Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts: the particular form of biological classification set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturae and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus there are three kingdoms, divided into classes, they, in turn, into orders and species, with an additional rank lower than species. A term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general; that is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification. This term is used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades, it is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not exist: it is a collective term for what are several separate fields, which use similar approaches. Linnaean name has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus, such as Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature.
In his Imperium Naturae, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal and Mineral Kingdoms, survives today in the popular mind, notably in the form of the parlour game question: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The work of Linnaeus had a huge impact on science. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum for plants and the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, are accepted as part of the starting points of nomenclature. However, the impact he had on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy, his classes and orders of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups but only for use in identification. They were used for that purpose well into the nineteenth century. Within each class were several orders; the Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were: Classis 1. Monandria: flowers with 1 stamen Classis 2. Diandria: flowers with 2 stamens Classis 3.
Triandria: flowers with 3 stamens Classis 4. Tetrandria: flowers with 4 stamens Classis 5. Pentandria: flowers with 5 stamens Classis 6. Hexandria: flowers with 6 stamens Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352 Hexandria polygynia pp. 342–343 Classis 7. Heptandria: flowers with 7 stamens Classis 8. Octandria: flowers with 8 stamens Classis 9. Enneandria: flowers with 9 stamens Classis 10. Decandria: flowers with 10 stamens Classis 11. Dodecandria: flowers with 12 stamens Classis 12. Icosandria: flowers with 20 stamens, perigynous Classis 13. Polyandria: flowers with many stamens, inserted on the receptacle Classis 14. Didynamia: flowers with 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short Classis 15. Tetradynamia: flowers with 6 stamens, 4 long and 2 short Classis 16. Monadelphia. Diadelphia. Polyadelphia. Syngenesia. Gynandria. Monoecia: monoecious plants Classis 22. Dioecia: dioecious plants Classis 23. Polygamia: polygamodioecious plants Classis 24. Cryptogamia: the "flowerless" plants, including ferns, fungi and bryophytesThe classes based on the number of stamens were subdivided by the number of pistils, e.g. Hexandria monogynia with six stamens and one pistil.
Index to genera p. 1201 Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but not quite for the same groups. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes, in the tenth edition, of 1758, these were: Classis 1. Mammalia Classis 2. Aves Classis 3. Amphibia Classis 4. Pisces Classis 5. Insecta Classis 6. Vermes His taxonomy of minerals has long since dropped from use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturae, the Linnaean classes were: Classis 1. Petræ Classis 2. Mineræ Classis 3. Fossilia Classis 4. Vitamentra This rank-based method of classifying living organisms was popularized by Linnaeus, although it has changed since his time; the greatest innovation of Linnaeus, still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, the combination of a genus name and a second term, which together uniquely identify each species of organism within a kingdom. For example, the human species is uniquely identified within the animal kingdom by the name Homo sapiens.
No other species of animal can have this same binomen. Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement. Linnaeus's use of binomial nomenclature was anticipated by the theory of definition used in Scholasticism. Scholastic logicians and philosophers of nature defined the species man, for example, as Animal rationalis, where animal was considered a genus and rationalis the characteristic distinguishing man from all other animals. Treating animal as the immediate genus of the species man, etc. is of little p
Classes Plantarum is a book, written by Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, physician and naturalist. The Latin-language book is an elaboration of aphorisms 53–77 of his Fundamenta Botanica and a complementary volume to his Species Plantarum, Genera Plantarum, Critica Botanica, Philosophia Botanica. Full bibliographic details including exact dates of publication, editions, brief outline of contents, location of copies, secondary sources, reprints, manuscripts and commentaries are given in Stafleu and Cowan's Taxonomic Literature. Systema Naturae Stafleu, Frans A. & Cowan, Richard S. 1981. "Taxonomic Literature. A Selective Guide to Botanical Publications with dates and Types. Vol III: Lh–O." Regnum Vegetabile 105. Linnaeus, Carl 1738. Classes Plantarum. Leiden: Conrad Wishoff. Disponible at Gallica
Species Plantarum is a book by Carl Linnaeus published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera. It is the first work to apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants. Species Plantarum was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in two volumes. A second edition was published in 1762–1763, a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second. Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow, the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden. Species Plantarum was the first botanical work to apply the binomial nomenclature system of naming to any large group of organisms. Prior to this work, a plant species would be known by a long polynomial, such as Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti or Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatis pedunculatis. In Species Plantarum, these cumbersome names were replaced with two-part names, consisting of a single-word genus name, a single-word specific epithet or "trivial name".
The use of binomial names had been developed as a kind of shorthand in a student project about the plants eaten by cattle. After the specific epithet, Linnaeus gave a short description of each species, a synonymy; the descriptions were terse, consisting of few words in small genera. Because it is the first work in which binomial nomenclature was applied, Species Plantarum was chosen as the "starting point" for the nomenclature of most plants. Species Plantarum contained descriptions of the thousands of plant species known to Linnaeus at the time. In the first edition, there were 5,940 names, from Acalypha australis to Zygophyllum spinosum. In his introduction, Linnaeus estimated that there were fewer than 10,000 plant species in existence; the species were arranged in around a thousand genera, which were grouped into 24 classes, according to Linnaeus' sexual system of classification. There are no descriptions of the genera in Species Plantarum. Linnaeus' sexual system is now acknowledged to be an artificial system, rather than one which reflects shared ancestry, but the system's simplicity made it easier for non-specialists to find the correct class, being based on simple counts of floral parts such as stigmas and stamens.
