Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6, it is a steely-grey, lustrous and brittle transition metal. Chromium boasts a high usage rate as a metal, able to be polished while resisting tarnishing. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, a popular steel alloy due to its uncommonly high specular reflection. Simple polished chromium reflects 70% of the visible spectrum, with 90% of infrared light being reflected; the name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color, because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and aluminium. Chromium metal is of high value for hardness. A major development in steel production was the discovery that steel could be made resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding metallic chromium to form stainless steel.
Stainless steel and chrome plating together comprise 85% of the commercial use. In the United States, trivalent chromium ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin and lipid metabolism. However, in 2014, the European Food Safety Authority, acting for the European Union, concluded that there was not sufficient evidence for chromium to be recognized as essential. While chromium metal and Cr ions are not considered toxic, hexavalent chromium is both toxic and carcinogenic. Abandoned chromium production sites require environmental cleanup. Chromium is the fourth transition metal found on the periodic table, has an electron configuration of 3d5 4s1, it is the first element in the periodic table whose ground-state electron configuration violates the Aufbau principle. This occurs again in the periodic table with other elements and their electron configurations, such as copper and molybdenum; this occurs. In the previous elements, the energetic cost of promoting an electron to the next higher energy level is too great to compensate for that released by lessening inter-electronic repulsion.
However, in the 3d transition metals, the energy gap between the 3d and the next-higher 4s subshell is small, because the 3d subshell is more compact than the 4s subshell, inter-electron repulsion is smaller between 4s electrons than between 3d electrons. This lowers the energetic cost of promotion and increases the energy released by it, so that the promotion becomes energetically feasible and one or two electrons are always promoted to the 4s subshell. Chromium is the first element in the 3d series where the 3d electrons start to sink into the inert core. Chromium is a strong oxidising agent in contrast to the tungsten oxides. Chromium is hard, is the third hardest element behind carbon and boron, its Mohs hardness is 8.5, which means that it can scratch samples of quartz and topaz, but can be scratched by corundum. Chromium is resistant to tarnishing, which makes it useful as a metal that preserves its outermost layer from corroding, unlike other metals such as copper and aluminium. Chromium has a melting point of 1907 °C, low compared to the majority of transition metals.
However, it still has the second highest melting point out of all the Period 4 elements, being topped by vanadium by 3 °C at 1910 °C. The boiling point of 2671 °C, however, is comparatively lower, having the third lowest boiling point out of the Period 4 transition metals alone behind manganese and zinc. Chromium has an unusually high specular reflection in comparison to that of other transition metals. At 425 μm, chromium was found to have a relative maximum reflection of about 72% reflectance, before entering a depression in reflectivity, reaching a minimum of 62% reflectance at 750 μm before rising again to reflecting 90% of 4000 μm of infrared waves.. When chromium is formed into a stainless steel alloy and polished, the specular reflection decreases with the inclusion of additional metals, yet is still rather high in comparison with other alloys. Between 40% and 60% of the visible spectrum is reflected from polished stainless steel; the explanation on why chromium displays such a high turnout of reflected photon waves in general the 90% of infrared waves that were reflected, can be attributed to chromium's magnetic properties.
Chromium has unique magnetic properties in the sense that chromium is the only elemental solid which shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Above 38 °C, its magnetic ordering changes to paramagnetic.. The antiferromagnetic properties, which cause the chromium atoms to temporarily ionize and bond with themselves, are present because the body-centric cubic's magnetic properties are disproportionate to the lattice periodicity; this is due to the fact that the magnetic moments at the cube's corners and the cube centers are not equal, but are still antiparallel. From here, the frequency-dependent relative permittivity of chromium, deriving from Maxwell's equations in conjunction with chromium's antiferromagnetivity, leaves chromium with a high infrared and visible light reflectance. Chromium metal left standing in air is passivated by oxidation, forming a th
Air pollution in the United States
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular. According to a 2009 report, around "60 percent of Americans live in areas where air pollution has reached unhealthy levels that can make people sick". Pollution in the United States has plummeted in the last decade, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide decreasing, despite the fact the number of vehicles on the road has not; this change is due to better regulations, economic shifts, technological innovations. With respect to nitrogen dioxide, NASA reported a 32% decrease in New York City and a 42% decrease in Atlanta between the periods of 2005-2007 and 2009-2011. Air pollution can cause a variety of health problems including, but not limited to infections, behavioral changes, organ failure, premature death.
