The General Services Administration is an independent agency of the United States government established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include the Presidential Innovation Fellows program, 18F, FedRAMP, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Challenge.gov, the U. S. Web Design System, I. T. Modernization Centers of Excellence. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services"; this proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit". Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In 2013, a result of the Open Gove
Henry was archbishop of Mainz from 1142 to 1153. In his early years as archbishop he was assisted by Anselm of Havelberg, he supported Friedrich von Staufen as successor to Konrad III of Germany. At the time of the Second Crusade, he tried to prevent a repetition of the 1096 violence against the Jews of Mainz, he called in Bernard of Clairvaux, to counter inflammatory preaching by Radulphe. He took part in the Wendish Crusade of 1147, he was a correspondent of Hildegard of Bingen. He consecrated the church of her convent at Rupertsberg in 1152, he has been portrayed showing her works to Pope Eugene Bernard of Clairvaux. He was archchancellor of Germany, ex officio, but of Burgundy at the end of his life
"Don't Fight the Sea" is a song written by Terry Jacks and released as a single in 1976, reaching #31 on the Canadian Charts. The song was attempted by the Beach Boys in 1976 during recording sessions for their album 15 Big Ones. In 2010, the song was rewritten with Al Jardine for his album A Postcard from California and with several of his Beach Boys bandmates making a guest appearance, with vocals culled from various recording sessions during the interim period. Jardine's version was issued on a 7" vinyl record on April 16, 2011 for Record Store Day 2011 in a limited edition of 2,500 copies with the proceeds to benefit tsunami relief for Japan. According to Beach Boys archivist Craig Slowinski; the Beach Boys Al Jardine — lead and backing vocals Brian Wilson — backing vocals, possible organ Carl Wilson — lead and backing vocals Mike Love — backing vocals Bruce Johnston — backing vocals Dennis Wilson — possible drumsAdditional musicians Matt Jardine — backing vocals Ed Carter — possible guitar Tim Drummond — possible bass Bobby Figueroa – drums Mike Meros – synthesizersunknown — additional drums