The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
In Living Color
In Living Color is an American sketch comedy television series that ran on Fox from April 15, 1990 to May 19, 1994. Keenen Ivory Wayans created and starred in the program; the show was produced by Ivory Way Productions in association with 20th Century Fox Television and was taped at stage 7 at the Fox Television Center on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, California. The title of the series was inspired by the NBC announcement of broadcasts being presented "in living color" during the 1960s, prior to mainstream color television, it refers to the fact that most of the show's cast was black, unlike other sketch comedy shows such as Saturday Night Live whose casts are white. It was controversial due to the Wayans' decision to portray black humor from the ghetto in a time when mainstream American tastes regarding black comedy had been set by more upscale shows such as The Cosby Show, causing an eventual feud for control between Fox executives and the Wayans. Other members of the Wayans family—Damon, Kim and Marlon—had regular roles, while brother Dwayne appeared as an extra.
The show starred the rising stand-up comic/actor Jim Carrey alongside unknown actor/comedians Jamie Foxx, Tommy Davidson, David Alan Grier, T'Keyah Crystal Keymáh. Additionally the show introduced Carrie Ann Inaba and Jennifer Lopez as members of In Living Color's dance troupe The Fly Girls, with actress Rosie Perez serving as choreographer; the show launched the careers of Carrey, Davidson, Keymáh, Inaba and Lopez, is credited with bringing the Wayans family to a higher level of fame as well. It was immensely popular in its first two seasons, capturing more than a 10-point Nielsen rating; the series won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Series in 1990. The series gained international prominence for its bold move and its all-time high ratings gained by airing a live, special episode as a counterprogram for the halftime show of U. S. leader CBS's live telecast of Super Bowl XXVI, prompting the National Football League to book A-list acts for future game entertainment, starting with Michael Jackson the following year.
In 2018, a history of the show, Homey Don't Play That! by David Peisner, was released by 37 INK, an imprint of Simon & Schuster. Following Keenen Ivory Wayans' success with Hollywood Shuffle and I'm Gonna Git You Sucka, Fox Broadcasting Company approached Wayans to offer him his own show. Wayans wanted to produce a variety show similar to Saturday Night Live, but with a cast of people of color that took chances with its content. Fox gave Wayans a lot of freedom with the show, although Fox executives were a bit concerned about the show's content prior to its television debut. In announcing its debut, Fox described In Living Color as a "contemporary comedy variety show". In its preview, the Christian Science Monitor warned that its, "raw tone may offend some, but it does allow a talented troupe to experiment with black themes in a Saturday Night Live-ish format." Keenen Ivory Wayans said, "I wanted to do a show. We've added an Asian and a Hispanic minority to the show. We're trying in some way to represent all the voices....
Minority talent is not in the system and you have to go outside. We found Crystal doing her act in the lobby of a theater in Chicago. We went beyond the Comedy Stores and Improvs, which are not showcase places for minorities."The first episode aired on Sunday, April 15, 1990, following an episode of Married... with Children. The first episode was watched by 22.7 million people. The Miami Herald said the show was as "smart and saucy as it is self-aware" and "audacious and tasteless, but terrific fun"; the Philadelphia Inquirer called it "the fastest, funniest half-hour in a long time". The Seattle Times said it had "the free-wheeling, pointed sense of humor that connects with a large slice of today's audience"; the Columbus Dispatch described it as a "marvelously inventive" show that has "catapulted television back to the cutting edge". The sketch comedy show helped launch the careers of comedians/actors Jim Carrey, one of only two white members of the original cast; the series strove to produce comedy with a strong emphasis on modern black subject matter.