These health effects are not distributed in terms of race, socioeconomic status and more in the United States. California has the worst air quality of any state, in most surveys the cities in California rank in the top 5 or top 10 of most polluted air in the United States. In the 1960s, 1970s, 1990s, the United States Congress enacted a series of Clean Air Acts which strengthened regulation of air pollution. Individual U. S. states, some European nations and the European Union followed these initiatives. The Clean Air Act sets numerical limits on the concentrations of a basic group of air pollutants and provide reporting and enforcement mechanisms. In 1999, the United States Environmental Protection Agency replaced the Pollution Standards Index with the Air Quality Index to incorporate new PM2.5 and Ozone standards. The effects of these laws have been positive. In the United States between 1970 and 2006, citizens enjoyed the following reductions in annual pollution emissions: carbon monoxide emissions fell from 197 million tons to 89 million tons nitrogen oxide emissions fell from 27 million tons to 19 million tons sulfur dioxide emissions fell from 31 million tons to 15 million tons particulate emissions fell by 80% lead emissions fell by more than 98%In an October 2006 letter to EPA, the agency's independent scientific advisors warned that the ozone smog standard “needs to be reduced” and that there is “no scientific justification” for retaining the current, weaker standard.
The scientists unanimously recommended a smog threshold of 60 to 70 ppb after they conducted an extensive review of the evidence. The EPA has proposed, in June 2007, a new threshold of 75 ppb; this is less strict than the scientific recommendation, but is more strict than the current standard. Some industries are lobbying to keep the current standards in place. Environmentalists and public health advocates are mobilizing to support the scientific recommendations. An outpouring of fugitive dust layered with man-made sulfates, industrial fumes, carbon grit, nitrates is crossing the Pacific Ocean on prevailing winds from booming Asian economies in plumes so vast they alter the climate. A third of the air over Los Angeles and San Francisco can be traced directly to Asia. With it comes up to three-quarters of the black carbon particulate pollution that reaches the West Coast. In the United States unhealthy levels of pollution are measured by the Environmental Protection Agency and independent researchers or agencies, like the American Lung Association.
Federal limits and pollution standards are set by the Clean Air Act. Due to air pollution causing more than one effect it is hard to attribute a condition only to air pollution or to say how much a given source is responsible. However, it is believed that at least 200 000 human deaths are attributable to air pollution and at least a quarter are due to transportation; this compares with the approximate 33 000 from gun deaths or recent average of 35 000 from motor vehicle collisions. Which are both attributable to human technology application. There are significant non-human deaths and effects; as air pollution increases, symptoms of asthma worsen. Asthma's etiology is poorly understood and has no cure. There are many environmental factors; the main sources of environmental pollution are the burning of fossil fuels in the combustion engines, dust generated by traffic on road surfaces, biomass used for cooking and heating. In urban areas, there are high concentrations of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and other volatile organic compounds and can make breathing more difficult.
The health effects of particulate matters with different diameters are related to the length of those particles staying in the atmosphere and the locations of infection in the respiratory tract Young children who are exposed to air pollution are vulnerable. One reason they are more vulnerable is because the average breathing pattern for an adult is 16 to 20 breaths per minute, while a 1-year-old child has a faster breathing pattern, 20 to 40 breaths per minute. Therefore, children will be inhaling more pollutants than adults. Prenatal exposures to air pollution have influenced respiratory health starts in utero. Mothers who were exposed to PM2.5 weekly during gestation, were to have a child diagnosed with asthma by the age 6 years. Many of the mothers exposed to PM2.5 were ethnic minorities, had 12 or fewer years of education, did not smoke in pregnancy. Inner-city children from the age of 5–11 years old were diagnosed with Asthma, due to prenatal exposure to
Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H2O:HCl. Hydrochloric acid has a distinctive pungent smell, it is classified as acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride dissociates in aqueous solution. Hydrochloric acid is the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water, it is a solution of hydrogen chloride and water, a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used in the production of polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In households, diluted hydrochloric acid is used as a descaling agent. In the food industry, hydrochloric acid is used in the production of gelatin. Hydrochloric acid is used in leather processing. Hydrochloric acid was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD, it was called acidum salis and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" and from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid.
Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius. It was used by chemists such as Glauber and Davy in their scientific research. Unless pressurized or cooled, hydrochloric acid will turn into a gas if there is around 60% or less of water. Hydrochloric acid is known as hydronium chloride, in contrast to its anhydrous parent known as hydrogen chloride, or dry HCl. Hydrochloric acid was known to European alchemists as spirits of acidum salis. Both names are still used in other languages, such as German: Salzsäure, Dutch: Zoutzuur, Swedish: Saltsyra, Turkish: Tuz Ruhu, Polish: kwas solny, Bulgarian: солна киселина, Russian: соляная кислота, Chinese: 鹽酸, Korean: 염산, Taiwanese: iâm-sng. Gaseous HCl was called marine acid air; the old name muriatic acid has the same origin, this name is still sometimes used. The name hydrochloric acid was coined by the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1814. Hydrochloric acid has been an important and used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD.
