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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geneva Protocol

The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928, it was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 7 September 1929. The Geneva Protocol is a protocol to the Convention for the Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of War signed on the same date, followed the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, it prohibits the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare". This is now understood to be a general prohibition on chemical weapons and biological weapons, but has nothing to say about production, storage or transfer. Treaties did cover these aspects — the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention.

A number of countries submitted reservations when becoming parties to the Geneva Protocol, declaring that they only regarded the non-use obligations as applying to other parties and that these obligations would cease to apply if the prohibited weapons were used against them. The main elements of the protocol are now considered by many to be part of customary international law. In the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the use of dangerous chemical agents were outlawed. In spite of this, the First World War saw large-scale chemical warfare. France used tear gas in 1914, but the first large-scale successful deployment of chemical weapons was by the German Empire in Ypres, Belgium in 1915, when chlorine gas was released as part of a German attack at the Battle of Gravenstafel. Following this, a chemical arms race began, with the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, the United States, Italy joining France and Germany in the use of chemical weapons; this resulted in the development of a range of horrific chemicals affecting skin, or eyes.

Some were intended to be lethal on the battlefield, like hydrogen cyanide, efficient methods of deploying agents were invented. At least 124,000 tons were produced during the war. In 1918, about one grenade out of three was filled with dangerous chemical agents. Around 1.3 million casualties of the conflict were attributed to the use of gas and the psychological effect on troops may have had a much greater effect. As protective equipment developed, the technology to destroy such equipment became a part of the arms race; the use of deadly poison gas was not only limited to combatants in the front but civilians as nearby civilian towns were at risk from winds blowing the poison gases through. Civilians living in towns had any warning systems about the dangers of poison gas as well as not having access to effective gas masks; the use of chemical weapons employed by both sides had inflicted an estimated 100,000-260,000 civilian casualties during the conflict. Tens of thousands or more died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended.

In the year 1920 alone, over 40,000 civilians and 20,000 military personnel died from the chemical weapons effects. The Treaty of Versailles included some provisions that banned Germany from either manufacturing or importing chemical weapons. Similar treaties banned the First Austrian Republic, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Hungary from chemical weapons, all belonging to the losing side, the Central powers. Russian bolsheviks and Britain continued the use of chemical weapons in the Russian Civil War and in the Middle East in 1920. Three years after World War I, the Allies wanted to reaffirm the Treaty of Versailles, in 1922 the United States introduced the Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare at the Washington Naval Conference. Four of the war victors, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan, gave consent for ratification, but it failed to enter into force as the French Third Republic objected to the submarine provisions of the treaty.

At the 1925 Geneva Conference for the Supervision of the International Traffic in Arms the French suggested a protocol for non-use of poisonous gases. The Second Polish Republic suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons, it was signed on 17 June. Several countries have prepared chemical weapons in spite of the treaty. Spain and France did so in the Rif War before the treaty came into effect in 1928, Japan used chemical weapons against Taiwan in 1930 during the Wushe Massacre, Italy used mustard gas against Abyssinia in 1935 and Japan used chemical weapons against China from 1938 to 1941. In the Second World War, the U. S. the UK, Germany prepared the resources to deploy chemical weapons, stockpiling tons of them, but refrained from their use due to the balance of terror: the probability of horrific retaliation. There was an accidental release of mustard gas in Bari, Italy causing many deaths when a U. S. ship carrying CW ammunition was sunk in the harbor during an air raid. After the war, thousands of tons of shells and containers with tabun and other chemical weapons were disposed of at sea by the Allies.

Early in the Cold War, the UK collaborated with the U. S. in the development of chemical weapons. The Soviet Union had the facilities to produce chemical weapons but their development was kept secret. During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War and the 1991 uprisings in Iraq, United States and Europe gave and funded Saddam Hussein's use of several different chemical agents, including anthrax, mustard gas, VX, against Iran and against Iraqi civilians in instanc

Scolmatore dell'Arno

Lo Scolmatore dell'Arno is a 28 kilometers artificial flood control channel of the river Arno from Pontedera to the Ligurian Sea at Calambrone. As a consequence of the Arno flood of 1949, it was decided to start the construction of Scolmatore dell'Arno in 1954 at a cost of more than 10 billion lire of the time; the work was not completed in time for the disastrous flood of 1966 that, in addition to Florence, caused enormous damages in Pontedera and Pisa. The floodway branches off the Arno 40 km from the river mouth, just downstream Pontedera in a southwesterly direction, where the Arno proper continues towards northwest; the elevation at the bifurcation is 11 meters, with the floodway's main ingate controlled by four gates that during normal water levels are closed, whereas a secondary and smaller ingate has free flow. The main channel has a total length of 28.3 kilometers and after a bend 8 kilometers downstream it continues straight towards the sea in a west-southwest direction. The lower 6 kilometers forms the border between the provinces of Livorno and Pisa, the mouth is situated between Calambrone and the seaport of Livorno, 11 kilometers south of Arno proper's mouth.

