He was defeated by the royal armies but nevertheless obtained a remarkable autonomy as a Magnus Dux, leading ultimately to Portuguese independence from the Spanish Kingdom of Castille-León. Another example was the line of self-proclaimed grand dukes of Burgundy in the 15th century and they tried -ultimately without success- to create from these territories under their control a new unified country between the Kingdom of France in the west and the Holy Roman Empire in the east. His son and successor Charles the Bold continued to use the style and title. The title magnus dux or grand duke has been used by the rulers of Lithuania, the first monarchs ever officially titled grand duke were the Medici sovereigns of Tuscany, starting from the late 16th century. This official title was granted by Pope Pius V in 1569, thus the 19th century saw a new group of monarchs titled Grand Duke in central Europe, especially in present-day Germany. A list of these is available in the grand duchy. In the same century, the ceremonial version of the title grand duke in Russia expanded massively because of the large number of progeny of the ruling House of Romanov during those decades.
After the Russian conquests, the continued to be used by the Russian Emperors in their role as rulers of both Lithuania and the autonomous Finland. The Holy Roman Empire under the House of Habsburg instituted a similar non-sovereign Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen in 1765, Grand princes were medieval monarchs who usually ruled over several tribes and/or were feudal overlords of other princes. At the time, the title was translated as king. However, Grand Princes did not have the same precedence as Western European kings. Grand Princes reigned in Central and Eastern Europe, notably among Slavs, the title Grand Prince translates to Velikiy Knjaz in Russian. The Slavic word knjaz and the Lithuanian kunigas are cognates of the word King in its meaning of Ruler. Thus, the meaning of Veliki Knjaz and Didysis Kunigas was more like Great Ruler than Grand Duke. Grand Prince Ivan IV of Muscovy was the last monarch to reign without claiming any higher title, the rulers of the Turkish vassal state of Transylvania used the title of Grand Prince, this title was assumed by the Habsburgs after their conquest of Hungary.
The Polish Kings of the Swedish House of Vasa used the title for their non-Polish territories. The Latin title dux, which was phonetically rendered doux in Greek, was a title for imperial generals in the Late Roman Empires. Under the latter, exclusively Byzantine theme system, the commander of a theme was often styled a doux instead of the earlier strategos from the 10th century on
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Rostock Heath is a wood and heathland region northeast of the German city of Rostock. It has an area of about 6000 hectares and, since 1252, has been owned by the Hanseatic city of Rostock. As a result of its ownership of the Rostock Heath, Rostock is today one of the five largest communal woodland owners in Germany, in the district of Rostock is the sub-district of Rostocker Heide with its head office in the village of Gelbensande. The wood and heathland region northeast of the city of Rostock is the Northeast Heath of Mecklenburg and this includes the Rostock Heath as well as the Gelbensande Forest, the forest of Alte Heide and part of the Ribnitz Forest. The wooded region is the remnant of an ancient forest that stretched from the Netherlands to Pomerania. Rostock Heath covers an area from the Baltic Sea coast between Warnemünde and Wiederort, west of Graal-Müritz, Rostock Heath is divided into the forest divisions of Schnatermann, Torfbrücke and Meyers Hausstelle. A network of ditches and streams, with branches, overlays the region.
Streams include the Rohrbach, der Stromgraben, Radelbach etc, the railway line from Rövershagen to Graal-Müritz runs through the heath in a north-south direction, parallel in places to the road joining the two villages. The Rostock City Forestry Office is responsible for managing Rostock Heath as a nature conservation authority. In 1252 a fire raged in Rostock, in the middle of the heath, the well-known commander in the Thirty Years War, is supposed to have pitched camp before advancing to Stralsund. During the Second World War, a facility of the Rostock aircraft firm. Following the heavy air raids of 1942 production was dispersed into the surrounding countryside, as part of that, the Rostock-Schwarzenpfost subcamp of Ravensbrück concentration camp was built in Oberhagen. Up to 1,500 prisoners, who walked to Oberhagen daily or were transported from Rostock by train, had to work here in the Heinkel factories, on 30 April 1945 the camp was cleared and the prisoners marched towards Warnemünde.
