Kashgar known as Kashi, is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It is one of the westernmost cities of China, near the border with Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. With a population of over 500,000, Kashgar has served as a trading post and strategically important city on the Silk Road between China, the Middle East, Europe for over 2,000 years. At the convergence point of varying cultures and empires, Kashgar has been under the rule of the Chinese, Turkic and Tibetan empires; the city has been the site of a number of battles between various groups of people on the steppes. Now administered as a county-level unit of the People's Republic of China, Kashgar is the administrative centre of Kashgar Prefecture, which has an area of 162,000 square kilometres and a population of 4 million as of 2010; the city itself has a population of 506,640, its urban area covers 15 km2, though its administrative area extends over 555 km2. The city was made into a Special Economic Zone in 2010, the only city in western China with this distinction.
Kashgar forms a terminus of the Karakoram Highway, whose reconstruction is considered a major part of the multibillion-dollar China–Pakistan Economic Corridor. The modern Chinese name is 喀什, a shortened form of the longer and less-frequently used 喀什噶尔. Ptolemy, in his Geography, Chapter 15.3A, refers to Kashgar as “Kasi”. Its western and indigenous name is the Kāš, to which the East Iranian -γar. Alternative historical Romanizations for "Kashgar" include Cashgar. Non-native names for the city, such as the old Chinese name Shule 疏勒 and Tibetan Śu-lig may have originated as an attempts to transcribe the Sanskrit name for Kashgar, Śrīkrīrāti. Variant transcriptions of the official Uyghur: يېڭىشەھەر include: K̂äxk̂är or Kaxgar, as well as Jangi-schahr, Kashgar Yangi Shahr, K’o-shih-ka-erh, K’o-shih-ka-erh-hsin-ch’eng, Ko-shih-ka-erh-hui-ch’eng, K’o-shih-ko-erh-hsin-ch’eng, New Kashgar, Shuleh, Shu-lo, Su-lo, Su-lo-chen, Su-lo-hsien, Yangi-shaar, Yangi-shahr, Yangishar, Yéngisheher, Yengixəh̨ər and Еңишәһәр.
- The postal romanization was 疏附 Shufu 1900s/50s, bilingual postmarks reading"SHUFU /date/疏附" were used in this period. 疏附 Shufu was used on contemporary bilingual maps. The earliest mention of Kashgar occurs when a Chinese Han dynasty envoy traveled the Northern Silk Road to explore lands to the west. Another early mention of Kashgar is during the Former Han, when in 76 BCE the Chinese conquered the Xiongnu, Sulei, a group of states in the Tarim basin up to the foot of the Tian Shan range. Ptolemy speaks of Scythia beyond the Imaus, in a “Kasia Regio” exhibiting the name from which Kashgar and Kashgaria are formed; the country's people practised Buddhism before the coming of Islam. In the Book of Han, which covers the period between 125 BCE and 23 CE, it is recorded that there were 1,510 households, 18,647 people and 2,000 persons able to bear arms. By the time covered by the Book of the Later Han, it had grown to 21,000 households and had 3,000 men able to bear arms; the Book of the Later Han provides a wealth of detail on developments in the region: In the period of Emperor Wu, the Western Regions1 were under the control of the Interior.
They numbered thirty-six kingdoms. The Imperial Government established a Colonel Envoys there to protect these countries. Emperor Xuan changed this title to Protector-General. Emperor Yuan installed two Wuji Colonels to take charge of the agricultural garrisons on the frontiers of the king of Nearer Jushi. During the time of Emperor Ai and Emperor Ping, the principalities of the Western Regions split up and formed fifty-five kingdoms. Wang Mang, after he usurped the Throne and changed their kings and marquises. Following this, the Western Regions became resentful, rebelled. They, broke off all relations with the Interior and, all together, submitted to the Xiongnu again; the Xiongnu collected oppressively heavy taxes and the kingdoms were not able to support their demands. In the middle of the Jianwu period, they each, sent envoys to ask if they could submit to the Interior, to express their desire for a Protector-General. Emperor Guangwu, decided that because the Empire was not yet settled, he had no time for outside affairs, refused his consent.
