Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. A number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades. Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113.
But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner. There is some debate as to. While some historians point to a lack of evidence, others say that the English adopted the flag on their ships in 1190 in order to benefit from the protection of the Genoese fleet.
Genoa is a port city by birth, establishing itself as the merchant capital of the newly established Republic of Genoa in 1005 and maintaining its autonomy until 1797. Genoa was a powerful port and entered in conflict with Venice over the Mediterranean Trade. Genoa always struggled to rule itself, with many inner conflicts among the nobility weakening the Republic; this inability to rule itself caused Genoa to put themselves twice under French rule, once in 1391 in 1458. The Black Death in 1348 contributed to its decline. Genoa owned the island of Corsica but sold it to France in 1768 due to financial struggles, it was 1796 that the Republic of Genoa ended, replaced by French ruled Ligurian Republic. Since 1815 after the "Congresso di Vienna" Genoa joined the Regno di Sardegna. Italian unification of 1861 resulted in Genoa becoming the maritime hub of the new Italian state. Genoese establishment of trade routes along the Mediterranean brought wealth and political power to the city; the fleet's participation in the Crusades allowed Genoa to further establish prosperous trading colonies in the Holy Land.
The Genoese trading station of Caffa in Crimea brought the Black Death to Europe, through infected rats on ships fleeing siege in 1346. The city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains; the city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno. The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean, with a special note for the Genoa low; the average yearly temperat
The Marshall House is a house in Schuylerville, New York listed on the National Register of Historic Places for both its place in American history and its architectural significance. The Marshall House is listed on the National Register of Historical Places for both its place in American history and its architectural significance. Constructed in 1770–1773 as a gambrel-roofed, heavy timbered farmhouse and remodeled in 1867–1868 in the Italianate Style, the Marshall House retains substantial integrity of design and materials. Despite its modifications, the building remains understandable as a rare, extant example of pre-Revolutionary residential architecture, it is one of only two extant “witness” buildings associated with the pivotal Revolutionary Battles of Saratoga that took place in 1777. Pressed into service as a British field hospital, the building became the refuge of the Baroness Frederika Riedesel, whose well known diary chronicles the tribulations and heroism of other noncombatants, wounded officers, men who sheltered with her through a six-day artillery bombardment and siege.
The pre-Revolutionary history of the property referred to. The building was erected “on lot number one of the tenth allotment in the general division of the Kayderosseras patent, bounded on the south by the north line of the Saratoga patent, containing about forty acres ”; the property now comprises 7.6 acres. The area called Saratoga, was inhabited by Dutch and English settlers beginning in 1684 who came to advantage themselves of the plentiful water power afforded by the confluence of the Hudson River, the Fish Creek, the Batten Kill at this point, in addition to being aided by rich soils. There are some indications that the subject house and its surrounding farm served as a collection point for timber and local produce for shipping down river to Albany, to be sold there by the three-man partnership that built it. Known with certainty is that the property soon came into the hands of Peter Lansing, an Albany merchant, whose family were prominent land owners and fellow merchants in the upper Hudson Valley.
However, local nineteenth-century accounts hold that the Lansings and others fled south upon the approach of the British army and its Indian allies in the summer of 1777. The Marshall House attained its fame for the rôle it played in the events leading to the British surrender following the Battles of Saratoga fought during September–October, 1777. Traveling with the British army was the Baroness Frederika Riedesel, the young wife of Major General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, commander of the German mercenary troops who formed part of the British army led by Lieutenant General John Burgoyne. During the afternoon of October 10 American batteries emplaced on the east side of the Hudson River opened fire on Riedesel's defenses some fifty rods south of the Marshall House; the baron, seeing the house, urged his wife and their three young children to seek safety in its stone cellar. Baroness Riedesell was soon joined by other women in like circumstances as well as by wounded military personnel. Observing the commotion surrounding the house the Americans mistakenly supposed it to be an enemy headquarters and began firing upon it.
As aforesaid, the baroness recounted in her diary the ordeal of those besieged in the house: “We were at last obliged to resort to the cellar for refuge, in one corner of this I remained the whole day, my children sleeping on the earth with their heads in my lap. Eleven passed through the house, we could distinctly hear them roll away. One poor soldier, lying on a table for the purpose of having his leg amputated, was struck buy a shot, which carried away his other; the bombardment resumed the following morning. As their danger continued, the refugees and wounded suffered for want of water, the well having gone dry: ”At length we found a soldier’s wife who had courage enough to fetch us some from the river, an office nobody else would undertake, as the Americans shot at every person who approached it; the Baroness Riedesel organized the female refugees to attend the wounded as best. For her tireless efforts throughout the six day siege the baroness won the affection of all who shared her fate in the Marshall House.
