Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. The overall purpose of primary and intermediate flight training is the acquisition and honing of basic airmanship skills. Flight training can be conducted under a structured accredited syllabus with a flight instructor at a flight school or as private lessons with no syllabus with a flight instructor as long as all experience requirements for the desired pilot certificate/license are met. Flight training consists of a combination of two parts: Flight Lessons given in the aircraft or in a certified Flight Training Device Ground School given as a classroom lecture or lesson by a flight instructor where aeronautical theory is learned in preparation for the student's written and flight pilot certification/licensing examinations. Although there are various types of aircraft, many of the principles of piloting them have common techniques those aircraft which are heavier-than-air types. Flight schools rent aircraft to students and licensed pilots at an hourly rate.
The hourly rate is determined by the aircraft's Hobbs meter or Tach timer therefore the costumer is only charged while the aircraft engine is running. Flight instructors can be scheduled with or without an aircraft for pilot proficiency and recurring training; the oldest flight training school still in existence is the Royal Air Force's Central Flying School formed in May 1912 at Upavon, United Kingdom. The oldest civil flight school still active in the world is based in Germany at the Wasserkuppe, it was founded as "Mertens Fliegerschule" and is named, "Fliegerschule Wasserkuppe". A type conversion known throughout Australia and Europe as an endorsement, or in the United States as a "type rating", is the process undertaken by a pilot to update their license to allow them to fly a different type of aircraft. Bárány chair Bachelor of Aviation Integrated pilot training Pilot certification in the United States Pilot licensing in Canada Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom Learning to Fly: A Practical Manual for Beginners by Claude Grahame-White and Harry Harper Student Pilot Guide from the FAA Accelerated Flight Training from Flying Mag.
Pilot Training Compass: Back to the Future from European Cockpit Association
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A domestic airport is an airport that handles only domestic flights—flights within the same country. Domestic airports do not have customs and immigration facilities and so cannot handle flights to or from a foreign airport; these airports have short runways sufficient to handle short or medium haul aircraft and regional air traffic. Security check / metal detectors are used in most countries, but such checks were for domestic flights installed in many cases decades after checks for international flights. Most municipal airports in Canada and the United States are of this classification. At international airports in Canada, there are domestic terminals. Additionally, some airports that are named "international" are domestic airports that do not handle international traffic on a regular basis. Many of these airports are located through the United States. In the United Kingdom, an example of a domestic airport is Wick Airport, which operates frequent flights to other Scottish airports; some small countries or regions do not have any public domestic airports, or public domestic flights, due to its size or political reasons, e.g. Belgium, Hong Kong, Macau, Lithuania, Serbia, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates.
A regional airport is an airport serving traffic within a small or populated geographical area. A regional airport does not have customs and immigration facilities to process traffic between countries. In Canada regional airports service connections within Canada and some flights to the United States. A few U. S. regional airports, some of which call themselves international airports, may have customs and immigration facilities staffed on an as-needed basis, but the vast majority serve domestic traffic only. Aircraft using these airports tend to be smaller business jets, private aircraft and regional airliners of both turboprop propelled or regional jetliner varieties; these flights go a shorter distance to a larger regional hub. These airports have shorter runways, which exclude heavy planes with much fuel. In European countries, regional airports are classed as airports that don't serve the country's capital/most major city. Examples of larger regional airports include Barcelona El Prat Airport and Manchester Airport, which are both among Europe's busiest airports and are used by both large and small planes.
In countries like France and Sweden, a regional airport is an airport for small planes though they go to the national hub, just like flights from larger airports. Examples of small regional airports include Worship Airport. In northern Norway, a country with long distances and many short-runway airports, regional airports are those with flights to a regional hub, not to the capital. Domestic flight International airport International flight Civil enclave
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human psychology. Recreational activities are done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"; the term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of "refreshment or curing of a sick person", derived turn from Latin. Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, sleep, social duties, leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, increased commercialization of recreational offerings.
While one perception is that leisure is just "spare time", time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. This direction of thought has been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, a reward in itself, "leisure life" reflects the values and character of a nation. Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, the term for children's recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities, it has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant.
A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to "recharge the battery" so that work performance is improved. Work, an activity performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at an individual level, over time recreational activity may become work, vice versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, at another a recreation, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped by individual interests but by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, useful for society or detrimental.
A significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. A list of typical activities could be endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, fine dining, sports and travel; some recreational activities - such as gambling, recreational drug use, or delinquent activities - may violate societal norms and laws. Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation and organization, whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy. S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs. A recreation center is a place for recreational activities administered by a municipal government agency.
Swimming, weightlifting and kids' play areas are common. Many recreational activities are organized by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, commercial enterprises. Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, Walt Disney World. Recreation has many health benefits, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect; the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification is the nationally recognized credentialing organization for the profession of Therapeutic Recreation. Professionals in the field of Therapeutic Recreation who are certified by the NCTRC are called "Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists"; the job title "Recreation Therapist" is identified in the U. S. Dept of Labor's Occupation Outlook; such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, psychiatric facilities for youth and adults, in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases.
Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, the risk of osteoporosis and of cancer, most in men that of colon and prostate, in women that of the breast. Extreme adventure recreation carries its own ha
A light aircraft is an aircraft that has a maximum gross takeoff weight of 12,500 lb or less. Many light aircraft are used commercially for passenger and freight transport, sightseeing and other similar roles as well as personal use. Examples of light aircraft include: Beechcraft, the models such as the Beechcraft Bonanza and Beechcraft Baron that are not jet propelled Cessna, the entire range of propeller-driven aircraft from the Cessna 120 up through the Cessna 208 Cirrus, Diamond and Piper—all models Others such as the GippsAero GA8 Airvan, Aviat Husky, Robin DR400, the civil aircraft from GrummanExamples of aircraft that are at the maximum gross takeoff weight for this category include the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and Beechcraft B200 Super King Air; the many uses of light aircraft include aerial surveying, such as monitoring pipelines. They are used for light cargo operations, such as "feeding" cargo hubs, as well as some passenger operations. Light aircraft are used for marketing purposes, such as banner towing and skywriting.
Primary flight instruction is conducted in light aircraft. The majority of personal aircraft are light aircraft, the most popular in history being the Cessna 172, most popular in modern history being the Cirrus SR22 and Robinson R44. Larger light aircraft, such as twin turboprops and light jets are used as business aircraft. Aviation safety General aviation Large aircraft, those over 12,500 lb MTOW Light-sport aircraft List of current production certified light aircraft Ultralight aviation