SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA; the RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic trait; these genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes as well as gene–environment interactions; some genetic traits are visible, such as eye color or the number of limbs, some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life. Genes can acquire mutations in their sequence, leading to different variants, known as alleles, in the population; these alleles encode different versions of a protein, which cause different phenotypical traits.

Usage of the term "having a gene" refers to containing a different allele of the same, shared gene. Genes evolve due to natural selection / survival of the fittest and genetic drift of the alleles; the concept of a gene continues to be refined. For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, coding regions can be split into several exons; some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. Therefore, a broad, modern working definition of a gene is any discrete locus of heritable, genomic sequence which affect an organism's traits by being expressed as a functional product or by regulation of gene expression; the term gene was introduced by Danish botanist, plant physiologist and geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909. It is inspired by the ancient Greek: γόνος, that means offspring and procreation; the existence of discrete inheritable units was first suggested by Gregor Mendel. From 1857 to 1864, in Brno, he studied inheritance patterns in 8000 common edible pea plants, tracking distinct traits from parent to offspring.

He described these mathematically as 2n combinations where n is the number of differing characteristics in the original peas. Although he did not use the term gene, he explained his results in terms of discrete inherited units that give rise to observable physical characteristics; this description prefigured Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between phenotype. Mendel was the first to demonstrate independent assortment, the distinction between dominant and recessive traits, the distinction between a heterozygote and homozygote, the phenomenon of discontinuous inheritance. Prior to Mendel's work, the dominant theory of heredity was one of blending inheritance, which suggested that each parent contributed fluids to the fertilisation process and that the traits of the parents blended and mixed to produce the offspring. Charles Darwin developed a theory of inheritance he termed pangenesis, from Greek pan and genesis / genos. Darwin used the term gemmule to describe hypothetical particles. Mendel's work went unnoticed after its first publication in 1866, but was rediscovered in the late 19th century by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, Erich von Tschermak, who reached similar conclusions in their own research.

In 1889, Hugo de Vries published his book Intracellular Pangenesis, in which he postulated that different characters have individual hereditary carriers and that inheritance of specific traits in organisms comes in particles. De Vries called these units "pangenes", after Darwin's 1868 pangenesis theory. Sixteen years in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term'gene' and William Bateson that of'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. Advances in understanding genes and inheritance continued throughout the 20th century. Deoxyribonucleic acid was shown to be the molecular repository of genetic information by experiments in the 1940s to 1950s; the structure of DNA was studied by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins using X-ray crystallography, which led James D. Watson and Francis Crick to publish a model of the double-stranded DNA molecule whose paired nucleotide bases indicated a compelling hypothesis for the mechanism of genetic replication.

In the early 1950s the prevailing view was that the genes in a chromosome acted like discrete entities, indivisible by recombination and arranged like beads on a string. The experiments of Benzer using mutants defective in the rII region of bacteriophage T4 showed that individual genes have a simple linear structure and are to be equivalent to a linear section of DNA. Collectively, this body of research established the central dogma of molecular biology, which states that proteins are translated from RNA, transcribed from DNA; this dogma has since been shown to have exceptions, such as reverse transcription in retroviruses. The modern study of genetics at the level of DNA is known as molecular genetics. In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: that of Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein; the subsequent development of chain-termination DNA sequencing in 1977 by Frederick Sanger improved the efficiency of sequencing and turned it into a routine laboratory tool.

An automated version of the Sanger method w

Berlin Pankow

Berlin Pankow is one of the 299 single member constituencies used for the German parliament, the Bundestag. Located in north-east Berlin the constituency was created in its current form for the 2002 election; the predecessor constituencies had been won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1990 and by the Party of Democratic Socialism, the successor party to the East German Communist party, in 1994 and 1998. The redrawn constituency was won by the SPD in 2002 and 2005 but lost to The Left Party in 2009; the constituency, numbered constituency 77 by the German electoral authorities, contains most of the Berlin borough of Pankow. This borough, a merger of the former boroughs of Pankow, Prenzlauer Berg and Weissensee was created by the 2001 administrative reform; the current constituency excludes the eastern section of Prenzlauer Berg, placed in the Berlin Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg – Prenzlauer Berg East constituency. The legislation establishing the constituency describes it as containing the "borough of Pankow without the area east of Mitte and Prenzlauer Allee south of the road and mid Lehderstrasse Gürtelstrasse and the Jewish Cemetery."The first constituency to centre on the Pankow and Weissensee areas, constituency number 258, Berlin Pankow – Hohenschönhausen – Weissensee II, was used for the 1990 election, the first after German reunification.