Scolmatore dell'Arno has a few branches, most notably is the much older Navicelli channel that connects less than one km from the mouth, although they lie parallel for further 2 kilometers before this channel turns towards northwest. Another few channels drain the area between the floodway; the main tributary is the River Tora that confluences 9.5 kilometers from the mouth, just northwest of Mortaiolo. A minor tributary is the River Zannone that confluences 19.5 kilometers from the mouth, just downstream the aforementioned bend of the channel. It is that the lower part of the channel at least occupies the original paths of Tora and Zannone. Both these rivers originates from the Pisan hills south of the Arno valley and the channel itself; the floodway was designed for a capacity of 1,400 cubic meters per second, which should able 60% of the water flowing through Pisa, but this magnitude was never achieved and due to lack of maintenance the actual drainage of the channel is not more than 400 cubic meters per second.

A related problem is silt deposits of the seaport of Livorno that lies adjacent to the floodway's mouth. There is an ongoing project to improve the navigability of the channel, intended for freight, excluding the use of tourist boating on the channel; the navigability is developed to promote the connection between the dock in the port of Livorno and commercial activities at Guasticce and Vicarello, upstream at a distance of 13 kilometers. It will use the current channel's connection to the port of Livorno through excavation of the channel to ensure a width of about 40 meters and a depth of at least 3.5 meters, so as to allow the passage of boats and barges larger to the present. The project includes the raising of the deck of the bridge of the Aurelia road and the construction of docks for loading and unloading of goods at Guasticce and Vicarello

Malcolm Wallace

Malcolm Everett "Mac" Wallace was an economist for the United States Department of Agriculture and served as a press secretary for President Lyndon B. Johnson. On October 22, 1951, Wallace fatally shot John Douglas Kinser in the clubhouse of an Austin golf course owned by Kinser. Wallace is most known for his alleged participation in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Wallace was a native of Texas, he was the son of Alvin James Wallace, Sr. a cement and construction contractor, according to the 1930 US Census, Alice Marie Riddle. In 1939, Wallace graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, he served in the United States Marine Corps. Wallace attended the University of Texas at Austin where he was a member of the Tejas Club, Texas Cowboys, the president of the student body, he led a 1944 protest against the ouster of UT president Homer P. Rainey and graduated in 1947. Wallace was a student in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, from September 1947 to May 1948 but did not graduate with a degree.

By early August 1951, Wallace was working as an economist with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. while his wife, a draftsman with the Planning Survey Division Texas Department of Transportation, children lived with his mother in Austin. In October 1951, Wallace was visiting Austin and Dallas while on vacation from his position in Washington. On October 22, 1951 in Austin, John Douglas Kinser, a 33-year-old sophomore student at the University of Texas, was shot to death in the clubhouse of the Pitch and Putt Golf Course that he operated. After the first shot, one golfer outside the clubhouse observed a man inside holding a revolver, he heard two or three additional shots after leaving to attract the attention of three other golfers on the course. The three golfers on the course observed the man running from the clubhouse and getting into his car, one of them noted the car's make and license plate number; the men ran to the clubhouse where they found Kinser's body telephoned the police who radioed the car's description and license information to state and city patrol cars.

Three patrolmen with the Texas Highway Patrol spotted stopped the car nine miles from Austin on the Burnet Highway. According to one of the patrolmen, the driver fit the description provided by the golfers and his shirt was torn and bloodied; the suspect and witness were taken to the headquarters of the Austin Police Department for questioning. Wallace was identified as the man leaving the scene with a snubnosed pistol, three bullet shells were found near Kinser's body, he was arrested by highway patrolmen on the Burnet Highway shortly after the shooting. Detectives revealed no motive in the killing, he was charged the following day with murder and the Justice of the peace set bail at $30,000. Two days after the killing, the district attorney accused the local sheriff of "obstructing the investigation" stating that he had refused to transport Wallace to the Texas Department of Public Safety for identification testing. According to the sheriff, Wallace protested the move and his defense attorney, Polk Shelton, had asked that Wallace not be moved.

