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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan officially Genghis Emperor, was the founder and first Great Khan and Emperor of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties; these campaigns were accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations in the Khwarazmian- and Western Xia–controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central China. Before Genghis Khan died, his grandsons split his empire into khanates. Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. By his request, his body was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia, his descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, the Caucasus, Central Asia, substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia.

Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories. Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways, he decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He practised meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia. Known for the brutality of his campaigns, Genghis Khan is considered by many to have been a genocidal ruler. However, he is credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment; this brought easy communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, Christian Europe, expanding the cultural horizons of all three areas. Genghis Khan was related on his father's side to Khabul Khan and Hotula Khan, who had headed the Khamag Mongol confederation and were descendants of Bodonchar Munkhag.

When the Jurchen Jin dynasty switched support from the Mongols to the Tatars in 1161, they destroyed Khabul Khan. Genghis Khan's father, Yesügei, emerged as the head of the ruling Mongol clan; this position was contested by the rival Tayichi'ud clan. When the Tatars grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin switched their support from the Tatars to the Keraites. Little is known about Genghis Khan's early life, due to the lack of contemporary written records; the few sources that give insight into this period contradict. Genghis Khan's birth name, Temüjin, was derived from the Mongol word temür meaning "of iron", while jin denotes agency. Temüjin thus means "blacksmith". Genghis Khan was born in 1162 in Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia, close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar; the Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader.

He was the second son of his father Yesügei, a Kiyad chief prominent in the Khamag Mongol confederation and an ally of Toghrul of the Keraite tribe. Temüjin was the first son of his mother Hoelun. According to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after the Tatar chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just captured. Yesukhei's clan was Borjigin, Hoelun was from the Olkhunut sub-lineage of the Khongirad tribe. Like other tribes, they were nomads. Temüjin's noble background made it easier for him to solicit help from and consolidate the other Mongol tribes. Temüjin had three brothers Hasar and Temüge, one sister Temülen, two half-brothers Begter and Belgutei. Like many of the nomads of Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was difficult, his father arranged a marriage for him and delivered him at age nine to the family of his future wife Börte of the tribe Khongirad. Temüjin was to live there serving the head of the household Dai Setsen until the marriageable age of 12. While heading home, his father ran into the neighboring Tatars, who had long been Mongol enemies, they offered him food that poisoned him.

Upon learning this, Temüjin returned home to claim his father's position as chief. But the tribe abandoned the family, leaving it without protection. For the next several years, the family lived in poverty, surviving on wild fruits, ox carcasses and other small game killed by Temüjin and his brothers. Temüjin's older half-brother Begter began to exercise power as the eldest male in the family and would have the right to claim Hoelun as wife. Temüjin's resentment erupted during one hunting excursion when Temüjin and his brother Khasar killed Begter. In a raid around 1177, Temüjin was captured by his father's former allies, the Tayichi'ud, enslaved with a cangue. With the help of a sympathetic guard, he escaped from the ger at night by hiding in a river crevice; the escape earned Temüjin a reputation. Soon, Jelme and Bo'orchu joined forces with him, they and the guard's son Chilaun became generals of Genghis Khan. At this time, none of the tribal confederations of Mongolia were united politically, arranged marriages were used to solidify temporary alliances.

Temüjin grew up

Housing and Community Development Act of 1974

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, is a United States federal law that, among other provisions, amended the Housing Act of 1937 to create Section 8 housing, authorizes "Entitlement Communities Grants" to be awarded by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, created the National Institute of Building Sciences. Under Section 810 of the Act the first federal Urban Homesteading program was created; the S. 3066 legislation was passed by the United States 93rd Congressional session and enacted into law by the 38th President of the United States Gerald Ford on August 22, 1974. Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 Entitlement Communities Grants information, from hud.gov 24 C. F. R. PART 590—URBAN HOMESTEADING "Housing: Improvements Needed in the Mobile Home Park Mortgage Insurance Program". U. S. GAO ~ RED-75-383. U. S. Government Accountability Office. July 2, 1975. OCLC 3035483. "Computation of Claim of Government-Insured Lender When Value of Collateral Cannot Be Determined as Required by Regulation".

