of HMS Fowey. Mariner's Mirror 44:320-324. Skowronek, R. K. Archaeological Testing and Evaluation of the Legare Anchorage Shipwreck Site, Biscayne National Park, Summer 1983.

Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service, Tallahassee, FL. Skowronek, R. K. Sport Divers and Archaeology: The Case of the Legare Anchorage Ship Site. Archaeology Magazine 38:22-27. Skowronek, R. K. Hurricane Uncovers 18th-Century Wreck. Naval History 11:14; the Excavation of HMS Fowey

Pohl trial

The Pohl trial against the Nazi German administration of the "Final Solution" was the fourth of the twelve trials for war crimes that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Nuremberg after the end of World War II. The twelve trials were all held before U. S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, although both courts presided in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. They are known collectively as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials" or more formally, as the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals". In the Pohl case, SS-Obergruppenführer Oswald Pohl and 17 other SS officers employed by the SS Main Economic and Administrative Office, were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the time of the Nazi regime; the main charge against them was their active involvement in and administration of the "Final Solution". The WVHA was the Nazi government office that ran the extermination camps, it handled the procurement for the Waffen SS and, as of 1942, the administration of the SS-Totenkopfverbände.

The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal II, were Robert M. Toms, Fitzroy Donald Phillips, Michael A. Musmanno, John J. Speight as an alternate judge; the Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor. The indictment was presented on January 13, 1947. Four persons, including Oswald Pohl, were sentenced to death by hanging. Three were acquitted; the others received sentences of imprisonment between lifetime. At the request of the judges, the court reconvened on July 14, 1948 to consider additional material presented by the defense. On August 11, 1948, the tribunal issued its final sentences, confirming most of its earlier sentences, but reducing some of the prison sentences and changing the death sentence of Georg Lörner into a sentence of life imprisonment; the indictment presented by a grand jury charged the defendants with the following. Participating in a common plan or conspiracy to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity. War crimes through the administration of concentration camps and extermination camps, the mass murders and atrocities committed there.

Crimes against humanity on the same grounds, including slave labor charges. Membership in a criminal organization, the SS. Note: The SS had been found a criminal organization by the IMT. All defendants were charged on all counts of the indictment, except Hohberg, not charged on count 4. Charge 1 was disregarded by the tribunal and no judgments on this count were passed. All convicts were found guilty on charges 2, 3, 4, except Hohberg. Three defendants were acquitted on all charges: Vogt and Klein. Hohberg's sentence of 10 years included time served—he was imprisoned on October 22, 1945—because he was not a member of the SS; the defense counsel for Karl Sommer filed a petition to modify the sentence to General Lucius D. Clay, the Commander-in-Chief for the U. S. occupation zone. In response to this appeal, Clay ordered Sommer's death sentence to be commuted into a lifetime imprisonment on May 11, 1949. Pohl kept stating that he had been only a lower functionary, he was hanged on June 1951, in the prison at Landsberg.

The head of Amt D: Konzentrationslagerwesen of the WVHA, Richard Glücks, the direct superior of all commanders of concentration camps and as such directly responsible for all the atrocities committed there, was not tried. On May 10, 1945, two days after the unconditional surrender of Germany, he had committed suicide in the navy hospital of Flensburg. August Frank memorandum Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe DEST Pohl et al.: US Military Tribunal Nuremberg, Judgement of 3 November 1947