Geneva Conventions

The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term Geneva Convention denotes the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War, which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties, added two new conventions; the Geneva Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners, established protections for the wounded and sick, established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone. The treaties of 1949 were ratified, by 196 countries. Moreover, the Geneva Convention defines the rights and protections afforded to non-combatants; the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant went to visit wounded soldiers after the Battle of Solferino in 1859. He was shocked by the lack of facilities and medical aid available to help these soldiers; as a result, he published his book, A Memory of Solferino, on the horrors of war. His wartime experiences inspired Dunant to propose: A permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zoneThe former proposal led to the establishment of the Red Cross in Geneva.

The latter led to the 1864 Geneva Convention, the first codified international treaty that covered the sick and wounded soldiers on the battlefield. On 22 August 1864, the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries, as well as the United States and Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field". Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention: For both of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant became corecipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. On 20 October 1868 the first, attempt to expand the 1864 treaty was undertaken. With the'Additional Articles relating to the Condition of the Wounded in War' an attempt was initiated to clarify some rules of the 1864 convention and to extend them to maritime warfare; the Articles were only ratified by the Netherlands and North America.

The Netherlands withdrew their ratification. The protection of the victims of maritime warfare would be realized by the third Hague Convention of 1899 and the tenth Hague Convention of 1907. In 1906 thirty-five states attended. On 6 July 1906 it resulted in the adoption of the "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field", which improved and supplemented, for the first time, the 1864 convention, it remained in force until 1970. The 1929 conference yielded two conventions that were signed on 27 July 1929. One, the "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field", was the third version to replace the original convention of 1864; the other was adopted after experiences in World War I had shown the deficiencies in the protection of prisoners of war under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The "Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" was not to replace these earlier conventions signed at The Hague, rather it supplemented them.

Inspired by the wave of humanitarian and pacifistic enthusiasm following World War II and the outrage towards the war crimes disclosed by the Nuremberg Trials, a series of conferences were held in 1949 reaffirming and updating the prior Geneva and Hague Conventions. It yielded four distinct conventions: The First Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field" was the fourth update of the original 1864 convention and replaced the 1929 convention on the same subject matter; the Second Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea" replaced the Hague Convention of 1907. It was the first Geneva Convention on the protection of the victims of maritime warfare and mimicked the structure and provisions of the First Geneva Convention; the Third Geneva Convention "relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" replaced the 1929 Geneva Convention that dealt with prisoners of war.

In addition to these three conventions, the conference added a new elaborate Fourth Geneva Convention "relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War". It was the first Geneva Convention not to deal with combatants, rather it had the protection of civilians as its subject matter; the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions had contained some provisions on the protection of civilians and occupied territory. Article 154 provides that the Fourth Geneva Convention is supplementary to these provisions in the Hague Conventions. Despite the length of these documents, they were found over time to be incomplete. In fact, the nature of armed conflicts had changed with the beginning of the Cold War era, leading many to believe that the 1949 Geneva Conventions were addressing a extinct reality: on the one hand, most armed conflicts had become internal, or civil wars, while on the other, most wars had become asymmetric. Moreover, modern armed conflicts were inflicting an higher toll on civilians, whic

University of Chicago Legal Forum

The University of Chicago Legal Forum is a student-edited journal. It focuses on a single relevant, legal issue every year, presenting an authoritative and timely approach to a particular topic. To facilitate this, the Legal Forum hosts a symposium each fall and the participants contribute articles for the volume; the University of Chicago Legal Forum was first published in 1985, making it the University of Chicago Law School’s second-oldest journal. The Legal Forum is a student-edited journal that hones in on a single cutting-edge legal topic every year; each fall, the Legal Forum hosts a symposium, with the participants contributing articles for the volume that will be published. For November 2015, the Symposium is entitled "Policing the Police" and will subsequently be published as Volume 2016. Additional topics in others years have included "Does Election Law Serve the Electorate?", "The Civil Rights Act at 50 Years", "Frontiers of Consumer Protection", "Combating Corruption", "Governance and Power", "Crime Criminal Law and the Recession", "Law in a Networked World", "Immigration Law and Policy and Life: Definitions and Decisionmaking", "Cutting-Edge Issues in Class Action Litigation."