Species Plantarum, vol. 1, vol. 2 at Biodiversity Heritage Library facsimile Species Plantarum, vol. 1, vol. 2 at Botanicus Species Plantarum at Project Gutenberg I-III IV-V VI-X XI-XIII text Linnaeus Link Union Catalogue
Herman Boerhaave was a Dutch botanist, Christian humanist, physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital and is sometimes referred to as "the father of physiology," along with Venetian physician Santorio Santorio. Boerhaave introduced the quantitative approach into medicine, along with his pupil Albrecht von Haller and is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. He was the first physician to put thermometer measurements to clinical practice, his motto was Simplex sigillum veri:'The simple is the sign of the true'. He is hailed as the "Dutch Hippocrates". Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden; the son of a Protestant pastor, in his youth Boerhaave studied for a divinity degree and wanted to become a preacher. After the death of his father, however, he was offered a scholarship and he entered the University of Leiden, where he took his degree in philosophy in 1689, with a dissertation De distinctione mentis a corpore.
There he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Thomas Hobbes and Spinoza. He turned to the study of medicine, in which he graduated in 1693 at Harderwijk in present-day Gelderland. In 1701 he was appointed lecturer on the institutes of medicine at Leiden. In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants. On 14 September 1710, Boerhaave married Maria Drolenvaux, the daughter of the rich merchant, Alderman Abraham Drolenvaux, they had four children, of whom Maria Joanna, lived to adulthood. In 1722, he began recovering the next year. In 1714, when he was appointed rector of the university, he succeeded Govert Bidloo in the chair of practical medicine, in this capacity he introduced the modern system of clinical instruction. Four years he was appointed to the chair of chemistry as well.
In 1728 he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, two years into the Royal Society of London. In 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of botany, his reputation so increased the fame of the University of Leiden as a school of medicine, that it became popular with visitors from every part of Europe. All the princes of Europe sent him pupils, who found in this skilful professor not only an indefatigable teacher, but an affectionate guardian; when Peter the Great went to Holland in 1716, he took lessons from Boerhaave. Voltaire travelled to see him, his reputation was not confined to Europe. The operating theatre of the University of Leiden in which he once worked as an anatomist is now at the centre of a museum named after him. Asteroid 8175 Boerhaave is named after Boerhaave. From 1955 to 1961 Boerhaave's image was printed on Dutch 20-guilder banknotes; the Leiden University Medical Centre organises. He had a prodigious influence on the development of chemistry in Scotland.
British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based. Every founding member of the Edinburgh Medical School had studied at Leyden and attended Boerhaave's lectures on chemistry including John Rutherford and Francis Home. Boerhaave's Elementa Chemiae is recognised as the first text on chemistry. Boerhaave first described Boerhaave syndrome, which involves tearing of the oesophagus a consequence of vigorous vomiting, he notoriously described in 1724 the case of Baron Jan van Wassenaer, a Dutch admiral who died of this condition following a gluttonous feast and subsequent regurgitation. This condition was uniformly fatal prior to modern surgical techniques allowing repair of the oesophagus. Boerhaave was critical of his Dutch contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, attacking him in his dissertation in 1689. At the same time, he admired Isaac Newton and was a devout Christian who wrote about God in his works. A collection of his religious thoughts on medicine, translated from Latin to English, has been compiled by the Sir Thomas Browne Instituut Leiden under the name Boerhaaveìs Orations.
Among other things, he considered nature as God's Creation and he used to say that the poor were his best patients because God was their paymaster. As a credible chemist and physician of European, the human body was a inquisitive and compelling component in agreed with other physicians of his time – like Borellis – and thus he devoted a diligent focus towards this subject matter. Boerhaave's ideas about the human body were influenced by French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes. Descartes contributed much to iatromechanical theories. Another influencer of Boerhaave's reasoning was Giovanni Borelli, he was a distinguished astronomer and mathematician in the 1600s and published writings on animal motions mirroring machinery principles. Inspired by this and Cartesianism, Boerhaave proposed tha
George Clifford III
George Clifford III was a wealthy Dutch banker and one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company. He is known for his keen interest in gardens, his estate Hartekamp had a rich variety of plants and he engaged the Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné, who stayed at his estate from 1736 to 1738, to write Hortus Cliffortianus, a masterpiece of early botanical literature published in 1738, for which Georg Dionysius Ehret did the illustrations. Many specimens from Clifford's garden were studied by Linnaeus for his Species Plantarum, his grandfather, Englishman George Clifford I, moved from Stow to Amsterdam around 1640, beginning an Anglo-Dutch banking dynasty. Subsequent members of the Clifford Family were prominent leaders in Amsterdam. Carl Linnaeus Johannes Burman Herman Boerhaave Dutch East India Company Biography from "The George Clifford Herbarium" National Herbarium Nederlands
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants; the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, in the larger Leiden urban area Teylingen and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km from Amsterdam to its north; the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling and international atmosphere.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden's motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe's top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen. Leiden was formed on an artificial hill at the confluence of the rivers Nieuwe Rijn.
In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is not the proper word. A leitha was a human-modified natural river natural artificial. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum; this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo; the landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holland. Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons. In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland. Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels, but John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first. He rolled the cannons along with his army but one, too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel. On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.
The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. Leiden flourished in the 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments of Leiden were important, after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important publishing industry; the influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir, who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through 1712 and the name subsequently adopted by contemporary publisher Elsevier. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 Oc
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub