General surgery

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, the thyroid gland. They deal with diseases involving the skin, soft tissue, trauma, [[Peripheral artery disease| and hernias and perform endoscopic procedures such as gastroscopy and colonoscopy. General surgeons may sub-specialize into one or more of the following disciplines: In many parts of the world including North America and the United Kingdom, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery; some general surgeons obtain advanced training in this field and specialty certification surgical critical care. General surgeons must be able to deal with any surgical emergency, they are the first port of call to critically ill or gravely injured patients, must perform a variety of procedures to stabilize such patients, such as thoracostomy, cricothyroidotomy, compartment fasciotomies and emergency laparotomy or thoracotomy to stanch bleeding.

They are called upon to staff surgical intensive care units or trauma intensive care units. All general surgeons are trained in emergency surgery. Bleeding, bowel obstructions and organ perforations are the main problems they deal with. Cholecystectomy, the surgical removal of the gallbladder, is one of the most common surgical procedures done worldwide; this is most done electively, but the gallbladder can become acutely inflamed and require an emergency operation. Infections and rupture of the appendix and small bowel obstructions are other common emergencies; this is a new specialty dealing with minimal access techniques using cameras and small instruments inserted through 3 to 15mm incisions. Robotic surgery is now evolving from this concept. Gallbladders and colons can all be removed with this technique. Hernias are able to be repaired laparoscopically. Bariatric surgery can be performed laparoscopically and there a benefits of doing so to reduce wound complications in obese patients. General surgeons that are trained today are expected to be proficient in laparoscopic procedures.

General surgeons treat a wide variety of major and minor colon and rectal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticulitis and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhoids. General surgeons perform a majority of all non-cosmetic breast surgery from lumpectomy to mastectomy pertaining to the evaluation and treatment of breast cancer. General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training and certification in vascular surgery. Otherwise, these procedures are performed by vascular surgery specialists. However, general surgeons are capable of treating minor vascular disorders. General surgeons are trained to remove all or part of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck and the adrenal glands just above each kidney in the abdomen. In many communities, they are the only surgeon trained to do this. In communities that have a number of subspecialists, other subspecialty surgeons may assume responsibility for these procedures. Responsible for all aspects of pre-operative and post-operative care of abdominal organ transplant patients.

Transplanted organs include liver, kidney and more small bowel. Surgical oncologist refers to a general surgical oncologist, but thoracic surgical oncologists, gynecologist and so forth can all be considered surgeons who specialize in treating cancer patients; the importance of training surgeons who sub-specialize in cancer surgery lies in evidence, supported by a number of clinical trials, that outcomes in surgical cancer care are positively associated to surgeon volume—i.e. The more cancer cases a surgeon treats, the more proficient he or she becomes, his or her patients experience improved survival rates as a result; this is another controversial point, but it is accepted—even as common sense—that a surgeon who performs a given operation more will achieve superior results when compared with a surgeon who performs the same procedure. This is true of complex cancer resections such as pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer, gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer.

Surgical oncology is a 2 year fellowship following completion of a general surgery residency. Most cardiothoracic surgeons in the U. S. first complete a general surgery residency, followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship. Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery. Pediatric surgeons do surgery on patients age lower than 18. Pediatric surgery is 5 -- 7 years of a 2-3 year fellowship. In the 2000s minimally invasive surgery became more prevalent. Considerable enthusiasm has been built around robot-assisted surgery, despite a lack of data suggesting it has significant benefits that justify its cost. In Canada, New Zealand, the United States general surgery is a five to seven year residency and follows completion of medical school, either MD, MBBS, MBChB, or DO degrees. In Australia and New Zealand, a residency leads to eligibility for Fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. In Canada, residency leads to eligibility for certification by and Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, while in the United States, completion of a residency in general surgery leads to eligibility for

Fushimi Station (Kyoto)

Fushimi Station is a railway station on Kintetsu Railway's Kyoto Line located in Fushimi, Japan. Kintetsu Railway Kyoto Line The elevated station has two side platforms with two tracks; the location of the station was a site of former Fushimi Station on the government-run Nara Line railway. Since a reroute of the Nara Line to the present route in 1921, Fushimi Station had been a terminal of a freight branch until its closure about two months before the opening of the present station. September 5, 1895 - The station opens as a station of Nara Railway February 7, 1905 - Nara Railway merges into Kansai Railway October 1, 1907 - Kansai Railway is nationalized August 1, 1921 - The line between Kyoto and Fushimi closes.