In the meantime, the Xiongnu became weaker. The king of Suoju, named Xian, wiped out several kingdoms. After Xian's death, they began to fight each other. Xiao Yuan, Jingjue and Qiemo were annexed by Shanshan. Qule and Pishan were conquered and occupied by Yutian. Yuli, Danhuan and Wutanzili were destroyed by Jushi; these kingdoms were re-established. During the Yongping period, the Northern Xiongnu forced several countries to help them plunder the commanderies and districts of Hexi; the gates of the towns stayed shut in broad daylight." More in reference to Kashgar itself, is th
The Xinhai Revolution known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar; the revolution consisted of many uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising on 10 October 1911, the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement; the revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era. The revolution arose in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing; the brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui.
After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration; the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, modernization of China and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing imperial court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform.
Following defeat in the Second Opium War in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861. In the wars against the Taiping, the Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies. In 1895, China suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War; this demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform; the reform was abruptly cancelled by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms; the Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government; the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first Chinese manhua, who became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.
Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894; the Huaxinghui was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, inspire the other provinces to rise up"; the Guangfuhui was founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Tao Chengzhang. Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was from Guangfuhui. There were many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui in Sichuan and Hanzudulihui in Fujian, Yizhishe in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. There were criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang.
Sun Yat-sen himself came in cont
Yarkant County known as Shache County transliterated from Uyghur as Yakan County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. It is one of 11 counties administered under Kashgar Prefecture; the county written "Yarkant" or "Yarkand" in English, was the seat of an ancient Buddhist kingdom on the southern branch of the Silk Road. The county sits at an altitude of 1,189 metres and as of 2003 had a population of 373,492; the fertile oasis is fed by the Yarkand River which flows north down from the Karakorum mountains and passes through Kunlun Mountains known as Congling mountains. The oasis now covers 3,210 square kilometres, but was far more extensive before a period of desiccation affected the region from the 3rd century CE onwards. Today, Yarkant is a predominantly Uyghur settlement; the irrigated oasis farmland produces cotton, corn and walnuts. Yak and sheep graze in the highlands. Mineral deposits include petroleum, natural gas, copper, bauxite and coal.
The territory of Yārkand is first mentioned in the Book of Han as "Shaju", related to the name of the Iranian Saka tribes. Descriptions in the Hou Hanshu contain insights into the complex political situation China faced in attempting to open up the "Silk Routes" to the West in the 1st century CE. According to the "Chapter on the Western Regions" in the Hou Hanshu: "Going west from the kingdom of Suoju, passing through the countries of Puli and Wulei, you arrive among the Da Yuezhi. To the east, it is 10,950 li from Luoyang; the Chanyu of the Xiongnu took advantage of the chaos caused by Wang Mang and invaded the Western Regions. Only Yan, the king of Suoju, more powerful than the others, did not consent to being annexed. During the time of Emperor Yuan, he was a hostage prince and grew up in the capital, he admired and loved the Middle Kingdom and extended the rules of Chinese administration to his own country. He ordered all his sons to respectfully serve the Han dynasty generation by generation, to never turn their backs on it.
Yan died in the fifth Tianfeng year. He was awarded the posthumous title of'Faithful and Martial King', his son, succeeded him on the throne. At the beginning of Emperor Guangwu's reign, Kang led the neighbouring kingdoms to resist the Xiongnu, he escorted, protected, more than a thousand people including the officers, the soldiers, the wife and children of the former Protector General. He sent a letter to Hexi to inquire about the activities of the Middle Kingdom, expressed his attachment to, admiration for, the Han dynasty. In the fifth Jianwu year the General-in-Chief of Hexi, Dou Rong, following Imperial instructions, bestowed on Kang the titles of: “King of Chinese Suoju, Performer of Heroic Deeds Who Cherishes Virtue Commandant-in-Chief of the Western Regions.” The fifty-five kingdoms were all made dependencies after that. In the ninth year Kang died, he was awarded the posthumous title of “Greatly Accomplished King.” His younger brother, succeeded him on the throne. Xian conquered the kingdoms of Jumi and Xiye.
