General Packet Radio Service is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications. GPRS was established by European Telecommunications Standards Institute in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies, it is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project. GPRS is sold according to the total volume of data transferred during the billing cycle, in contrast with circuit switched data, billed per minute of connection time, or sometimes by one-third minute increments. Usage above the GPRS bundled data cap may be charged per MB of data, speed disallowed. GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput and latency that depend on the number of other users sharing the service concurrently, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain quality of service is guaranteed during the connection. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56–114 kbit/sec. 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a technology between the second and third generations of mobile telephony.
It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access channels in, for example, the GSM system. GPRS is integrated into GSM Release 97 and newer releases; the GPRS core network allows 2G, 3G and WCDMA mobile networks to transmit IP packets to external networks such as the Internet. The GPRS system is an integrated part of the GSM network switching subsystem. GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data capabilities and makes the following services possible: SMS messaging and broadcasting "Always on" internet access Multimedia messaging service Push-to-talk over cellular Instant messaging and presence—wireless village Internet applications for smart devices through wireless application protocol Point-to-point service: inter-networking with the Internet Point-to-multipoint service: point-to-multipoint multicast and point-to-multipoint group callsIf SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed of about 30 SMS messages per minute may be achieved; this is much faster than using the ordinary SMS over GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute.
GPRS supports the following protocols: Internet Protocol. In practice, built-in mobile browsers use IPv4. Point-to-Point Protocol is not supported by mobile phone operators but if a cellular phone is used as a modem for a connected computer, PPP may be used to tunnel IP to the phone; this allows an IP address to be dynamically assigned to the mobile equipment. X.25 connections are used for applications like wireless payment terminals, although it has been removed from the standard. X.25 can still be supported over PPP, or over IP, but this requires either a network-based router to perform encapsulation or software built into the end-device/terminal. When TCP/IP is used, each phone can have one or more IP addresses allocated. GPRS will store and forward the IP packets to the phone during handover; the TCP restores. Devices supporting GPRS are grouped into three classes: Class A Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service simultaneously; such devices are now available. Class B Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service.
During GSM service, GPRS service is suspended and resumed automatically after the GSM service has concluded. Most GPRS mobile devices are Class B. Class C Are connected to either GPRS service or GSM service and must be switched manually between one service and the other; because a Class A device must service GPRS and GSM networks together, it needs two radios. To avoid this hardware requirement, a GPRS mobile device may implement the dual transfer mode feature. A DTM-capable mobile can handle both GSM packets and GPRS packets with network coordination to ensure both types are not transmitted at the same time; such devices are considered pseudo-Class A, sometimes referred to as "simple class A". Some networks have supported DTM since 2007. USB 3G/GPRS modems have a terminal-like interface over USB with V.42bis, RFC 1144 data formats. Some models include an external antenna connector. Modem cards for laptop PCs, or external USB modems are available, similar in shape and size to a computer mouse, or a pendrive.
A GPRS connection is established by reference to its access point name. The APN defines the services such as wireless application protocol access, short message service, multimedia messaging service, for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. In order to set up a GPRS connection for a wireless modem, a user must specify an APN, optionally a user name and password, rarely an IP address, provided by the network operator. GSM module or GPRS modules are similar to modems, but there's one difference: the modem is an external piece of equipment, whereas the GSM module or GPRS module can be integrated within an electrical or electronic equipment, it is an embedded piece of hardware. A GSM mobile, on the other hand, is a complete embedded system in itself, it comes with embedded processors dedicated to provide a functional interface between the user and the mobile network. The upload and download speeds that can be achieved in GPRS depend on a number of factors such as: the number of BTS TDMA time slots assigned by the operator the channel encoding used.