For the 1994 election, the remainder of the Weissensee area was added and the constituency renamed as Berlin Hohenschönhausen – Pankow – Weissensee and numbered constituency 261. The reduction in the number of single member constituencies from 328 to 299 meant that Berlin lost one of its 13 constituencies for the 2002 election; the boundary changes which took effect for the 2002 election transferred the Hohenschönhausen area to the new Berlin Lichtenberg while the redrawn Pankow constituency gained the western section of Prenzlauer Berg from the abolished Berlin Mitte – Prenzlauer Berg constituency. These boundary changes proved significant as the PDS had won the constituency by just 3,293 votes in 1998 and out of the 23 Berlin boroughs in existence, Hohenschönhausen had produced their fourth highest vote share, 41.4% against the SPD vote of 31.5%. In contrast, in the newly added Prenzlauer Berg section, SPD had led PDS in the Prenzlauer Berg borough as a whole by 38.2% to 34.0% Controversy arose after the Chief German statistician produced figures showing that, on the new 2002 boundaries, the SPD would have beaten the PDS by 36.1% to 32.7% in 1998.

The newly redrawn constituency was won by the SPD in 2002. Under Germany's electoral system, a party must win either 3 constituency seats or poll more than 5% of the vote across Germany as a whole in order to be awarded list seats. Having won four constituency seats at the previous election, the failure of the PDS to win a third constituency here or in other potential seats such as Berlin Treptow – Köpenick or Berlin Kreuzberg-Friedrichshain – Prenzlauer Berg East in 2002 proved crucial to the overall result as it meant the party missed out on 15 list MPs. In 2009, a large drop in the SPD vote allowed the Left to gain the seat, although the winning percentage was just 28.8%, the second lowest winning percentage of the election after the neighbouring Berlin Mitte constituency. The number of residents with German citizenship was 94.0%, a figure above the Berlin average of 86.6% and the third highest figure for any Berlin constituency. 33.5 % of residents had qualifications. Elections in Germany take place using the Additional Member System.

Voters have two votes, one for a constituency MP and one for a regional list to elect representatives for the whole of Berlin city. Elections for the Pankow constituency take place using the first past the post system. Out of a total electorate of 232,246, the total number of first votes cast was 166,149 of which 3,081 votes were invalid; the turnout was thus a drop of 6.3 % compared to the 2005 election. Source: Out of a total electorate of 224,621, the total number of votes cast was 174821 of which 2,700 votes were invalid. Out of a total electorate of 220,153, the total number of votes cast was 169,910 of which 2,241 votes were invalid

Nemo Leibold

Harry Loran "Nemo" Leibold was an outfielder in Major League Baseball from 1913 to 1925. He played for the Cleveland Naps, Chicago White Sox, Boston Red Sox, Washington Senators, he was nicknamed for the comic strip character Little Nemo. Leibold began his professional career in 1911 with the minor league Milwaukee Brewers of the American Association. In 1913, he was traded to the Cleveland Naps, he broke into the starting lineup, he was released to the White Sox. In Chicago, Leibold was a member of two American League championship teams, he patrolled right field, alongside sluggers Shoeless Joe Hap Felsch. His single in the ninth inning of the 1917 World Series drove in Buck Weaver with the final run of the championship-clinching game for the White Sox, he was the last surviving member of the 1917 World Champion Chicago White Sox. Leibold hit well in 1919. However, he batted.056 in the 1919 World Series. Leibold was one of just three regulars on the team not accused in the Black Sox Scandal, he was the last surviving player from the White Sox pennant-winners of 1917 and 1919.

After the 1920 season, he was traded to the Boston Red Sox with Shano Collins for Harry Hooper played for the Red Sox and Washington Senators for 2.5 seasons each. Leibold was sent down to the minor leagues in 1926, he was a player-manager for the Columbus Red Birds from 1928 to 1932 rejoined the Red Sox as a manager in their farm system in 1933. In that role, he helmed five other teams—including the top-level Syracuse Chiefs and Louisville Colonels —before becoming a scout for the Detroit Tigers in 1949. In one game in 1946, he was suspended after shoving a minor league umpire, which caused other managers to resign in protest. Leibold managed the Colonels in the Junior World Series that season against the Montreal Royals and Jackie Robinson, losing 4 games to 2, thus involving him in baseball history again. In 13 seasons, Leibold compiled a.266 batting average with 1,109 hits, 638 runs scored, three home runs, 283 runs batted in.357 on-base percentage and.327 slugging percentage. In 13 World Series games, he hit only.161 with 3 runs and 2 RBI.

His career fielding percentage was.961. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Picture of Leibold with the rest of the White Sox outfielders during the 1917 World Series Nemo Leibold at Find a Grave