It became renowned for parody of race relations in the United States. For instance, Carrey was used to ridicule white musicians such as Snow and Vanilla Ice, who performed in genres more associated with black people; the Wayans themselves played exaggerated black ghetto stereotypes for humor and effect. A sketch parodying Soul Train mocked the show as Old Train, suggesting the show was out of touch and only appealed to the elderly and the dead; when asked about the show's use of stereotypes of black culture for comedy, Wayans said, "Half of comedy is making fun of stereotypes. They only get critical. Woody Allen has been having fun with his culture for years, no one says anything about it. Martin Scorsese, his films deal with the Italian community, no one says anything to him. John Hughes, all of his films parody upscale white suburban life. Nobody says anything to him; when I do it all of a sudden it becomes a racial issue. You know what I mean? It's my culture, I'm entitled to poke fun at the stereotypes that I didn't create in the first place.
I don't even
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Z (1969 film)
Z is a 1969 Algerian-French epic political thriller film directed by Costa-Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on the 1966 novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos. The film presents a thinly fictionalized account of the events surrounding the assassination of democratic Greek politician Grigoris Lambrakis in 1963. With its satirical view of Greek politics, its dark sense of humor, its downbeat ending, the film captures the outrage about the military dictatorship that ruled Greece at the time of its making; the film stars Jean-Louis Trintignant as the investigating magistrate. International stars Yves Montand and Irene Papas appear, but despite their star billing have little screen time. Jacques Perrin, who co-produced, plays a key role as a photojournalist; the film's title refers to a popular Greek protest slogan meaning "he lives," in reference to Lambrakis. The film had a total of 3,952,913 admissions in France and was the 4th highest grossing film of the year.
It was the 12th highest grossing film of 1969 in the U. S. Z is the first film—and one of only a handful—to be nominated for both the Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Foreign Language Film, it won the latter, as well as the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music, the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign-Language Foreign Film. The story begins with the closing moments of a rather dull government lecture and slide show on agricultural policy, after which the leader of the security police of a right-wing military-dominated government takes over the podium for an impassioned speech describing the government's program to combat leftism, using the metaphors of "a mildew of the mind", an infiltration of "isms", or "sunspots"; the scene shifts to preparations for a rally of the opposition faction where the pacifist Deputy is to give a speech advocating nuclear disarmament. There have been attempts by the government to prevent the speech's delivery; the venue has been changed to a much smaller hall, logistical problems have appeared out of nowhere, the people handing out leaflets about the change of venue are attacked by thugs under the command of the police.
On his way to the venue, the Deputy is hit on the head by a right-wing anticommunist protestor, some of whom are sponsored by the government, but carries on with his sharp speech. As the Deputy crosses the street from the hall after giving his speech, a delivery truck speeds past him and a man on the open truck bed strikes him down with a club; the injury proves fatal, the police manipulate witnesses to force the conclusion that the Deputy was run over by a drunk driver. However, the police do not control the hospital; the examining magistrate, with the assistance of a photojournalist, now uncovers sufficient evidence to indict not only the two right-wing militants who committed the murder, but four high-ranking military police officers. The action of the film concludes with one of the Deputy's associates rushing to see the his widow to give her the surprising news of the officers' indictments; the widow looks distressed. An epilogue provides a synopsis of the subsequent turns of events. Instead of the expected positive outcome, the prosecutor is mysteriously removed from the case, several key witnesses die under suspicious circumstances, the assassins receive short sentences, the officers receive only administrative reprimands, the Deputy's close associates die or are deported, the photojournalist is sent to prison for disclosing official documents.
The heads of the government resign after public disapproval, but before elections are carried out, a Coup d'etat occurs and the military seize power. They ban modern art, popular music and avant-garde novelists, as well as modern mathematics and modern philosophers, the use of the term "Ζ", which referred to The Deputy and means: "He lives"; the 1963 murder of Greek politician and physician Grigoris Lambrakis and subsequent military junta served as the basis for the story. Among Costa-Gavras' references to the actual events was the frequency with which the military compared ideologies to diseases, seen when the General compares -isms to mildew; the Magistrate was based on real-life Greek jurist Christos Sartzetakis. Costa-Gavras opted to show the Deputy had adulteries and conflicts with his wife to demonstrate he was a man. Principal photography took place in Algiers at actor Jacques Perrin's suggestion, which the filmmakers approved for its Mediterranean environment and because the Ministry of Culture was accommodating.