English Electric Lightning

The English Electric Lightning is a fighter aircraft that served as an interceptor during the 1960s, the 1970s and into the late 1980s. It remains the only UK-designed-and-built fighter capable of Mach 2; the Lightning was designed and manufactured by English Electric, absorbed by the newly-formed British Aircraft Corporation. The type was marketed as the BAC Lightning, it was operated by the Kuwait Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. A unique feature of the Lightning's design is the vertical, staggered configuration of its two Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engines within the fuselage; the Lightning was designed and developed as an interceptor to defend the V bomber airfields from attack by anticipated future nuclear-armed supersonic Soviet bombers such as what emerged as the Tupolev Tu-22, but it was subsequently required to intercept other bomber aircraft such as the Tupolev Tu-16 and the Tupolev Tu-95. The Lightning has exceptional rate of climb and speed; this performance and the limited fuel supply made the Lightning a "fuel-critical" aircraft, meaning that its missions are dictated to a high degree by its limited range.

Developments provided greater range and speed along with aerial reconnaissance and ground-attack capability. Following retirement by the RAF in the late 1980s, many of the remaining aircraft became museum exhibits; until 2009, three Lightnings were kept flying at "Thunder City" in South Africa. In September 2008, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conferred on the Lightning its "Engineering Heritage Award" at a ceremony at BAE Systems' site at Warton Aerodrome; the specification for the aircraft followed the cancellation of the Air Ministry's 1942 E.24/43 supersonic research aircraft specification which had resulted in the Miles M.52 programme. W. E. W. "Teddy" Petter chief designer at Westland Aircraft, was a keen early proponent of Britain's need to develop a supersonic fighter aircraft. In 1947, Petter approached the Ministry of Supply with his proposal, in response Specification ER.103 was issued for a single research aircraft, to be capable of flight at Mach 1.5 and 50,000 feet. Petter initiated a design proposal with F W "Freddie" Page leading the design and Ray Creasey responsible for the aerodynamics.

By July 1948 their proposal incorporated the stacked engine configuration and a high-mounted tailplane but was designed for Mach 1.5. As a consequence it had a conventional 40° swept wing This proposal was submitted in the November and in January 1949 the project was designated P.1 by English Electric. On 29 March 1949 MoS granted approval for English Electric to start the detailed design, develop wind tunnel models and build a full-size mockup; the design that had developed during 1948 evolved further during 1949. To achieve Mach 2 the wing sweep was increased to 60° with the ailerons moved to the wingtips. In late 1949 low-speed wind tunnel tests showed that a vortex was generated by the wing which caused a large downwash on the tailplane. Following the resignation of Petter, Page took over as design team leader for the P.1. In 1949, the Ministry of Supply had issued Specification F23/49, which expanded upon the scope of ER103 to include fighter-level manoeuvring. On 1 April 1950, English Electric received a contract for two flying airframes, as well as one static airframe, designated P.1.

The Royal Aircraft Establishment was sceptical of Petter's swept wing concepts. To test the design of both the wing, the tailplane and to assess handling, Short Brothers were issued a contract to produce the Short SB5 in mid-1950; this was a low-speed research aircraft and was designed so that different wing sweep angles could be assumed by the single aircraft. An assortment of tailplanes and wings were supplied and could be installed in order for their flight performance to be evaluated. However, following the first flight of the SB.5 on 2 December 1952, the trials demonstrated the choice of a tailplane and a 60 degree wingsweep and proved the design principles to be effective. From 1953 onwards, the first three prototype aircraft were hand-built at Samlesbury; these aircraft had been assigned the aircraft serials WG760, WG763, WG765. The prototypes were powered by un-reheated Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire turbojets, as the selected Rolls-Royce Avon engines which powered subsequent production aircraft had fallen behind schedule due to their own development problems.

Due to the limited internal space of the fuselage the fuel capacity was small, giving the prototypes an limited endurance, the narrow tyres housed in the thin wings wore out. Outwardly, the prototypes looked much like the production series, but they were distinguished by the rounded-triangular intakes, short fins and lack of operational equipment. On 9 June 1952, it was decided that there would be a second phase of prototypes built to develop the aircraft towards achieving Mach 2.0. P.1B was a significant improvement on P.1A. While it was similar in aerodynamics and control systems, it incorporated extensive alterations to the forward fuselage, reheated Rolls Royce Avon R24R engines, a conical centre body inlet cone, variable nozzle reheat and provision for weapons systems integrated with the ADC and AI.23 radar. Three P1B prototypes were built, assigned serials XA847, XA853 and XA856In May 1954, WG760 and its support equipment were moved to RAF Boscombe Down for pre-flight ground taxi trials.