After the war the facilities were dismantled and taken to the Soviet Union as war reparations, in GDR times there was initially a firing range on the Rostock Heath, not far from Wiethagens, and another was laid out on the coast near Hinrichshagen. Later air defence missiles with their associated barracks and ammunition depots were added, in 1989,2,600 hectares of the Rostock Heath were being used by the armed forces. After 1990 the military installations were removed and, in 2000, the sites were renaturalised under EU-sponsored measures. Since 2000 the forest has been managed by FSC-certified authorities following a decision by Rostocks citizenship, 53% of the forested areas of the Rostock Heath are coniferous trees, of the deciduous trees the predominant species are beech and birch. 827 hectares of the Rostock Heath are moorland and meadowland, there you will find small reedbeds with spikerushes, home to many insects, marsh marigolds and orchids, kingfisher and white-tailed eagle, old yews and chequer trees
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a territory in Northern Germany held by the House of Mecklenburg residing at Schwerin. It was a member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation. The smaller southeastern part was held by the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz branch of the ducal house. Likewise in the west, the Duchy of Holstein was incorporated into the Schleswig-Holstein Province, in the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars Duke Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar, which was pawned to him from Sweden. After Napoleons victory at the Battle of Austerlitz and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Napoleon, in preparation for the French invasion of Russia in 1812, disregarded this alliance, Denmark was promised the adjacent lands of Swedish Pomerania by the 1814 Peace of Kiel and the rule of the Mecklenburg dukes remained inviolate. In 1819 serfdom was abolished in his dominions.
During the revolutions of 1848, the duchy witnessed a considerable agitation in favour of a liberal constitution, on 10 October 1849 Grand Duke Frederick Francis II granted a new Basic law elaborated by his First Minister Ludwig von Lützow. In the dispute over neighbouring Holstein which culminated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Frederick Francis II supported the Kingdom of Prussia and his grand duchy began to pass more and more under Prussian influence. In 1867 he joined the North German Confederation and the Zollverein, in the Franco-Prussian War, Prussia again received valuable assistance from Grand Duke Frederick Francis II, who was an ardent advocate of German unity and held a high command in her armies. In the course of the German unification in 1871, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, there was now renewed agitation for a more democratic constitution, and the German Reichstag parliament gave some countenance to this movement. In 1897 Frederick Francis IV succeeded his father Frederick Francis III as the last grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1907 the Grand Duke promised a constitution to his subjects.
The duchy had always been under a system of government. The duchy shared a diet, which met for a short session each year, at other times they were represented by a committee consisting of the proprietors of knights estates, known as the Ritterschaft, and the Landschaft, or burgomasters of certain towns. Mecklenburg-Schwerin returned six members to the Reichstag, upon the suicide of his cousin Grand Duke Adolphus Frederick VI on 23 February 1918, Frederick Francis served as regent of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Shortly afterwards, on 14 November, he was forced to renounce the Mecklenburg throne in the course of the German Revolution, the grand duchy turned into the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a federated state of the Weimar Republic. Thereby ended nearly eight centuries of rule by the originally Obotrite Mecklenburg dynasty. Until 1918 the grand duke was styled as Prince of the Wends and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was the last German Crown Princess and Crown Princess of Prussia as the wife of German Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Cecilie was a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and she was raise with simplicity and her early life was peripatetic spending summers in Mecklenburg and the rest of the year in the south of France. After the death of her father, she traveled every summer between 1898 and 1904 to her mothers native Russia, on 6 June 1905, she married German Crown Prince Wilhelm. The couple had four sons and two daughters, Cecile and statuesque, became popular in Germany for her sense of style. However, her husband was a womanizer and the marriage was unhappy, after the fall of the German monarchy, at the end of World War I, Cecile and her husband lived mostly apart. During the Weimar Republic and the Nazi period, Cecilie lived a life mainly at Cecilienhof Palace in Potsdam. With the advance of the Soviet troops, she left Cecilienhof to never come back in February 1945 and she settled in Bad Kissingen until 1952 when she moved to an apartment in the Frauenkopf district of Stuttgart.
In 1952, she published a book of memoirs, born on 20 September 1886 in Schwerin, Cecilie was the younger daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia. She spent most of her childhood in Schwerin, at the residences of Ludwigslust Palace. Her father suffered badly from asthma and the wet damp cold climate of Mecklenburg was not good for his health. During the winter visit of 1897, Cecilies sister, met her husband, Crown Prince Christian, Christian X of Denmark. After returning to Schwerin, Cecilie spent time with her mother in Denmark. The wedding of her sister took place in Cannes in April 1898, after the death of her father, she traveled every summer, from 1898 to 1904, visiting her relatives in Russia. Cecilie lived there in Mikhailovskoe on Kronstadt Bay, the home of her maternal grandfather. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent his eldest son to the festivities as his personal representative, taller than most women of her time at 182 centimetres, Cecilie was as tall as the German Crown Prince.