Wallace was represented at the trial by John Cofer, longtime lawyer to Lyndon Johnson, who had represented LBJ during his contested election to the United States Senate in 1948, tainted by allegations of voter fraud. During the trial, FBI special agent Joseph L. Schott stated that he had known Wallace for 12 years and in 1946 had given Wallace a German-made 6.35 mm Schmeisser automatic pistol that he had acquired while serving in the United States Army in Germany. A firearms expert for the Department of Public Safety testified that the slugs and shells from the murder scene could have been fired from the Schmeisser. A chemist/toxicology expert with the Department of Public Safety, said that a paraffin test on Wallace's hands tested positive for gunshot residue and that blood on his shirt matched blood found at the club house at the golf course. Testimony was completed on February 25, 1952 and Judge Charles O' Betts recessed court in order to finalize the jury instructions prior to closing arguments.

The prosecution did not attempt to establish a motive for the shooting, nor did it produce an eyewitness to it or the murder weapon. The following day, the prosecution and defense completed their closing arguments and the jury was charged that afternoon. After deliberating into the evening, the jury was sequestered within the courthouse dormitory. After listening to 29.5 hours of testimony from 23 different witnesses, on February 27 the jury returned its verdict finding Wallace guilty of "murder with malice". After a short recess, O' Betts sentenced Wallace to a five-year sentence, suspended. Questioned as to why the prosecution did not attempt to provide a motive, defense attorney Polk Shelton stated that it was "probably because they couldn't." Kinser's sister-in-law stated that Kinser was killed because he had been having an affair with Wallace's wife. Wallace was the manager of the purchasing department of Ling-Temco-Vought, he attended an Episcopal church in Dallas. On January 7, 1971, Wallace died when his car ran off the road 3.5 miles south of Pittsburg, Texas on U.

S. Route 271. Noting that the highway was neither icy nor wet, the investigating patrolman stated that Wallace had struck a bridge abutment after losing control of his car, he was buried in the Nevills Chapel Cemetery in Mount Pleasant. In 1984, Billie Sol Estes told a grand jury investigating the 1961 shooting death of Henry Marshall, an official with the Department of Agriculture, that W

Massiah McDonald

Massiah Julian McDonald is an Montserratian footballer who plays for Ilkeston Town. He made his international debut for Montserrat in March 2015. Following his release from Notts County as a youngster, McDonald began his non-league career with Alfreton Town, breaking into the first team at the tender age of 16 in the 2006–07 season after two years in the youth set-up. Making three appearances in the first team, Scorong once, he joined Rainworth Milners Welfare in 2008, spent two years with the club. Departing the club in May 2010, the forward spent a season with Carlton Town, scoring 22 times in 35 appearances. Completing a switch to Worksop Town in August 2011, McDonald joined the club for 18 months, his spell included a one-month loan at Matlock Town in October 2011, but he made the move permanent a month before remaining with the club until the end of the season. He scored nine times in 30 games for the Gladiators. On 8 August 2014, McDonald re-joined Alfreton Town at the age of 23. Spending a single season with club, he had a one-month loan away from North Street when joining Boston United in late January 2015.

However, he failed to score in four appearances for the Pilgrims, while scoring twice for Alfreton throughout the season. In May 2015, McDonald dropped down a division in order to join Bradford Park Avenue. Joining Mickleover Sports on a one-month loan in September 2015, he scored on his debut in a 2–0 win over Buxton. McDonald signed for Rushall Olympic on a one-month loan in October 2015, scored two goals on his debut. Joining Corby Town on a one-month loan in December 2015, McDonald opted for a second spell with the Steelmen a few weeks after, headed to Steel Park on loan for the remainder of the season. On 21 May 2016, Coalville Town announced, he signed for AFC Rushden & Diamonds in July 2019. McDonald made his international debut for Montserrat on 27 March 2015, featuring in a 2–1 defeat to Curaçao during 2018 World Cup qualification, he made his second appearance three days in a 2–2 draw with Curaçao in the same competition. After 3 years away from the national team, he returned to action in October 2018 in a 1–0 win over Belize

Synesthesia (Courage My Love album)

Synesthesia is a studio album from Canadian pop punk band Courage My Love. It was released on February 3, 2017. Synesthesia is Courage My Love's second full-length album, the first being a re-release of a previous EP; the album combines the pop punk sound the band is known for, plus elements of synthwave and synthpop. The album was influenced by drummer Phoenix Arn-Horn self teaching herself synth programming. "Synesthesia is much new age, with a mix of pop, punk and dance" says Jared Allen of Volume Magazine."These songs are all composed well." Said NewNoise. "They're diverse, creeping up on the necks of bands similar in style. But, this trio doesn’t want to be pigeonholed, they want to hit the ground running with their guts intact and the music pulsating in those veins. All the tracks on Synesthesia are expertly driven."She Shreds Magazine interviewed the band when the single "Stereo" was released. The interview states; the first lasted nearly two years before an initial recording session and the remainder of the album was developed from there.

