1956 Winter Olympics
The 1956 Winter Olympics known as the VII Olympic Winter Games, was a multi-sport event held in Cortina d'Ampezzo, from 26 January to 5 February 1956. Cortina, awarded the 1944 Winter Olympics, beat out Montreal, Colorado Springs and Lake Placid for the right to host the 1956 Games; the Cortina Games were unique in. The organising committee received financial support from the Italian government for infrastructure improvements, but the rest of the costs for the Games had to be financed; the organising committee was the first to rely on corporate sponsorship for funding. Thirty-two nations—the largest number of countries participating in the Winter Olympics until then—competed in the four sports and twenty-four events. Austrian Toni Sailer became the first person to sweep all three alpine skiing events in a single Olympics; the figure skating competition was held outdoors for the last time at these Games. Logistically, the only problem encountered was a lack of snow at the alpine skiing events. To remedy this, the Italian army transported large amounts of snow to ensure the courses were adequately covered.
Politics did not affect the 1956 Winter Games as at the Summer Games in Melbourne, where the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Revolution and the Suez War caused many nations to boycott the Games. The Cortina Olympics were the first Winter Olympics televised to a multi-national audience; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Avery Brundage. Cortina d'Ampezzo is a ski resort village situated in the Dolomite Alps in the north-eastern corner of Italy. In 1956, it had a population of 6,500 people. Count Alberto Bonacossa, an accomplished alpine skier, figure skater and a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1925, spearheaded the effort to bring the Olympic Games to Cortina d'Ampezzo, he persuaded the city council of Cortina to bid for the 1944 Games. During the 38th IOC Congress held in London in 1939, Cortina d'Ampezzo was awarded the 1944 Winter Olympics, but the Games were canceled due to the outbreak of World War II. In 1946 the Italian Winter Sports Federation convened in Milan and decided to support a new attempt from Cortina to host the Winter Games.
A delegation, led by Count Bonacossa, presented Cortina's bid to host the 1952 Winter Olympics at the 40th IOC Session in Stockholm, Sweden. They were backed by the Italian National Olympic Committee. A rival bid from Oslo, soundly defeated Cortina. Count Bonacossa's and CONI prepared this time for the 1956 Winter Games; the host city selection took place during the 43rd IOC Session. On 28 April 1949, Cortina d'Ampezzo was selected with 75% of the votes, over bids from Montreal, Colorado Springs and Lake Placid. Bonacossa died on 30 January 1953, three years before he could witness Cortina host the Games. A total of 32 nations sent athletes to Cortina d'Ampezzo. Along with the Soviet Union and Iran competed at the Winter Games for the first time, making Bolivia the first Tropical nation to participate in a Winter Olympic. Korea and Turkey returned after having missed the 1952 Winter Olympics, while Argentina, New Zealand, Portugal did not compete at these Games, after having participated in the previous edition.
Athletes from West Germany and East Germany competed together as the United Team of Germany, an arrangement that would continue for the following two Olympiads. Below is the list of participating nations, with the number of competitors indicated in brackets: These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1956 Winter Olympics: * Two gold medals were awarded when Soviet skaters tied in the 1,500 metre speed skating competition; the 1956 Winter Olympics was organised by a committee composed of members of the Italian National Olympic Committee and the Italian government. Observers were sent to the Oslo Games in 1952 to collect information regarding the sports programme and accommodation requirements; the intelligence gathered there indicated that Cortina's facilities were not up to Olympic standards. The town did not have a speed skating rink. Cortina was a small village, its infrastructure would be overwhelmed by the crowds expected for the Games. To accommodate the influx of people, new roads and rail lines had to be built, the city's power grid and telephone lines expanded.
Enhancements had to be made to sewer and water capacity. The Italian government supplied Italian lira 460 million for infrastructure improvements; the Italian Olympic Committee was responsible for funding the rest of the costs of hosting the Games. They did this by setting aside monies from their own budget, ticket sales, culling funds from local football betting pools; the organising committee took the unprecedented step of selling corporate sponsorship. For example, Fiat was designated the official car of the 1956 Winter Olympics, Olivetti supplied typewriters for the 400 journalists attending the Games; the Cold War began after the allied victory in World War II. Until 1952, many of the Communist countries of Eastern Europe had participated in Worker's Olympics or Spartakiads; the Soviet Union emerged from international isolation by eschewing the Spartakiad and participating in the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Soviet general secretary Nikita Khrushchev's aim was to use international sports competitio
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ice hockey at the 1956 Winter Olympics
The men's ice hockey tournament at the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo, was the 8th Olympic Championship serving as the 23rd World Championships and the 34th European Championships. The tournament was held at the Apollonio Stadium. East and West Germany could not come to an agreement over how to formulate a combined team, so they played a qualification game against each other, which the west won; the east hosted a tournament for non qualified teams referred to as World Championships Pool B, between GDR, Norway and Belgium in Berlin. The Soviets won all their games to claim their first Olympic title, their second World title, their third European title. Canada, represented by the Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen, won its eighth consecutive Olympic ice hockey medal, first bronze medal. Soviet Union United States Canada November 16, 1955 East Germany 3-7 West Germany Top two teams from each group earned a right to play for 1st-6th places. January 26 Canada 4–0 Germany Italy 2–2 Austria January 27 Italy 2–2 Germany Canada 23–0 Austria January 28 Germany 7–0 Austria Italy 1–3 Canada January 27 Czechoslovakia 4–3 USA January 28 USA 4–0 Poland January 29 Czechoslovakia 8–3 Poland January 27 USSR 5–1 Sweden January 28 Sweden 6–5 Switzerland January 29 USSR 10–3 Switzerland First place team wins gold, second silver and third bronze.