On October 16, with British surrender imminent, the noncombatants at last were free to emerge in safety. The following day, October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered to the Americans; as a result of the American victory at Saratoga the French government threw its support to the American cause assuring success in the War of Independence. Following the Revolution the Marshall House property changed hands. Captain Samuel Bushee, a war veteran and settler from Connecticut, purchased it from Peter Lansing in 1802. Bushee subsequently conveyed the property to his father-in-law, Abraham Marshall, in 1817. Thereafter the property remained in the Marshall family until 1930 when it was purchased by Kenneth and Adelaide Bullard whose descendants remain its owners and inhabitants. After the war, the house was recognized for its dramatic role in the Battles of Saratoga. Though always a private residence the Marshall House has been a favorite destination for persons touring the Saratoga battlefields. Cannonballs that struck the house are displayed as are the floor in the northeast room bloodstained from its use as a makeshift hospital, the capacious stone cellar.
Structural features damaged by cannon fire testify to the e
Plamo-Kyoshiro is a 1982 manga belonging to the Gundam franchise, written by Hisashi Yasui and illustrated by Koichi Yamato. It was published from August 20, 1982 until December 17, 1986 in Comic BomBom magazine of the Kodansha publishing house, receiving eventual reprints; this was the first production of the Gundam franchise to pitch the idea of battles using customized Gundam Plastic Models. This idea has proven popular, has been used in other productions of the franchise, such as Model Suit Gunpla Builders Beginning G, Gundam Build Fighters and Gundam Build Fighters Try; the story of Plamo-Kyoshiro is about Shiro Kyoda, a young boy from Tamiya City and a student of the Bandai Elementary School. Shiro is "Plamo Simulation", a plastic model battle game. Shiro's dream is to become the representative of Japan in the World Simulation Tournament and be able to fight in the finals in the Battle of Hobbytopia. In addition to that, the manga contained original designs that would inspire the Mobile Suit Variations and BB Senshi series.
Plamo-Kyoshiro was illustrated by Koichi Yamato. In 1981 Kodansha had released the first issue of its magazine Comic Bom Bom. At that moment, the publisher was planning to launch a manga adaptation of the Mobile Suit Gundam movies, but the publisher was unable to get Sunrise's permission at the time; as an alternative plan, the publisher contacted Hisashi Yasui to create a new series, thus creating Plamo-Kyoshiro. Furthermore, the Plamo-Kyoshiro manga was created as a tool to publicize the Gundam plastic models that Bandai was launching at the time. Plastic models from other popular franchises make appearances in Plamo-Kyoshiro, including those from Votoms, Dougram, Vifam, L-Gaim, Baldios, Star Wars, The Exorcist and Blue Thunder. More standard models such as those of airplanes and other vehicles make appearances. In addition, the characters appear customizing and creating their own original models of Vehicles and Robots; the manga includes many references to real life companies and figures involved in the plastic model kit industry.
The original edition had 15 volumes and was in publication from August 20, 1982 until December 17, 1986 in Comic Bom Bom magazine by Kodansha. In 1989 a standalone volume was published entitled "Plamo-Kyoshiro-Musha Gundam Version". In 1990 a second edition of 11 volumes was launched. In 1999 a 6-volume deluxe edition was published. Between 2002 and 2004 a cheaper version of 13 volumes was published and in the year 2008 a paperback edition of 10 volumes was published. All Plamo-Kyoshiro publications, from the original 1982 until the last of 2008 have been published by Kodansha; the manga has received several sequels and derivatives including: Shin Plamo Kyoshiro Hyper Senshi Gundam Boy Plamo Wars Gumpla Koshien Gunpla Musashi Gunpla ExtremeThe success of Plamo Kyoshiro marked a trend at the time of its publication and several publishers wanted to have a manga based on battles of plastic models. Coro Coro Comic launched a few similar-themed manga such as Plamo Tensai Esper Taro, 3D Koshien Plamo Daisaku, Majin Eiyuuden Wataru and Majin Kaihatsu Daisakusen.