Liberty Statue (Budapest)
The Liberty Statue or Freedom Statue is a monument on the Gellért Hill in Budapest, Hungary. It commemorates those who sacrificed their lives for the independence, freedom and it was first erected in 1947 in remembrance of what was referred to as the Soviet liberation of Hungary during World War II, which ended the occupation by Nazi Germany. Its location upon Gellért Hill makes it a prominent feature of Budapests cityscape, the 14 m tall bronze statue stands atop a 26 m pedestal and holds a palm leaf. Two smaller statues are present around the base, but the original monument consisted of two more originally that have since been removed from the site and relocated to Statue Park. The monument was designed by Zsigmond Kisfaludi Stróbl
Buda is the former capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 the western part of the current Hungarian capital Budapest on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises about one-third of Budapests complete territory and is mostly wooded, notable landmarks include the Buda Castle and the Citadella. The Hungarian presidents residence, Sándor Palace, is in Buda, Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686. It was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era, by the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim, largely resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. In 1686, two years after the siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda. After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the almost deserted city, germans — clinging to their language — partly crowded out, partly assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here. As the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century slowly Hungarians became the majority there.
Edmund Hauler and philologist Andrew III of Hungary, buried in the Greyfriars Church in Buda Jadwiga of Poland, born here, capestrano, Italy Pest Óbuda Buda Castle Richard Brookes, The General Gazetteer, London, J. F. C. John Thomson, New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London, H. G. Bohn Charles Knight, drawings of Castle Buda over the centuries
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. It is formed by biological and physical processes, including precipitation from marine, aragonites crystal lattice differs from that of calcite, resulting in a different crystal shape, an orthorhombic crystal system with acicular crystal. Repeated twinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms, Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous, occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. The type location for aragonite is Molina de Aragón,25 km from Aragon for which it was named in 1797, an aragonite cave, the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave, is situated in Slovakia. In the US, aragonite in the form of stalactites and cave flowers is known from Carlsbad Caverns, massive deposits of oolitic aragonite sand are found on the seabed in the Bahamas. Aragonite is the high pressure polymorph of calcium carbonate, as such, it occurs in high pressure metamorphic rocks such as those formed at subduction zones.
Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells, and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm-, because the mineral deposition in mollusk shells is strongly biologically controlled, some crystal forms are distinctively different from those of inorganic aragonite. In some mollusks, the shell is aragonite, in others. The nacreous layer of the fossil shells of some extinct ammonites forms an iridescent material called ammolite. Aragonite forms in the ocean and in caves as inorganic precipitates called marine cements and speleothems, Aragonite is not uncommon in serpentinites where high Mg in pore solutions apparently inhibits calcite growth and promotes aragonite precipitation. Aragonite is metastable at the low pressures near the Earths surface and is commonly replaced by calcite in fossils. Aragonite older than the Carboniferous is essentially unknown and it can be synthesized by adding a calcium chloride solution to a sodium carbonate solution at temperatures above 60 °C or in water-ethanol mixtures at ambient temperatures.
Aragonite is thermodynamically unstable at temperature and pressure, and tends to alter to calcite on scales of 107 to 108 years. The mineral vaterite, known as μ-CaCO3, is another phase of calcium carbonate that is metastable at ambient conditions typical of Earths surface, in aquaria, aragonite is considered essential for the replication of reef conditions. Aragonite provides the necessary for much sea life and keeps the pH of the water close to its natural level. Aragonite has been tested for the removal of pollutants like zinc, cobalt. Aragonite sea Ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O Monohydrocalcite, CaCO3·H2O Nacre, otherwise known as Mother-of-Pearl Oolitic aragonite sand The Ochtinska aragonite cave Kosovo Caves Aragonite Formations
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the Eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera, found through parts of Europe and Africa, there are no hedgehogs native to Australia, and no living species native to the Americas. Hedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews, with gymnures possibly being the intermediate link, like many of the first mammals, they have adapted to a nocturnal way of life. Hedgehogs spiny protection resembles that of the porcupines, which are rodents, and echidnas. The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge, from heyg, because it frequents hedgerows, other names include urchin and furze-pig. The collective noun for a group of hedgehogs is array, hedgehogs are easily recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin. Their spines are not poisonous or barbed and unlike the quills of a porcupine, the immature animals spines normally fall out as they are replaced with adult spines.
Spines can shed when the animal is diseased or under extreme stress, a defense that all species of hedgehogs possess is the ability to roll into a tight ball, causing all of the spines to point outwards. The hedgehogs back contains two large muscles that control the position of the quills, when the creature is rolled into a ball, the quills on the back protect the tucked head and belly, which are not quilled. Hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal, though some species can be active during the day, hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, rocks, or most commonly in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species. All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature, hedgehogs are fairly vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species. Hedgehogs occasionally perform a ritual called anointing, when the animal encounters a new scent, it will lick and bite the source, form a scented froth in its mouth and paste it on its spines with its tongue.