The maximum capability of the mobile device expressed as a GPRS multislot class
Wrong Turn 4: Bloody Beginnings is a 2011 American horror film written and directed by Declan O'Brien. It is the fourth installment of the Wrong Turn franchise and served as a prequel to the 2003 film Wrong Turn; the film was followed by Wrong Turn 5: Bloodlines. In 1974, at the Glenville Sanatorium in West Virginia, three deformed patients known as the Hillicker Brothers escape from their cells and release the other patients. Twenty-nine years in 2003, nine Weston University students – Kenia, Vincent, Bridget, Claire and Lauren – are snowmobiling on their way to their friend Porter's cabin in the mountains. However, they get lost in a snowstorm and are forced to take shelter in the Glensville Sanatorium for the night, where the Hillickers are living. Lauren remembers her brother's stories about the sanatorium and the cannibalistic Hillickers, but her friends don't believe her; as the group goes to bed, Vincent continues to explore the asylum, where he finds Porter's corpse before being killed by Saw Tooth by an iron rod through the nose.
The next day, with the storm still in full effect, the teens remain trapped and go in search of Vincent. Jenna comes across the Hillickers butchering Porter's body in the kitchen and runs back to warn the others. After Porter's severed head is thrown at the group, Claire is hung from a balcony with barbed wire by the trio and decapitated; the group find their snowmobiles have been sabotaged. Lauren skis down the mountain to seek help while the others barricade themselves in a doctor's office. Kyle and Sara go into the basement to get weapons, but Daniel gets abducted, tied to a table in the kitchen, butchered and eaten alive; the rest of the group locks them in a cell. When Kyle falls asleep, the brothers escape their cell, the girls accidentally stab Kyle to death after he has his tongue cut out and is dressed up like one of the Hillickers; the cannibals appear and chase the girls through the building, forcing them to climb out of a window. The Hillickers chase the girls on the snowmobiles, where Kenia gets injured and Bridget gets crushed under one of the snowmobiles by One Eye.
As the day dawns, Lauren has frozen to death in the storm a mere few yards away from a highway. Kenia is still being chased by One Eye when Sara reappears and knocks him off the snowmobile, allowing the pair to steal it; as they gleefully drive away, they are decapitated by a simple barbed wire fence. Three Finger picks up their heads and puts them in the yellow tow truck from the first film, before moving away from the sanatorium with his brothers. Wrong Turn 4: Bloody Beginnings was released to DVD and Blu-ray on October 25, 2011; the film entered the DVD chart at number 13. To date the film has sold 143,000 units for a gross of $3.1 million. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 20% of five surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. Steve Barton of Dread Central rated it 2.5/5 stars and called it "the Congo of slasher movies", an objectively bad film, still enjoyable to watch. Anton Bitel of Little White Lies wrote that although the film delivers what fans want, the characters are interchangeable and the plot is derivative.
William Bibbiani of CraveOnline rated it 7.5/10 and wrote, "Wrong Turn 4 is the kind of movie that knows what it is and offers nothing less, a little more." Charles Webb of Twitch Film wrote, "There's not much to recommend the latest entry in this franchise, like all long-running horror series has reached its point of diminishing returns." Wrong Turn 4: Bloody Beginnings on IMDb Wrong Turn 4: Bloody Beginnings at AllMovie Wrong Turn 4: Bloody Beginnings at Rotten Tomatoes
José Eduardo Campos Barahona is a Salvadoran footballer who plays as a midfielder for Luis Ángel Firpo in the Salvadoran Premier League. Campos started his career in the youth section at Santa Clara and after a spell at Topiltzín, he joined Luis Ángel Firpo in 2000, he joined Vista Hermosa in 2005 only to return to Firpo a year later. Campos made his debut for El Salvador in an August 2007 friendly match against Honduras, coming on as a second-half substitute for one of the goalscorers of the match, Victor Merino; the score stood in a victory for the Cuscatlecos by 2 -- 0. His second and last international cap was in a September 2007 friendly match against Ecuador, where he came in as a second-half substitute for Julio Enrique Martínez. At the 62nd minute of the Ecuador game José Eduardo Campos swept forcefully on an Ecuadorian player and Peruan referee red-carded Campos; the match was won by Ecuador by a score of 5–1. José Campos at National-Football-Teams.com