In Algiers, Hotel St. Georges and the central square were filming locations, while Paris' Théâtre des Champs-Élysées was used for the ballet scenes. Marcel Bozzuffi performed his own stunts wrestling on the "Kamikaze" vehicle due to the production's lack of budget for professional stunt performers. Costa-Gavras chose Z as the title of the film based on its common occurrence in Greek graffiti, for "He lives"; the soundtrack, by Mikis Theodorakis, was a hit record. The Gree
School of the Art Institute of Chicago
The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is one of America's largest accredited independent schools of art and design. It is located in the Loop in Illinois; the school is associated with the museum of the same name, "The Art Institute of Chicago" or "Chicago Art Institute" refers to either entity. Providing degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels, SAIC has been recognized by U. S. News & World Report as one of the top graduate art programs in the nation, as well as by Columbia University's National Arts Journalism survey as the most influential art school in the United States. Tracing its history to an art students' cooperative founded in 1866, which grew into the museum and school, SAIC has been accredited since 1936 by the Higher Learning Commission, by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design since 1944, by the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design since its founding in 1991. Additionally it is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Its downtown Chicago campus consists of seven buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the AIC building. SAIC is in an equal partnership with the AIC and share many administrative resources such as design and human resources; the campus, located in the Loop, comprises chiefly three buildings: the Michigan, the Sharp, the Columbus. SAIC owns additional buildings throughout Chicago that are used as student galleries or investments; the institute has its roots in the 1866 founding of the Chicago Academy of Design, which local artists established in rented rooms on Clark Street. It was financed by member dues and patron donations. Four years the school moved into its own Adams Street building, destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; because of the school's financial and managerial problems after this loss, business leaders in 1878 formed a board of trustees and founded the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. They expanded its mission beyond education and exhibitions to include collecting. In 1882, the academy was renamed the Art Institute of Chicago.
The banker Charles L. Hutchinson served as its elected president until his death in 1924. Walter E. Massey served as president from 2010–July 2016; the current president is Elissa Tenny the school's provost. SAIC offers classes in technology. SAIC serves as a resource for issues related to the position and importance of the arts in society. SAIC offers an interdisciplinary Low-Residency MFA for students wishing to study the fine arts and/or writing; as of fall 2018, the student enrollment at SAIC is demographically classified as follows:Total Enrollment: 3,640 Undergraduate students: 2,895 Graduate students: 745 Sex: Female: 74.3% Male: 25.7% International and ethnic origin: International students: 33% United States students: 67%, further subdivided as follows: White: 32.6% Hispanic: 10.4% Asian or Pacific Islander: 8.9% African American: 3.3% American Indian: 0.2% Multiethnic: 2.8% Not Specified: 8.4% Geographic distribution of United States students: Midwest: 41.2% Northeast: 16.5% West: 19.4% South: 22.8% Founded in 1868, the Visiting Artists Program is one of the oldest public programs of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
Formalized in 1951 by Flora Mayer Witkowsky's endowment of a supporting fund, the Visiting Artists Program hosts public presentations by artists and scholars each year in lectures, symposia and screenings. It is an eclectic program that showcases artists' working in all media, including sound, performance, poetry and independent film. Recent visiting artists have included Catherine Opie, Andi Zeisler, Aaron Koblin, Jean Shin, Sam Lipsyte, Ben Marcus, Marilyn Minter, Pearl Fryar, Tehching Hsieh, Homi K. Bhabha, Bill Fontana, Wolfgang Laib, Suzanne Lee, Amar Kanwar among others. Additionally, the Distinguished Alumni Series brings alumni back to the community to present their work and reflect on how their experiences at SAIC have shaped them. Recent alumni speakers include Tania Bruguera, Jenni Sorkin, Kori Newkirk, Maria Martinez-Cañas, Saya Woolfalk, Jun Nguyen-Hatsushiba, Sanford Biggers to name a few. Sullivan Galleries- Located to the 7th floor of the Sullivan Center at 33 S. State Street.