Aqua regia, a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber, a 13th-century European alchemist. Other references suggest that the first mention of aqua regia is in Byzantine manuscripts dating to the end of the 13th century. Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius, who prepared it by heating salt in clay crucibles. Other authors claim that pure hydrochloric acid was first discovered by the German Benedictine monk Basil Valentine in the 15th century, when he heated common salt and green vitriol, whereas others argue that there is no clear reference to the preparation of pure hydrochloric acid until the end of the 16th century. In the 17th century, Johann Rudolf Glauber from Karlstadt am Main, Germany used sodium chloride salt and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate in the Mannheim process, releasing hydrogen chloride gas. Joseph Priestley of Leeds, England prepared pure hydrogen chloride in 1772, by 1808 Humphry Davy of Penzance, England had proved that the chemical composition included hydrogen and chlorine.
During the Industrial Revolution in Europe, demand for alkaline substances increased. A new industrial process developed by Nicolas Leblanc of Issoudun, France enabled cheap large-scale production of sodium carbonate. In this Leblanc process, common salt is converted to soda ash, using sulfuric acid and coal, releasing hydrogen chloride as a by-product; until the British Alkali Act 1863 and similar legislation in other countries, the excess HCl was vented into the air. After the passage of the act, soda ash producers were obliged to absorb the waste gas in water, producing hydrochloric acid on an industrial scale. In the 20th century, the Leblanc process was replaced by the Solvay process without a hydrochloric acid by-product. Since hydrochloric acid was fully settled as an important chemical in numerous applications, the commercial interest initiated other production methods, some of which are still used today. After the year 2000, hydrochloric acid is made by absorbing by-product hydrogen chloride from industrial organic compounds production.
Since 1988, hydrochloric acid has been listed as a Table II precursor under the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances because of its use in the production of heroin and methamphetamine. Hydrochloric acid is the salt of H3O + and chloride, it is prepared by treating HCl with water. HCl + H 2 O ⟶ H 3 O + + Cl − However, the speciation of hydrochloric acid is more complicated than this simple equation implies; the structure of bulk water is infamously complex, the formula H3O+ is a gross oversimplification of the true nature of the solvated proton, H+, present in hydrochloric acid. A combined IR, Raman, X-ray and neutron diffraction study of concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid revealed that the primary form of H+ in these solutions is H5O2+, along with the chloride anion, is hydrogen-bonded to neighboring wa
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Stony Point, New York
Stony Point is a triangle-shaped town in Rockland County, New York, United States. It is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area; the town is located north of the town of Haverstraw and south of Orange County, New York, west of the Hudson River and Westchester County. The population was 15,059 at the 2010 census; the name of the town is derived from a prominent projection into the Hudson River. The town is in the northeast part of the county. U. S. Route 9W, U. S. Route 202, the Palisades Interstate Parkway are major north-south routes through the town. Stony Point is included in the North Rockland Central School District, it is the most rural out of the 5 towns in Rockland County. During the American Revolution, the King's Ferry in Stony Point linked New York and the southern colonies with New England; the Stony Point Battlefield, just north of Stony Point, marks the July 16, 1779 Battle of Stony Point in which General "Mad" Anthony Wayne led 1,350 Continental Army troops in a surprise attack just before midnight on July 15 against the 544-man British garrison at Stony Point.
The Americans were unable to hold the fort for more than a few days. In spite of this, Washington presented a medal to Wayne for his efforts. Wayne's actions in the battle may or may not have contributed to his earning his nickname of "Mad" Anthony Wayne; the economy of the town improved upon the rediscovery of limestone deposits in the 19th century. The town of Stony Point was founded in 1865 from the northern part of the town of Haverstraw. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.6 square miles, of which 27.6 square miles is land and 4.0 square miles, or 12.58%, is water. The western town line is the border of Orange County, New York, the eastern town line is defined by the Hudson River with Westchester County on the opposite shore; as of the census of 2000, there were 14,245 people, 4,832 households, 3,802 families residing in the town. The population density was 511.7 people per square mile. There were 4,951 housing units at an average density of 177.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 94.33% White, 1.27% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.84% of the population. There were 4,832 households out of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.33. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $71,940, according to CNN Money the median income for a family was $97,633.