“We knew going in that we didn’t want to rush anything,” Mercedes says. "We knew that at this stage in our career this album was pretty much break. This would be the turning point. So we couldn’t allow any filler songs. That’s why the last five songs had to be above and beyond anything we’d done before. There was a lot of pressure, but sometimes pressure can lead to an amazing end result.” In an interview with AltPress, lead singer Mercedes Arn-Horn describes the album as "a story everyone can relate to. A heartbreak, a crisis of faith, the long struggle toward regaining your self-esteem and self-respect. We chose the title Synesthesia because we thought it was the perfect concept for trying to describing the feeling of being lost and overwhelmed by emotions." All tracks are written by All tracks were written by Courage My Love. Stereo Need Someone Animal Heart Walls Mercedes Arn-Horn - Vocals, guitars Phoenix Arn-Horn - Drums, synths Brandon Lockwood - Bass

Consultative Group on Indonesia

The Consultative Group on Indonesia gathered Indonesia's international donors from 1992 to 2007 to coordinate the flow of foreign aid to Indonesia. It was set up by the World Bank. During the 1990s and until 2007, the Indonesia and the World Bank arranged regular meetings of official donors to Indonesia to discuss policies and the annual levels of foreign aid. After the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis, for example, in 1998 the World Bank urged donors to provide appropriate amounts of financial support to promote economic recovery in Indonesia; the CGI meetings were seen as key international meetings for Indonesia and were attended by a wide range of senior representatives, both from within Indonesia and from overseas. The CGI was established as a replacement for the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia; the IGGI was an international donor group established in the late 1960s to help coordinate the flow of foreign aid to Indonesia. IGGI was convened and chaired by the Dutch Government for over two decades throughout the 1970s and 1980.

However, following increasing critical comments of Indonesian domestic policy by the then-Minister for Development Cooperation in the Netherlands, Jan Pronk, in early 1992, the Indonesian Government indicated that it no longer wished to participate in the annual IGGI meetings in The Hague and preferred that a new donor consultative group, the CGI, be established and be chaired by the World Bank. The first meeting of the CGI was held in Paris on 16-17 July 1992. Mr Gautum Kaji chaired the meeting. Mr Radius Prawiro led the Indonesian delegation. A range of bilateral donor country delegations attended, as did representatives from a number of multilateral organisations; the meeting began with the Chair and the Head of the Indonesian delegation expressing appreciation to the Netherlands for convening the meetings of the IGGI over the previous 24 years. Delegations discussed recent economic and social developments in Indonesia, reviewed external assistance requirements for the fiscal year 1991/92, discussed the special topic of the meeting.

Meetings of the CGI were held throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. 2000 meeting The 10th meeting of the CGI was held in Tokyo on 17-18 October 2000. Chair of the meeting, World Bank Vice President Jemal-ud-din Kassum noted that three issues had been of paramount interest at the meeting: the continuation of structural reforms, the clear articulation of a poverty reduction strategy, the implementation of a governance program that covered legal and judicial reforms and forest management.2003 meeting The 12th meeting of the CGI was held in Bali on 22-23 January 2003. The meeting had been postponed following the Bali bombing attack in October 2002 and was held in Bali as a sign of support for Indonesia following the tragedy; the meeting included special sessions on the response to the Bali tragedy and a cease-fire, announced in Aceh.2005 meeting Following the Boxing Day, 2004, tsunami in Asia which led to an estimated deathtoll of nearly 170,000 in the province of Aceh, the 14th CGI meeting was held on 19-20 January 2005..

The meeting considered a special technical report prepared by the Indonesian Planning Agency and the international donor community providing a preliminary assessment of the impact of the tsunami in Indonesia 2006 meeting The 15th meeting of the CGI was held in Jakarta on 14 June 2006. This was the last CGI meeting before the Indonesian government announced in early 2007 that further meetings of the group would no longer be needed. In early 2007, the president of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announced that Indonesia no longer needed to meet donors in an annual conference such as the CGI and would prefer to take direct responsibility for coordinating Indonesian international development programs with donors. Estimates of the flow of finance through CGI arrangements reported by different source vary somewhat depending on the basis of reporting In broad terms, the following tables, drawn from different sources, indicate the scale of pledges of finance made at CGI meetings. Source: Bappenas, Keberadaan Dan Peran Consultative Group for Indonesia Kajian dan Rekomendasi Kebijakaan, Jakarta, 2003.

Source: "Presiden bubarkan CGI", Bisnis Indonesia, 25 January 2007. Note: Totals may not add due to rounding Indonesian National Development Planning Agency, Keberadaan Dan Peran Consultative Group for Indonesia Kajian dan Rekomendasi Kebijakaan, Jakarta, 2003. Consultative Group on Indonesia - Indonesia Matters