He killed both their kings, installed two sons of his elder brother, Kang, as the kings of Jumi and Xiye. In the fourteenth year, together with An, the king of Shanshan, he sent envoys to the Imperial Palace to offer tribute. Following this, the Western Regions were in communication with China. All the kingdoms to the east of the Congling were dependent on Xian. In the seventeenth year, Xian again sent an envoy to present offerings, to ask that a Protector General be appointed; the Son of Heaven questioned the Excellency of Dou Rong, about this. He was of the opinion that Xian, his sons and brothers who had pledged to serve the Han were sincere. Therefore, it would be appropriate to give him higher rank to maintain security; the Emperor using the same envoy that Xian had sent to him, bestowed upon him the seal and ribbon of “Protector General of the Western Regions,” and gave him chariots, gold and embroideries."Pei Zun, the Administrator of Dunhuang, wrote saying that foreigners should not be allowed to employ such great authority and that these decrees would cause the kingdoms to despair.
An Imperial decree ordered that the seal and ribbons of “Protector General” be recovered, replaced with the seal and ribbon of “Great Han General.” Xian’s envoy refused to make the exchange, Zun took them by force. Xian became resentful. Furthermore, he falsely named himself “Great Protector General,” and sent letters to all the kingdoms, they all submitted to him, bestowed the title of Chanyu on him. Xian became arrogant making heavy demands for duties and taxes. Several times he attacked the other kingdoms. All the kingdoms were fearful. In the winter of the twenty-first year, eighteen kings, including the king of Nearer Jushi, Shanshan and others, sent their sons to enter the service of the Emperor and offered treasure; as a result, they were granted audience when they circulated weeping, prostrating with their foreheads to the ground, in the hope of
Hotan, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China. The city proper of Hotan broke off from the larger Hotan County to become an administrative area in its own right in August 1984, it is the seat of Hotan Prefecture. With a population of 322,300, Hotan is situated in the Tarim Basin some 1,500 kilometres southwest of the regional capital, Ürümqi, it lies just north of the Kunlun Mountains, which are crossed by the Sanju and Ilchi passes. The town, located southeast of Yarkant County and populated exclusively by Uyghurs, is a minor agricultural center. An important station on the southern branch of the historic Silk Road, Hotan has always depended on two strong rivers - the Karakash River and the White Jade River to provide the water needed to survive on the southwestern edge of the vast Taklamakan Desert; the White Jade River still provides irrigation for the town and oasis. The original name of Hotan is said to have been Godana, the name used in the Sanskrit cosmological texts.
It carried the meaning of "land of cows". In Chinese, the same name was written as Yu-t ` pronounced as Gu-dana; the pronunciation changed over the years to Kho-tan. In the 7th century, Xuanzang tried to reverse interpret it in Sanskrit as Kustana. However, the Tibetans continued to call it Go-sthana, which carried the meaning of "land of cows", The oasis of Hotan is strategically located at the junction of the southern branch of the Silk Road joining China and the West with one of the main routes from ancient India and Tibet to Central Asia and distant China, it provided a convenient meeting place where not only goods, but technologies and religions were transmitted from one culture to another. Tocharians lived in this region over 2000 years ago. Several of the Tarim mummies were found in the region. At Sampul, east of the city of Hotan, there is an extensive series of cemeteries scattered over an area about 1 kilometre wide and 23 km long; the excavated sites range from about 300 BCE to 100 CE.