U. S. GAO ~ B-183516. U. S. Government Accountability Office. August 12, 1975. "Lender's Claim on Government-Insured Mobile Home Loan in Default". U. S. GAO ~ B-184016. U. S. Government Accountability Office. September 16, 1975

Raphael Coxie

Raphael Coxie, was a Flemish Renaissance painter known for his portrait and history paintings. Details about the life and career of the artist are sketchy, he was only rediscovered as a distinctive artist in the 19th century as it was earlier believed that Raphael Coxie was another name for Michiel Coxie, one of the leading Flemish Renaissance painters, known in his time as the'Flemish Raphael'. It is assumed that Raphael Coxie was born in Mechelen as the eldest son of Michiel Coxie by his first wife Ida van Hasselt; the time of birth was between 1539, the year of his father's return from Italy, 1543, the year his father was registered in the Brussels Guild of Saint Luke and declared to have a son named Raphael. Raphael Coxie is said to have been given his first name because of the admiration of his father for the Italian painter known by that name, he was half brother of Michiel the Younger. Anna was a sculptor and became a nun while Willem and Michiel the Younger were painters, he was a pupil of his father and became master in the Mechelen Guild of Saint Luke in 1562.

He is documented as residing in Mechelen up to the early 1580s. His first wife Jeanne van Bekercke was buried in Mechelen in 1577 and he married Elisabeth Cauthals who died, he moved to Antwerp some time between 1581 and 1585 where he became master in the local Guild of St. Luke in 1585, he had by that time married a third time. His last wife was Anna Jonghelinck and a son of theirs was baptized in Antwerp on 20 January 1585. Raphael was a passionate gardener and friend of the Flemish botanist Carolus Clusius to whom he sent drawings of flowers, which Clusius used in his scientific publications. After the Fall of Antwerp in 1585 he was commissioned to make the painting of the retable of the Virgin Mary for the altar of the Confrerie of Our Lady in the Antwerp Cathedral, he executed the painting in collaboration with Hans Vredeman de Vries, responsible for the architectonic elements of the composition. He was active from 1586 in Brussels where he became a master of the local painter's guild in 1605.

In the period 1588-89 he spent time in Ghent on a major commission for a painting of the Last Judgement to be placed in the chamber of the city aldermen. The painting had been ordered by the local city magistrate to replace a panel by Cornelis van der Goes that had gone missing after the iconoclastic fury of the Beeldenstorm; the fee for the work had not been agreed beforehand and when the Ghent aldermen offered to pay an amount of 1,000 guilders Coxie relied on a clause in the contract to have the value of the painting assessed by masters or other persons knowledgeable on these matters. The artists Maerten de Vos, Ambrosius Francken I, Gillis Mostaert and Bernaert de Rijckere were asked to value the painting and they put its value at an amount of about 1,400 guilders; the aldermen paid the amount of 1,400 guilders but a conflict arose over the return of the advance fee received by Coxie. This led to judicial proceedings which were decided by the Council of Flanders in favour of Coxie seven years later.

While in Ghent Coxie painted a Resurrection of Christ for the monks of the Abbey of Drongen, which he donated to them in gratitude for their hospitality. Coxie received an annual allocation of 50 florins from the city of Brussels in exchange for putting his talents at the disposal of the Brussels' tapestry manufacturers, he is recorded in 1597 as making, in collaboration with Gilbert van Veen, several portraits commissioned by Philip II of Spain. There is uncertainty as to whether or when Coxie; some authors place the date of such appointment during Coxie's stay in Mechelen while others date it to the period after he moved to Brussels in 1586. Coxie had four children, none of whom followed in his profession, he died in Brussels in 1596. His pupils included Andries van Baesrode and Jacob van der Heyden. According to the early Flemish biographer Cornelis de Bie, Gaspar de Crayer was his apprentice, he also trained his half-brother Michiel II and his nephew Michiel III. His works are painted in the Italianate style that his father introduced in Flanders after his return from a study period in Italy.

As his style was close to that of his father, a number of his works have in the past been attributed to his father. He remained faithful to this style while the new Baroque movement was emerging. Only a few paintings are attributed to him. Although it is known he completed commissions for portraits, no portraits are attributed to Coxie; the only work that can be attributed to him with certainty is the Last Judgement that he painted in the period 1588-89 for the Ghent city magistrate. It hangs now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent; the composition of the painting is quite traditional. Christ is surrounded by saints and angels. On the left the blessed are kneeling down while on the right the damned are dragged to hell by satyrs and monsters; the painting incorporates a crouching figure inspired by the statue of the Crouching Venus by the famous Greek sculptor Doidalses. The life-size nudes at the bottom left of the panel are reminiscent of Michelangelo, while the upper part representing heaven calls to mind Raphael's work.

The Bonnefanten Museum in Maastricht holds a Crucifixion that has tentatively been attributed to Raphael Coxie or Gillis Mostaert. A painting depicting the Rest on the Flight to Egypt has been attributed to him. A painting of the Creation of Eve was sold at Bernaerts, Antwerp on 30 March 1998; the composition was based on an engraving made by Cornelis Cort after Taddeo Zucceri’s treatment of the same su