With shows and projects led by faculty or student curators, it is a teaching gallery that engages the exhibition process as a pedagogical model and mode of research. SITE Galleries - Founded in 1994, SITE, once known as the Student Union Galleries, is a student-run organization at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago for the exhibition of student work; the two central tenets of the galleries are to build relationships between different departments and stakeholders throughout the institution and strengthen our role as a teaching gallery within and beyond SAIC. This is accomplished first through providing a consistent space for undergraduate and graduate directors to organize and generate exhibitions that realize the vision of student artists. Furthermore, with strategic programming, SITE supports these exhibitions and engages evolving currents and discourses in our communities; the student-led structure p
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (film)
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a 1975 American comedy-drama film directed by Miloš Forman, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey. The film stars Jack Nicholson as Randle McMurphy, a new patient at a mental institution, features a supporting cast of Louise Fletcher, William Redfield, Will Sampson, Sydney Lassick, Brad Dourif, Christopher Lloyd in his film debut. Filming began in January 1975 and lasted three months, taking place on location in Salem and the surrounding area, as well as on the Oregon coast; the producers decided to shoot the film in the Oregon State Hospital, an actual mental hospital, as this was the setting of the novel. Considered by some to be one of the greatest films made, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is No. 33 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movies list. The film was the second to win all five major Academy Awards following It Happened One Night in 1934, an accomplishment not repeated until 1991 with The Silence of the Lambs.
It won numerous Golden Globe and BAFTA Awards. In 1993, the film was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress, selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. In 1963 Oregon, recidivist criminal Randle McMurphy is moved to a mental institution after serving a short sentence on a prison farm for statutory rape of a 15-year-old. Though not mentally ill, McMurphy hopes to avoid hard labor and serve the rest of his sentence in a relaxed environment. Upon arriving at the hospital, he finds the ward run by Nurse Ratched, a steely passive-aggressive tyrant who intimidates her patients in order to keep them in line; the other patients include anxious. Ratched soon sees McMurphy’s lively, rebellious presence as a threat to her authority, she confiscates the patients’ cigarettes and rations them, suspends their card-playing privileges. During his time in the ward, McMurphy gets into a battle of wits with Ratched, he steals a hospital bus, escaping with several patients to go on a fishing trip, encouraging his friends to become more self-confident.
McMurphy learns his sentence may become indefinite and he makes plans to escape, exhorting Chief to throw a hydrotherapy console through a window. It is revealed that McMurphy and Taber are the only non-chronic patients sentenced to staying at the institution, as the rest are self-committed and could voluntarily check-out at any time, but are too afraid to do so. McMurphy and Cheswick get into a fight with the orderlies after the latter becomes agitated over his confiscated cigarettes. Ratched sends them to the "shock shop", where McMurphy discovers Chief can speak despite feigning being deaf and mute to avoid engaging with anyone. After being subjected to electroconvulsive therapy, McMurphy returns to the ward pretending to have brain damage, although he reveals the treatment has charged him up more. McMurphy and Chief make plans to escape, but decide to throw a secret Christmas party for their friends after Ratched leaves for the night. McMurphy sneaks two women and Rose, into the ward, bribes the night guard.
After a night of partying, McMurphy and Chief prepare to escape. Not ready to leave the hospital, he refuses. Billy asks for a "date" with McMurphy arranges for him to have sex with her. Ratched arrives in the morning to find the ward in disarray and most of the patients passed out drunk, she discovers Billy and Candy together, Ratched threatens to inform his mother about his escapade. Billy is overwhelmed with fear. Miss Ratched has him placed in and the doctor’s office to wait for the doctor to arrive, where he commits suicide; the enraged McMurphy chokes Ratched, before being knocked out by an orderly. Ratched comes back with a neck brace and a scratchy voice, Harding now leads the now-unsuspended card-playing. Rumors spread that McMurphy has escaped in order to avoid being taken "upstairs"; that night, Chief sees McMurphy being returned to his bed. He discovers that McMurphy has lobotomy scars on his forehead, in an act of mercy, smothers his friend with a pillow. Chief throws the hydrotherapy cart through the window and escapes into the night, cheered on by Taber.