The excavated graves have produced a number of fabrics of felt, wool and cotton and a fine bit of tapestry, the Sampul tapestry, showing the face of Caucasoid man, made of threads of 24 shades of colour. The tapestry had been fashioned into trousers worn by one of the deceased. An Anthropological study of 56 individuals showed a Caucasoid population. DNA testing on the mummies found in the Tarim basin showed that they were an admixture of Western Europeans and East Asian. There is a relative abundance of information on Hotan available for study; the main historical sources are to be found in the Chinese histories when China was interested in control of the Western Regions, the accounts of several Chinese pilgrim monks, a few Buddhist histories of Hotan that have survived in Classical Tibetan and a large number of documents in the Iranian Saka language and other languages discovered, for the most part, early this century at various sites in the Tarim Basin and from the hidden library at the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang.
The ancient Kingdom of Khotan was one of the earliest Buddhist states in the world and a cultural bridge across which Buddhist culture and learning were transmitted from India to China. Its capital was located to the west of the modern city of Hotan; the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Khotan, like those of early Kashgar and Yarkant, spoke Saka, one of the Eastern Iranian languages. Khotan's indigenous dynasty governed a fervently Buddhist city-state boasting some 400 temples in the late 9th/early 10th century—four times the number recorded by Xuanzang around 630; the kingdom was independent but was intermittently under Chinese control during the Han and Tang Dynasty. After the Tang dynasty, Khotan formed an alliance with the rulers of Dunhuang. Khotan enjoyed close relations with the Buddhist centre at Dunhuang: the Khotanese royal family intermarried with Dunhuang élites and patronised Dunhuang's Buddhist temple complex, donated money to have their portraits painted on the walls of the Mogao grottos.
Through the 10th century, Khotanese royal portraits were painted in association with an increasing number of deities in the caves. In the 10th century, Khotan began a struggle with a Turkic state; the Kara-Khanid ruler, Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, had converted to Islam: Satuq's son, began to put pressure on Khotan in the mid-10th century, sometime before 1006 Yusuf Qadir Khan of Kashgar besieged and took the city. This conquest of Buddhist Khotan by the Muslim Turks—about which there are many colourful legends—marked another watershed in the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of the Tarim Basin, an end to local autonomy of this southern Tarim city state; some Khotanese Buddhist works were unearthed. The rulers of Khotan were aware of the menace they faced since they arranged for the Mogao grottoes to paint a growing number of divine figures along with themselves. Halfway in the 10th century Khotan came under attack by the Qarakhanid ruler Musa, in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Turkification and Islamification of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.
Yūsuf Qadr Khān was a brother or cousin of the Muslim ruler of Kashgar and Balasagun, Khotan lost its independence and between 1006 and 1165, became part of the Kara-Khanid Khanate. It fell to the Kara-Khitan Khanate, after which it was ruled by the Mongols; when Marco Polo visited Khotan in the 13th century, he noted. He wrote that: Khotan was "a province eight days’ journey in extent, subject to
The Tian Shan known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 metres high, its lowest point is the Turpan Depression. The Chinese name for Tian Shan may have been derived from the Xiongnu word Qilian – according to Tang commentator Yan Shigu, Qilian is the Xiongnu word for sky or heaven. Sima Qian in the Records of the Grand Historian mentioned Qilian in relation to the homeland of the Yuezhi, the term is believed to refer to the Tian Shan rather than the Qilian Mountains 1,500 kilometres further east now known by this name; the Tannu-Ola mountains in Tuva has the same meaning in its name. Tian Shan is sacred in Tengrism, its second-highest peak is known as Khan Tengri which may be translated as "Lord of the Spirits". Tian Shan is north and west of the Taklamakan Desert and directly north of the Tarim Basin in the border region of Kazakhstan and Xinjiang in northwest China.
In the south it links up with the Pamir Mountains and to north and east it meets the Altai Mountains of Mongolia. In Western cartography such as National Geographic, the eastern end of the Tian Shan is understood to be east of Ürümqi, with the range to the east of that city known as the Bogda Shan as part of the Tian Shan. Chinese cartography from the Han Dynasty to the present agrees, with the Tian Shan including the Bogda Shan and Barkol ranges; the Tian Shan are a part of the Himalayan orogenic belt, formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic era. They are one of the longest mountain ranges in Central Asia and stretch some 2,900 kilometres eastward from Tashkent in Uzbekistan; the highest peak in the Tian Shan is Jengish Chokusu on the border of China. At 7,439 metres high, it is the highest point in Kyrgyzstan; the Tian Shan's second highest peak, Khan Tengri, straddles the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan border and at 7,010 metres is the highest point of Kazakhstan. Mountaineers class these as the two most northerly peaks over 7,000 metres in the world.
