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Geffen Records

Geffen Records is an American record label established by David Geffen and owned by Universal Music Group through its Interscope Geffen A&M Records imprint. Geffen Records was started in 1980. In 1999, it was merged into Interscope Records and the Geffen Records name was dissolved. On March 23, 2017, Billboard magazine stated that Geffen Records was relaunching with longtime A&R person Neil Jacobson as President, who reports to John Janick, CEO and chairman of Interscope Geffen A&M. Geffen Records began operations in 1980, having been started by music industry businessman David Geffen who, in the early 1970s, had founded Asylum Records. Geffen stepped down from Asylum in 1975, when he crossed over to film and was named a vice president of Warner Bros. Pictures, he was fired from Warner circa 1978, but still remained locked in a five-year contract, which prevented him from working elsewhere. When that deal expired, he returned to work in 1980 and struck a deal with Warner Bros. Records, the sister company to Warner Bros.

Pictures, to create Geffen Records. Warner Bros. Records provided 100 percent of the funding for the label's start-up and operations and Warner distributed its releases in North America, while Epic Records handled distribution in the rest of the world until 1985. In that year, Warner Bros. took over distribution for the rest of the world. Profits were split 50/50 between its respective distributors. Geffen Records' first artist signing was superstar Donna Summer, whose gold-selling album The Wanderer became the label's first release in 1980; the label released Double Fantasy by John Lennon and Yoko Ono. Two weeks after it entered the charts, Lennon was murdered in New York City. Subsequently, the album went on to sell millions and gave Geffen its first number-one album and single; as the 1980s progressed, Geffen would go on to have success with such acts as Berlin, Kylie Minogue, Wang Chung, Sammy Hagar. The label signed several established acts such as Elton John, Irene Cara, Debbie Harry, Don Henley, Joni Mitchell, Neil Young, Peter Gabriel, Jennifer Holliday.

Toward the end of the decade, the company began making a name for itself as an emerging rock label, thanks to the success of Whitesnake, The Stone Roses, Guns N' Roses, Sonic Youth and the comeback of 1970s-era rockers Aerosmith. This prompted Geffen to create a subsidiary label, DGC Records in 1990. Geffen briefly distributed the first incarnation of Def American Recordings through Warner Bros. from 1988 to 1990. After a decade of operating through Warner, when its contract with the company expired, the label was sold to MCA Music Entertainment in 1990; the deal earned David Geffen an estimated US$800 million in stock and an employment contract that ran until 1995. Following the sale, Geffen Records operated as one of MCA's leading independently managed labels. Geffen stepped down as head of the label in 1995 to collaborate with Jeffrey Katzenberg and Steven Spielberg to form DreamWorks SKG, an ambitious multimedia empire dealing in film, television and music. Geffen Records would distribute releases on the new operation's DreamWorks Records subsidiary.

Universal Music Group acquired PolyGram in 1999. Geffen Records, along with A&M Records, was subsequently merged into Interscope Records. Although Geffen would continue to exist as a brand, it was downsized to fit into the greater expansion of Interscope. At the same time, international distribution of Interscope and Geffen releases switched to ex-PolyGram label Polydor Records, distributing A&M releases overseas. By 2000, despite Geffen Records no longer being independently operated within UMG and taking a more submissive position behind Interscope, it continued to do steady business—so much so that in 2003, UMG folded MCA Records into Geffen. Though Geffen had been a pop-rock label, its absorption of MCA led to a more diverse roster. Meanwhile, DreamWorks Records folded, with artists such as Nelly Furtado and Rufus Wainwright being absorbed by Geffen as well. During this time, DGC Records was folded into Geffen, with retained artists now recording for Geffen directly; as the 2000s progressed, Geffen's absorption of the MCA and DreamWorks labels, along with its continuing to sign new acts such as Ashlee Simpson, Angels & Airwaves, Snoop Dogg and The Game, had boosted the company to the extent that it began gaining equal footing with the main Interscope label, leading some industry insiders to speculate that it could revert to operating as an independently managed imprint at UMG again.

At the end of 2007, Geffen was absorbed further into Interscope, laying off sixty employees. In 2009, it was announced that Geffen Records had signed an agreement with the Holy See to produce an album of Marian songs and prayers from Pope Benedict XVI. Jimmy Iovine relaunched the Geffen imprint in 2011, moving its headquarters from California to New York City. Gee Roberson was appointed chairman. In March 2017, Neil Jacobson

Members of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, 1904–1905

This is a list of members of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly between the 1904 elections and the 1905 elections, together known as the Fifth Parliament. 1 Following the 1904 state election a new Ministry consisting of six members, including one Member of the Legislative Council, was appointed. These members were therefore required to resign and contest ministerial by-elections on 19 August 1904, at which all were returned unopposed. 2 Sir Walter James, the Ministerialist member for East Perth and former Premier, resigned on 4 October 1904 to take up the position of Agent-General for Western Australia in London. At the resulting by-election on 20 October 1904, Ministerial candidate John Hardwick won the seat. 3 Following a cabinet reshuffle on 7 June 1905, the Member for Brown Hill, Thomas Bath, was appointed Minister for Education and Lands, the Member for Mount Leonora, Patrick Lynch, was appointed Minister for Works. Both were therefore required to contest ministerial by-elections.

Bath was returned unopposed on 22 June 1905. Lynch won the by-election in his seat against a second candidate on 30 June 1905. 4 Following the failure of the Daglish Ministry in a want of confidence motion on 25 August 1905, a new five-member Ministry comprising Ministerialist members led by Cornthwaite Rason was formed. These members were therefore required to contest ministerial by-elections. John Sydney Hicks, the member for Roebourne, was returned unopposed, while the other four ministers, who were contested, won the by-elections on 14 September 1905. A new election, held on 27 October, was called to secure parliamentary support for the Ministry. 5 Prior to the 1904 election, Labor had been a minor party and government had resided with the supporters of premiers and opposition leaders of various political dispositions, who held a formal minority of seats in the Legislative Assembly and relied on the support of Independents or the Labor Party. After Labor won minority government at the 1904 election, most of the other factions united into a single grouping, several of the Independents elected in 1904 became associated with it, ran as Ministerial candidates in the 1905 election.

Black, David. Election statistics, Legislative Assembly of Western Australia, 1890-1996. Perth: Parliamentary History Project. ISBN 0-7309-8409-5. Hughes, Colin A.. D.. Voting for the South Australian, Western Australian and Tasmanian Lower Houses, 1890-1964. Canberra: Australian National University. ISBN 0-7081-1334-6. Western Australian Government Gazettes for 1904 and 1905.

Thomas Coulter

Thomas Coulter, of Dundalk, was an Irish physician and explorer. He was a member of the Royal Irish Academy, a fellow of Trinity College, where he founded the college's herbarium. After taking his medical degree in Dublin, Coulter studied botany in Geneva for seventeen months under Swiss taxonomist Augustin de Candolle. Coulter served as physician with the Real del Monte Company in Mexico, during which period he collected plants in the region, he is best remembered for exploration and botanical research in Mexico and Alta California in the early 19th century. He subsequently returned to Ireland in 1834 and became curator of the herbarium at Trinity College, Dublin. Trinity College Herbarium