Clark Moses Leiblee was an American track and field athlete who competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. He competed in intercollegiate track for the University of Michigan, he was on the roster of the 1899 Michigan Wolverines football team as a halfback. He was born in December 1876 in Pennsylvania. Leiblee competed in the 100 metres event, he won his first-round heat with a time of 11.4 seconds before finishing his semifinal heat in second place to Walter Tewksbury. This put Leiblee in the repechage, he died in Tipton, Indiana on August 20, 1917. De Wael, Herman. Herman's Full Olympians: "Athletics 1900". Accessed 18 March 2006. Available electronically at. Mallon, Bill; the 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-0378-0
The DR2800 series is a series of diesel multiple unit trains operated by the Taiwan Railways Administration as Tze-chiang limited express on non-electrified mainlines. They were built by Tokyu Car Corporation of Japan in 1982 for the Taiwan Railways Administration to provide better service on the eastern mainline of Taiwan. In early 1980s, the North-link line was completed, the Yilan line was expanded to double track, the gauge of Taitung line was changed to 1067 mm. In response to the demand for air-conditioned express trains in eastern Taiwan, Taiwan Railways Administration ordered 10 sets of diesel multiple unit trains from Tokyu Car; these train sets were specialized under license from Budd, each set consists of 2 power driving cars and a trailer. Each power driving car was equipped with a Cummins NT855-R4 diesel engine producing 310 horsepower to move the train; the trailer has a diesel engine to provide head-end power for the entire three-car set. Each power driving car only has a cab at one end and two power driving cars bracket a trailer in a standard set.
To prevent dependency on the trailer's engine for cooling, the cooling fans of the driver cars are driven hydraulically instead of electrically. Besides, the DR2800 series is the first series of diesel railcars of Taiwan Railways Administration equipped with bogies containing air suspension; the DR2800 series operated as Tze-chiang limited express between Taipei and Hualien on June 1, 1982. With a top speed of 110 kilometres per hour and air-conditioning, the demand was so high that Taiwan Railways Administration ordered another 5 sets in 1984; the interior was refurbished between 2001 and 2002. The original Cummins NT855R-4 diesel engines were replaced by Cummins NTA855-R1 in 2002 and 2003, the total output of a set increased to 700 horsepower. DR2800 series operated as Tze-chiang limited express on the eastern mainline and South-link line. In 1991 it ran on the west line to provide more seats during Chinese New Year. Nowadays all 15 sets are still in service, but owing to the greater gap between the platform and the car, DR2800 series now runs on Yilan line and North-link line only
Autumn Marathon is a 1979 Soviet romantic comedy-drama, a winner of 1979 Venice Film Festival, San Sebastian Film Festival and 1980 Berlin Film Festival awards in the best director and best actor categories. It was selected as the Soviet entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 52nd Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee, it starred Oleg Basilashvili as Andrei Bouzykine, a married English-to-Russian translator in Leningrad, going through a mid-life crisis and struggling to stand up for himself in his tangled relationships with his wife, neighbors, co-workers. The cast included such notable Soviet performers as Yevgeny Leonov, Natalya Gundareva, Marina Neyolova, Borislav Brondukov, Nikolai Kryuchkov, Galina Volchek, it was directed by Georgiy Daneliya. Oleg Basilashvili as Andrey Pavlovich Buzykin Natalya Gundareva as Nina Yevlampyevna Buzykina Marina Neyolova as Alla Mikhaylovna Yermakova – Buzykin's Mistress Yevgeny Leonov as Vasily Ignatyevich Kharitonov – Buzykin's Neighbour Norbert Kuchinke as Bill Hansen, Danish Professor Nikolai Kryuchkov as Uncle Kolya, Alla's Neighbour Galina Volchek as Varvara Nikitichna Olga Bogdanova as Yelena – Buzykin's Daughter List of submissions to the 52nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Soviet submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Autumn Marathon at AllMovie Autumn Marathon on IMDb