The Torugart Pass, at 3,752 metres, is located at the border between Kyrgyzstan and China's Xinjiang province. The forested Alatau ranges, which are at a lower altitude in the northern part of the Tian Shan, are inhabited by pastoral tribes that speak Turkic languages; the Tian Shan are separated from the Tibetan Plateau by the Taklimakan Desert and the Tarim Basin to the south. The major rivers rising in the Tian Shan are the Ili River and the Tarim River; the Aksu Canyon is a notable feature in the northwestern Tian Shan. Continuous permafrost is found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500-3,700 m above the sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost occurs down to 2,700-3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m. One of the first Europeans to visit and the first to describe the Tian Shan in detail was the Russian explorer Peter Semenov, who did so in the 1850s. Glaciers in the Tian Shan Mountains have been shrinking and have lost 27%, or 5.4 billion tons annually, of its ice mass since 1961 compared to an average of 7% worldwide.
It is estimated. The Tian Shan have a number of named ranges which are mentioned separately. In China the Tian Shan starts north of Kumul City with the U-shaped Barkol Mountains, from about 600 to 400 kilometres east of Ürümqi; the Bogda Shan run from 350 to 40 kilometres east of Ürümqi. There is a low area between Ürümqi and the Turfan Depression; the Borohoro Mountains start just south of Ürümqi and run west northwest 450 kilometres separating Dzungaria from the Ili River basin. Their north end abuts on the 200 kilometres Dzungarian Alatau which run east northeast along Sino-Kazakh border, they start 50 kilometres east of end at the Dzungarian Gate. The Dzungarian Alatau in the north, the Borohoro Mountains in the middle and the Ketmen Range in the south make a reversed Z or S, the northeast enclosing part of Dzungaria and the southwest enclosing the upper Ili valley. In Kyrgyzstan the main line of the Tian Shan continues as Narat Range from the base of the Borohoros west 570 kilometres to the point where China and Kyrgyzstan meet.
Here is the highest part of the range -- the Central Tian Shan, with Khan Tengri. West of this, the Tian Shan split with Issyk Kul Lake in its center; the south side of the lake is the north side the Kyungey Ala-Too. North of the Kyungey Ala-Too and parallel to it is the Trans-Ili Alatau in Kazakhstan just south of Almaty. West of the eye, the range continues 400 kilometres as the Kyrgyz Ala-Too, separating Chui Province from Naryn Oblast and Kazakhstan from the Talas Province; this oblast is the upper valley of the Talas River, the south side of, the 200 kilometres Talas Ala-Too Range. At the east end of the Talas Alatau the Suusamyr Too range runs southeast enclosing the Suusamyr Valley or plateau; as for the area south of the Fergana Valley there is a 800 kilometres group of mountains that curves west-southwest
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo
Yengisar County is a county in the southwest of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. It is under the administration of the Kashgar Prefecture, it contains an area of 3,373 km2. As of the 2002 census, it had a population of 230,000; the county seat is the city of Yengisar, a town, best known among the local Uyghurs for its handmade knives. The finely-tuned skill of knife making used to be passed down among generations in Yengisar, but is dying due to China's strict response to deadly clashes in the Xinjiang region; the Battle of Yangi Hissar took place here in April 1934, when Ma Zhancang led the Chinese Muslim 36th division to attack the Turkic Muslim Uighur forces at Yangi Hissar, wiping out the entire Uighur force of 500 and killing the Emir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The city of Yengisar gave its name to Yangihissar gecko lizard species, which occurs throughout eastern Central Asia, including Xinjiang and Gansu Province. Yengisar is served by China National Highway 315 and the Southern Xinjiang railway