Males had a median income of $55,727 versus $36,424 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,244. In comparison, the average salary in 2010 for a full-time Stony Point police officer was $126,895. About 1.9% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. Bear Mountain – A hamlet named after a peak in the Bear Mountain State Park; the community is in the northern part of the town. Bulsontown – A hamlet in the northwest part of the town. Cedar Flats – A hamlet northwest of Stony Point hamlet. Doodletown – A hamlet in the northern corner of the town, in Bear Mountain State Park, abandoned since 1965. Grassy Point – A hamlet. Grassy Point – short peninsula into the Hudson River in the southeast part of the town. William Denning Sr. a wealthy New York lawyer sold 10 acres at the south end of the property to another New York lawyer, William Smith who built Rosa Villa, his country estate. William's brother, Doctor Thomas Smith, was the owner of the "treason house" in West Haverstraw, New York, occupied by his other brother, Joshua Hett Smith, at the time that Benedict Arnold and Major John André planned their conspiracies during the American Revolution.
Jones Point – A hamlet by the Hudson River. It is the easternmost community in the town. Stony Point – The hamlet and CDP of Stony Point is in the eastern part of the town. Tomkins Cove - A hamlet by the Hudson River, just north of the Town of Stony Point. Willow Grove – A hamlet on the south town line. Willow Grove includes Jessup Valley, a small community surrounding Jessup Lake, just west of the Palisades Interstate Parkway; the ex-New York Central's River Subdivision follows the west bank of the Hudson River through Stony Point. The line is now operated by the fourth railroad to operate the line; the only company served by CSX in the town is the Mirant Lovett Generating Station which receives trainloads of coal about once a week. The power station owns and operates its own railroad to bring the coal from the siding at milepost 38 into the plant. A talking defect detector, which scans the axles of passing trains for problems, is located in Stony Point. On average, between 20–25 trains pass through Stony Point per day.
CSX runs six container stack trains a day. Once a week a garbage train from the Bronx brings trash up north to burn for power. On a normal day on
NRG Energy, Inc. is a large American energy company, dual-headquartered in West Windsor Township, New Jersey, Houston, Texas. It was the wholesale arm of Xcel Energy, was spun off in bankruptcy in 2004; when the state of Texas deregulated the electricity market, Houston Industries, the parent company of Houston Lighting & Power was broken up. In 2003 Houston Industries was split into three companies; the power plants went to Texas Genco, CenterPoint Energy took over the distribution system, the retail and wholesale electricity business became Reliant Energy. In 2006, NRG Energy bought Texas Genco from a group of private equity firms for $5.9 billion. Afterwards, in May 2009, NRG Energy acquired the retail operations of Reliant Energy. With those two moves, NRG's holdings represented most of the former HL&P and today serve 1.6 million customers in Texas. The retail operations continue to operate under the Reliant Energy name while old Reliant's wholesale operations became RRI Energy. Following the acquisition of Reliant, NRG extended its retail footprint with the acquisition of Green Mountain Energy in November 2010.
In doing so, NRG became the largest retailer of green power in the nation, providing all of its Green Mountain and many of its Reliant customers with energy derived from 100% renewable resources. NRG Energy completed its acquisition of GenOn Energy in December 2012 for $1.7 billion in stock and cash. The GenOn name was retired in the merger, but the combined company retained GenOn's Houston headquarters to coordinate operations; that company, in turn, had been formed out of the merger of RRI Energy and Mirant Corporation in 2010. In August 2013, NRG acquired Energy Curtailment Specialists, a Buffalo, New York based Demand response company; the terms of the deal were not disclosed. In September 2014, NRG acquired a manufacturer of personal solar power products. In March 2018 NRG acquired Xoom Energy, a residential focused, retail energy supplier with 300,000 RCE customers; the sale price was $210 million. NRG Energy holds the naming rights to the NRG Park campus in Houston, home to the NRG Astrodome, NRG Stadium, NRG Arena and NRG Center.
NRG Energy holds the naming rights for a NRG Station, a rapid transit station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After the GenOn merger, NRG has 47,000 MW of total generation capacity, enough to power 40 million homes, its nearly 100 power plants are located in 18 states in the Northeast, Chicago area, Gulf Coast, Southwest and California. Generation facilities include fossil fuel power plants powered by natural gas and coal. NRG has a 44% ownership stake in the South Texas Nuclear Generating Station and a 37.5% stake in a coal power plant in Gladstone, Australia. Some facilities use cogeneration and the company owns 28 MW of solar distributed generation. NRG's Retail Power services provide electricity services to more than 2 million homes and businesses in Texas and the Northeast. Beginning in 2009, NRG began an initiative to become a green energy producer in the United States and started investing money in clean energy projects, they include onshore and offshore wind power, solar thermal energy and distributed solar power facilities, repowering of some of their traditional coal plants with biomass.
In late 2010, NRG launched the "EVgo" network, the first private public car charging station network for electric power vehicles. The company signed a two-year agreement beginning in January 2011 to provide 100% renewable energy for the Empire State Building. New York State Assemblywoman Aravella Simotas has been chair of a coalition to support the utility in their plan to replace its power plant in Astoria with a newer generator; the company stated its intention in 2012 to replace 31 older oil generators with new gas generators that will increase the megawatts of power while reducing emissions. As of 2018, of the 19 Astoria facilities listed in the 2018 NYISO Gold Book as being owned by NRG, 7 of the facilities are on the deactivated list, 12 of the facilities have each produced less than 15 GWh a year since 2011; this is equivalent to running at full capacity for less than 4% of the year. These 12 units still collect annual revenues from the NYISO's capacity market for not producing energy.
For example, at 6.40, the 12 listed facilities would produce an annual capacity market revenue of $42.8 million for NRG. It is unclear. In July 2017, NRG filed a request with the New York State Public Service Commission to avoid Article 10 siting procedures for a proposed turbine replacement project which would represent a total proposed capacity of 579 MW; the turbine upgrades listed in the filing are new simple-cycle turbines. The filing states that since the proposed capacity is not 25 MW greater than the existing facility, Article 10 regulation is not required; as of November 2018, no ruling has been issued by the NYSPSC. GreenStreet New York energy law Official website Reliant Energy website EVgo Website
The Potomac Electric Power Company is a public utility that supplies electric power to the city of Washington, D. C. and to surrounding communities in Maryland. It is owned by Exelon; the company's current trademarked slogan is "Your life. Plugged in." Its former slogan was "We're connected to you by more than power lines." Pepco's bulk transmission system consists of transmission lines operating at 115 kV, 138kV, 230 kV and 500 kV. Pepco has interconnections with Potomac Edison, Baltimore Gas and Electric, Dominion Virginia Power; the company's predecessor, Potomac Electric Co. was organized in 1891 to provide street lighting and streetcar power in Georgetown and Northwest D. C. After suffering during the Panic of 1893, the company filed bankruptcy and, on November 6, 1895, was acquired by Oscar T. Crosby and Charles A. Lieb for $5,500; the company was incorporated as Potomac Electric Power Company April 1896 in Virginia. It became a subsidiary of the North American Company, which owned the Washington Traction and Electric Company, one of the private streetcar companies in Washington.
On December 17, 1896, after a court battle, the company received a contract to light the city of Washington D. C. In January 1889, the company merged with United States Electric Lighting Company. In 1899, the company merged with Electric Company. In June 1901, the company filed for bankruptcy and was acquired by the Washington Railway and Electric Company. In 1905, revenues exceeded $1 million for the first time. In 1906, the company began construction of the first unit of the Benning Road Power Plant, along the Anacostia River; when its last unit was completed in 1931, the power plant had a 185,000-kilowatt capacity. In 1928, the North American Company gained control of Washington Electric; the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 forced the North American Company to divest itself of either their streetcar operations or its power generating utility. Since power generation was far more profitable, North American choose to divest itself of the transport entity. In 1954, revenue exceeded $50 million for the first time.
In 1969, the company suspended its dividend due to rising costs. In 1980, the company cancelled plans to build a $930 million power plant in Montgomery County as a result of reduced demand. In September 1995, the company announced a merger with Baltimore Electric. In 2001, the company became a unit of Pepco Holdings. In 2003, the holding company took over Pepco's investment subsidiary. On March 23, 2016, the company was acquired by Exelon. In 2011, Business Insider named the company first on its list of "The 19 Most Hated Companies In America" based on its American Customer Satisfaction Index rating. An investigation by The Washington Post in 2010 faulted Pepco for poor reliability; the report noted that the company's performance had slipped since 2005, comparing poorly to other major utilities in the frequency and duration of power outages. Thousands of people lost power for as many as five days after only 5-8 inches of heavy wet snow. During the June 2012 North American derecho, more than half of the customers in Montgomery County, Maryland lost electric power.
The company was criticized for being slow to restore power and for charging its customers for the power outage. The company's Benning Road Power Plant produced air pollution that negatively affected neighboring communities. In 2017, the company agreed to pay regulators $1.6 million for violations of the Clean Water Act. Official website