Wilhelm was struck by her beauty, and her dark hair. On 4 September 1904, the couple celebrated their engagement at the Mecklenburg-Schwerin hunting lodge. The Kaiser as an engagement present had a residence built nearby for the couple
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. It is a set in a wildlife park or a hunting area that served primarily as accommodation for a ruler or aristocrat. A Jagdschloss was often the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, the term Jagdschloss is often equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance, particularly as the hunt was a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function as well as architecture, a Jagdschloss could be very lavishly furnished, but unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today, a Jagdschloss often had stables and other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment and the entourage. Larger examples often form self-contained ensembles, while smaller ones, known as Jagdhäuser, were built within castle parks and gardens. Actes des premières Rencontres darchitecture européenne, Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003, claude dAnthenaise, Chasses princières dans lEurope de la Renaissance.
Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature, actes Sud, Arles,2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß, Jagd- und Lustschlösser and culture of two sovereign construction tasks, shown in Thuringian constructions of the 17th and 18th century, Petersberg,2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5 Media related to Hunting lodges at Wikimedia Commons
States of Germany
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states. Since todays Germany was formed from a collection of several states, it has a federal constitution. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer, the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was largely integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, in 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. Federalism is one of the constitutional principles of Germany. After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation, in 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany. This is in contrast to the development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten.
Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used officially, neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949, three Länder call themselves Freistaaten, Bavaria and Thuringia. He summarizes the arguments for boundary reform in Germany. The German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation, too many Länder make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated. But several proposals have failed so far, territorial reform remains a topic in German politics. Federalism has a tradition in German history. The Holy Roman Empire comprised many petty states numbering more than 300 around 1796, the number of territories was greatly reduced during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Congress of Vienna,39 states formed the German Confederation, the new German Empire included 25 states and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The empire was dominated by Prussia, which controlled 65% of the territory, after the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles, the remaining states continued as republics of a new German federation
Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, situated on Lake Ribnitz. Ribnitz-Damgarten is in the west of the district Vorpommern-Rügen, the border between the historical regions of Mecklenburg and Pomerania goes directly through the town, with Damgarten being the eastern and Pomeranian part and Ribnitz being the Mecklenburgian. The town is situated between the two Hanseatic cities Rostock and Stralsund, on the mouth of the river Recknitz, the Ribnitzer See, into which the Recknitz empties, is a bay of the Saaler Bodden. The Saaler Bodden in turn is the end of a chain of bays leading to the Baltic Sea. Touristically relevant is Ribnitz-Damgartens situation at the end of the Fischland. The towns name derives in the Slavic settlements Rybanis and Damgor, in ancient times, the Recknitz formed the border between Mecklenburg and Pomerania. At the ford a castle was built about 1200 on the Mecklenburg side, the Danish princes of Rügen responded by erecting a fortress on the opposite side that became the town of Damgarten.
Ribnitz as a town is first documented in 1233, documents point to town privileges under Lübeck law being established before 1257, Damgarten was granted such privileges in 1258 by Jaromar II, Duke of Rügen, as Damechore. In 1934, Walter Bachmann moved his airplane repair and production business from Rostock to Ribnitz, the company was specialized in seaplanes, for which nearness to open water was essential. The Walter-Bachmann-Flugzeugbau KG, as it was called, turned the fishers and farmers town into a seat of war-essential production. The influx of workers for the factory, among other factors, at the same time as the Bachmann works in Pütnitz, near Damgarten, an air force base was built. Like the Bachmann works for Ribnitz, so did they increase Damgartens population, primarily it was a training center for seaplane personnel. After World War II, this became one of the major deployments of the Soviet Air Forces in East Germany. 16th Guards Fighter Aviation Division of 16th Air Army was headquartered at the base from the 1950s until 1993, on the 5th of July,1950, the former towns of Ribnitz and Damgarten were merged.
As both towns councils had previously voted against the merger, it can be supposed that this decision was made under political pressure, Ribnitz-Damgarten calls itself the Bernsteinstadt, due to its history of manufacturing jewelry and other things from amber. With the adoption of said title came the introduction of a new logo, the Bernsteinlogo. It can be seen on the Stadtblatt, an informational paper issued by the town council, the coat of arms shown in the information box is based on the blazon found in the Hauptsatzung of Ribnitz-Damgarten. Today, amber is processed in the so-called Schaumanufaktur, where its processing can be watched by visitors, the resulting jewelry can be bought