Since its founding and each year thereafter, members of academia, the judiciary, the bar have participated in the Legal Forum symposia. Past participants and published authors have included Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Judge Richard Posner, Judge Frank Easterbrook, Judge Diane Wood, Judge Abner Mikva, Judge Patricia Wald, Judge Danny Boggs, Dean Lee Bollinger, Professor Randall Kennedy, Professor Cass Sunstein, Professor Lani Guinier, Professor Richard Epstein, Professor Kimberle Crenshaw, Professor Akhil Reed Amar. Legal Forum articles have been cited in numerous judicial opinions. In addition, the Legal Forum has been mentioned in publications such as the New York Times and Irish Examiner; the Legal Forum and its authors have been featured on the University of Chicago's main website. Past issues can be found online through a well-regarded academic database. Volume 2018 - Law and Urban Institutions Ten Years after The Wire Volume 2017 - Law and the Disruptive Workplace Volume 2016 - Policing the Police Volume 2015 - Does Election Law Serve the Electorate?

Volume 2014 - The Civil Rights Act at 50 Years Volume 2013 - Frontiers of Consumer Protection Volume 2012 - Combating Corruption Volume 2011 - Governance and Power Volume 2010 - Crime, Criminal Law, the Recession Volume 2009 - Civil Rights Law and the Low-Wage Worker Volume 2008 - Law in a Networked World Volume 2007 - Immigration Law and Policy Volume 2006 - Law and Life: Definitions and Decisionmaking Volume 2005 - Punishment and Crime Volume 2004 - The Public and Private Faces of Family Law Volume 2003 - Current Issues in Class Action Litigation Volume 2002 - The Scope of Equal Protection Volume 2001 - Frontiers of Jurisdiction Volume 2000 - Antitrust in the Information Age Volume 1999 - The Law of Sex Discrimination Volume 1998 - The Right to a Fair Trial Volume 1997 - Rethinking Environmental Protection for the 21st Century Volume 1996 - The Law of Cyberspace Volume 1995 - Voting Rights and Elections Volume 1994 - Toward a Rational Drug Policy Volume 1993 - A Free and Responsible Press Volume 1992 - Europe and America in 1992 and Beyond: Common Problems...

Common Solutions? Volume 1991 - At the Schoolhouse Gate: Education and Democracy Volume 1990 - The Role of the Jury in Civil Dispute Resolutions Volume 1989 - Feminism in the Law: Theory and Criticism Volume 1988 - Testing in the Workplace Volume 1987 - Consent Decrees: Practical Problems and Legal Dilemmas Volume 1986 - Barriers to International Trade in Professional Services

Telem, Har Hebron

Telem is a communal Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Located in the southern Judean Hills region, west of Kiryat Arba, it falls under the jurisdiction of Har Hevron Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 432; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. According to ARIJ, Israel confiscated about 1000 dunams of land from the nearby Palestinian town of Tarqumiyah in order to construct Telem; the settlement was established on 31 January 1982 as a pioneering Nahal military outpost and demilitarized only a year when turned over for residential purposes in the form of a non-religious cooperative village belonging to the Herut Betar movement. In 1995, with the assistance of the Amana settlement organization, houses were built. In 2004, a group of about twenty religious families joined the village in order to strengthen and build a mixed community. In the centre of the village, a Beit Midrash was established and named the'Netivot Dror Yeshiva' in memory of Dror Weinberg, an Israel Defense Forces army colonel who, as of 2007, was the highest ranking Israeli soldier to be killed during the Second Intifada.

The community still has agriculture including chicken coops. Its original name was Mitzpe Guvrin. Netivot Dror Yeshiva