Anointing is sometimes called anting because of a behavior in birds. In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, the olfactory regions have not been thoroughly studied in the hedgehog. In mammals, the part of the brain is covered by neopallium. This difficulty is not impossible, as it varies from one species to another, tests have suggested that hedgehogs share the same electrical activity as cats. Although traditionally classified in the now abandoned order Insectivora, hedgehogs are omnivorous and they feed on insects, snails and toads, bird eggs, mushrooms, grass roots, berries and watermelons. Berries constitute a part of an Afghan hedgehogs diet in early spring after hibernation
Vata pagan uprising
Christianity had been introduced in Hungary by the King Stephen I of Hungary. Upon his death in 1038, he was succeeded by his sororal nephew Peter Urseolo, through tax increases, and Urseolos involvement with foreign powers, he proved to be an unpopular ruler. The Hungarian peasants, still pagan, suspected he was intent on bringing Hungary into the fold of the Holy Roman Empire. In a rebellion in 1041, Stephens brother-in-law Samuel Aba took control of the throne, Urseolo fled to Bavaria, in exile allying himself with German king and Holy Roman Emperor Henry III. In the years followed, Abas reign weakened, likely due to opposition from the church. With support from Henry, Peter Urseolo returned to Hungary in 1044, Urseolo regained the throne, but Hungary was no longer independent, it became a vassal kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire. However, his reign would prove to be even more short-lived than his first. Andrew, Béla and Levente were the sons of Vazul, cousin of Saint Stephen, during the reign of Samuel Aba, they had fled the country in fear of their lives, Béla to Poland and András and Levente to Kiev.
On their return, a rebellion began, which András and Levente initially supported, during this rebellion, a pagan noble named Vata gained power over a group of rebels who wished to abolish Christian rule and revert to paganism. According to legend Vata shaved his head in the pagan fashion, a slaughter of priests and Christians by Vatas mob ensued. King Peter is said to have fled towards Székesfehérvár, where he was killed by the rebellious townspeople, as András and Leventes men moved towards Pest, the bishops Gerard Besztrik Buldi and Beneta gathered to greet them. In Pest, on September 24, the bishops were attacked by Vatas mob, as the pagans threw rocks at him, Gellért repeatedly made the sign of the cross, which further infuriated the pagans. Gellért was taken up Kelenhegy hill, where he was put into a cart and pushed off a cliff and Beneta managed to flee across the river, where Besztrik was injured by pagans before they could be rescued by András and Levente. Gellért was canonized for his martyrdom and the hill from which he had been thrown was renamed Gellért Hill, now in central Budapest, the hill has a monument on the cliff where Gellért, now a patron saint of Hungary, was killed.
The Vatha uprising marked the last major attempt at stopping Christian rule in Hungary, while Andrew had received assistance from pagans in his rise to the throne, he had no plans to abolish Christianity in the kingdom. Once in power he distanced himself from Vatha and the pagans, they were not punished for their actions
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries. Easter Monday in the Western Christian liturgical calendar is the day of Eastertide. Formerly, the post-Easter festivities involved a week of secular celebration, in the Eastern Orthodox Church and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches, this day is called Bright Monday or Renewal Monday. In Australia, Easter Monday is a public holiday, people enjoy outdoor sporting events, such as the Oakbank Easter Racing Carnival in South Australia, Australian Three Peaks Race in Tasmania as well as the Stawell Gift in Victoria. In Egypt, the ancient festival of Sham El Nessim is celebrated on the Coptic Easter Monday and it is celebrated by both Egyptian Christians and Muslims as an Egyptian national holiday rather than as a religious one. Traditional activities include painting eggs, taking meals outdoors, and eating feseekh, in the Republic of Ireland it is a day of remembrance for the men and women who died in the Easter Rising which began on Easter Monday 1916.
Until 1966, there was a parade of veterans, past the headquarters of the Irish Republican Army at the General Post Office on OConnell Street, Śmigus-dyngus is the name for Easter Monday in Poland and the diaspora. In the Czech Republic it is called velikonoční pondělí, in Slovakia veľkonočný pondelok, called Šibačka/Polievačka or Oblievačka. All countries practice a unique custom on this day, another related custom, unique to Poland, is that of sprinkling bowls of ashes on people or houses, celebrated a few weeks earlier at the półpoście. This custom is almost forgotten, but still practiced in the area around the borders of Mazuria and Masovia, in Germany, people go out into the fields early in the morning and hold Easter egg races. For Roman Catholics, Easter Monday is a Holy Day of Obligation in Germany. Though not largely observed in the United States, the day remains informally observed in areas such as the state of North Dakota, and some cities in New York, Michigan. Easter Monday was a holiday in North Carolina from 1935 to 1987.
Texas and Maryland schools often have two holidays on Good Friday and Easter Monday, in some states and districts, public schools and universities are closed on Easter Monday, often part of spring break. Traditionally Polish areas of the such as Chicago, and more recently Cleveland. Dyngus Day celebrations are widespread and popular in Buffalo, New York and Hamtramck in Michigan, South Bend and La Porte in Indiana, the worlds largest organized Dyngus Day celebration occurs in Buffalo, New York. In Buffalos eastern suburbs and the citys Historic Polonia District, Dyngus Day is celebrated with a level of enthusiasm. Although Dyngus Day was celebrated in traditional Polish neighborhoods of Buffalo dating back to the 1870s, judge Ann T. Mikoll and her late husband Theodore V. Mikoll held the first party at the Societys clubrooms in the Buffalo Central Terminal
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural, or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of areas, rocks and trees. In North America, many parks have fields for playing such as soccer and football. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities, some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Often, the smallest parks are in areas, where a park may take up only a city block or less. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables, the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands of square kilometres, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers. In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit, many natural parks are protected by law, and users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are typically overseen by a ranger or a park warden.
Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the months and, in some northern hemisphere countries. The first parks were English deer parks, land set aside for hunting by royalty and they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was strictly forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks and these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owners wealth, an aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown. As cities became crowded, the hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities, sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development, in some parks or time periods with high pollen counts, parks tend to be avoided.
Park design is influenced by the purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground, a park primarily intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities, the design of a park may determine who is willing to use it