Actor Kirk Douglas—who had originated the role of McMurphy in the 1963–64 Broadway stage version of the Ken Kesey novel—had purchased the film rights to the story, tried for a decade to bring it to the big screen, but was unable to find a studio willing to make it with him. He gave the rights to his son Michael Douglas, who succeeded in getting the film produced—but the elder Douglas, by nearly 60, was considered too old for the McMurphy role, which went to 38-year-old Jack Nicholson. Douglas brought in Saul Zaentz as co-producer; the film's first screenwriter, Lawrence Hauben, introduced Douglas to the work of Miloš Forman, whose 1967 Czechoslovak film The Firemen's Ball had the sort of qualities they were looking for. Forman flew to California and went through the script page by page and outlined what he would do, in contrast with other directors, approached who were less than forthcoming. Forman wrote in 2012: "To me, was not just literature, but real life, the life I
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, Commanding General, United States Army Reserve Command. On 2 November 2012, Command Sergeant Major James Lambert was sworn in as the Interim Command Sergeant Major of the Army Reserve, serving as the Chief of the Army Reserve's senior advisor on all enlisted soldier matters areas affecting training, leader development, employer support, family readiness and support, quality of life. On 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. After World War I, under the National Defense Act of 1920, Congress reorganized the U. S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, an Organized Reserve of unrestricted size, which became the Army Reserve.
This organization provided a peacetime pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, Reserve Officers' Training Corps; the Organized Reserve infantry divisions raised after World War I continued the lineage and geographic area distribution of National Army divisions that had served in the war. They were maintained on paper with one-third of their enlisted men. Units in other arms of the Army besides infantry, most notably cavalry, field artillery and engineers were formed. Organized Reserve units, depending upon their geographic area, maintained relationships with one or several colleges or universities, which populated them with officers through the ROTC. In the event of war, Organized Reserve officers and enlisted men would be called to duty to form the cores of the divisions they were assigned to, be moved to other parts of the Army that needed officers. Service in the Organized Reserve during the interwar period was not as appealing as the Army expected.
Most divisions reached their full complement of officers, but had less than 100 enlisted men, since there was no incentive for them to serve. The 101st Infantry Division was designated a division of the Organized Reserve after World War I and assigned to the state of Wisconsin. A tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions: three armored, five airborne, 17 infantry; these divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three strength categories, labeled Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A units were divided into two groups, one for combat and one for service, units were to be at required table of organization strength; the troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, seven as Class C. Major General Ray E. Porter therefore proposed reclassification of all Class A divisions as Class B units; the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946.
That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the other categories as men and equipment became available, undoubtedly influenced the decision. The War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers and enlisted men from World War II. By that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies; the armies replaced the nine corps areas of the prewar era, the army commanders were tasked to organize and train both Regular Army and Organized Reserve Corps units. The plan the army commanders received called for twenty-five Organized Reserve Corps divisions, but the divisions activated between September 1946 and November 1947 differed somewhat from the original plans; the First United States Army declined to support an airborne division, the 98th Infantry Division replaced the 98th Airborne Division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, three armored, eighteen infantry divisions.
The Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Division's area, not that of the 99th. The 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota in the Fifth United States Army area; the Seventh Army, allotted the 15th Airborne Division, refused the designation, the adjutant general replaced it by constituting the 108th Airborne Division, which fell within that component's list of infantry and airborne divisional numbers. Thus the final tally of divisions formed after World War II appears to have been the 19th, 21st, 22d Armored Divisions. A major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing. While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, the Organiz