January 30 USA 7–2 Germany Canada 6–3 Czechoslovakia USSR 4–1 Sweden January 31 USSR 8–0 Germany Sweden 5–0 Czechoslovakia USA 4–1 Canada February 1 USA 6–1 Sweden February 2 Canada 10–0 Germany USSR 7–4 Czechoslovakia February 3 Czechoslovakia 9–3 Germany Canada 6–2 Sweden USSR 4–0 USA February 4 USSR 2–0 Canada Germany 1–1 Sweden USA 9–4 Czechoslovakia January 31 Switzerland 7–4 Austria February 1 Poland 6–2 Switzerland Italy 8–2 Austria February 2 Italy 8–3 Switzerland Poland 4–3 Austria February 3 Italy 5–2 Poland March 8 East Germany 4–1 Norway March 9 East Germany 14–7 Belgium March 10 Norway 7–5 Belgium Best players selected by the directorate: Best Goaltender: Willard Ikola Best Defenceman: Nikolai Sologubov Best Forward: Jack McKenzie Soviet Union United States Canada Sweden Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Poland Switzerland Austria Soviet Union Sweden Czechoslovakia West Germany Italy Poland Switzerland Austria Duplacey, James. Total Hockey: The official encyclopedia of the National Hockey League.
Total Sports. Pp. 498–528. ISBN 0-8362-7114-9. Podnieks, Andrew. IIHF Media Guide & Record Book 2011. Moydart Press. Pp. 25–6, 30, 107–8. Jeux Olympiques d'Cortina d'Ampezzo 1956
Ice hockey at the Olympic Games
Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920. The men's tournament was introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics and was transferred permanently to the Winter Olympic Games program in 1924, in France; the women's tournament was first held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. The Olympic Games were intended for amateur athletes. However, the advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage; the Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to allow professional athletes to compete in the Olympic Games starting in 1988; the National Hockey League was reluctant to allow its players to compete because the Olympics are held in the middle of the NHL season, the league would have to halt play if many of its players participated.
NHL players were admitted starting in 1998. However, the NHL again refused to release its players starting in 2018. From 1924 to 1988, the tournament started with a round-robin series of games and ended with the medal round. Medals were awarded based on points accumulated during that round. In 1992, the playoffs were introduced for the first time since 1920. In 1998, the format of the tournament was adjusted to accommodate the NHL schedule; the tournament format was changed again in 2006. The games of the tournament follow the rules of the International Ice Hockey Federation, which differ from the rules used in the NHL; the tournament follows the World Anti-Doping Agency's rules on performance-enhancing drugs and the IIHF maintains a Registered Testing Pool, a list of top players who are subjected to random in-competition and out-of-competition drug tests. Several players have tested positive for banned substances since the 1972 Winter Olympics. In the men's tournament, Canada was the most successful team of the first three decades, winning six of seven gold medals.
Czechoslovakia and the United States were competitive during this period and won multiple medals. Between 1920 and 1968, the Olympic hockey tournament was counted as the Ice Hockey World Championship for that year; the Soviet Union first participated in 1956 and overtook Canada as the dominant international team, winning seven of the nine tournaments in which they participated. The United States won gold medals in 1960 and in 1980, which included their "Miracle on Ice" upset of the Soviet Union. Canada went 50 years without a gold medal, before winning one in 2002, following it with back-to-back wins in 2010 and 2014. Other nations to win gold include Great Britain in 1936, the Unified Team in 1992, Sweden in 1994 and 2006 and the Czech Republic in 1998. Other medal-winning nations include Switzerland, Germany and Russia. In July 1992, the IOC voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event; the Nagano Organizing Committee was hesitant to include the event because of the additional costs of staging the tournament, but an agreement was reached that limited the field to six teams, ensured that no additional facilities would be built.
The Canadian teams have dominated the event. The United States won the first tournament in 1998 and the most recent in 2018. Canada has won all of the other tournaments; the first Olympic ice hockey tournament took place at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Belgium. At the time, organized international ice hockey was still new; the International Ice Hockey Federation, the sport's governing body, was created on 15 May 1908, under the name Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace. At the 1914 Olympic Congress in Paris, ice hockey was added to the list of optional sports that Olympics organizers could include; the decision to include ice hockey for the 1920 Summer Olympics was made in January, three months before the start of the Games. Several occurrences led to the sport's inclusion in the programme. Five European nations had committed to participating in the tournament and the managers of Antwerp's Palais de Glace stadium refused to allow the building to be used for figure skating unless ice hockey was included.
The IIHF considers the 1920 tournament to be the first Ice Hockey World Championship. From on, the two events occurred concurrently, every Olympic tournament until 1968 is counted as the World Championship; the Olympic Games were intended for amateur athletes, so the players of the National Hockey League and other professional leagues were not allowed to play. The first Winter Olympic Games were held in 1924 in France. Chapter 1, article 6, of the 2007 edition of the Olympic Charter defines winter sports as "sports which are practised on snow or ice". Ice hockey and figure skating were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics programme; the IOC made the Winter Games a permanent fixture and they were held the same year as the Summer Games until 1992. Following that, further Winter Games have been held on the third year of each Olympiad; the men's tournament held at the 1920 Summer Olympics was organized by a committee that included future IIHF president Paul Loicq. The tournament used the Bergvall System.
The first round was an elimination tournament that dete