The Marquis Inoue Kaoru, GCMG was a Japanese politician and a prominent member of the Meiji oligarchy during the Meiji period of the Empire of Japan. As one of the senior statesmen in Japan during that period, he had a tremendous influence on the selection of the nation's leaders and formation of its policies. Born Yakichi to a lower-ranked samurai family in Yuda, Chōshū domain, Inoue attended the Meirinkan domain school with his brother Ikutarō, he was a close boyhood friend of Itō Hirobumi who became Japan's first prime minister, he played an active part in the sonnō jōi movement. In 1858, he studied rangaku and swordsmanship in Edo. In the Bakumatsu period, Inoue emerged as a leader of the anti-foreigner movement in his native Chōshū. Desiring to rid Japan of foreigners, he and Takasugi Shinsaku set fire to the British legation in Edo in January 1863. Recognizing Japan's need to learn from the Western powers, Inoue joined the Chōshū Five and was smuggled out of Japan to study at University College, London in England in 1863.
When he returned with Itō Hirobumi, he unsuccessfully tried to prevent war between Chōshū and the Western naval powers over the closing of the Straits of Shimonoseki to foreign shipping. He fought against the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate in the 1864 First Chōshū Expedition, during which he was wounded by the attack of the assassins, received a near-fatal injury, appealing to Inoue's elder brother for beheading because of the unbearable pain and Ikutaro Tokoro, in hiding from the pursuit of Tokugawa shogunate with Prince Sanjō Sanetomi and rushed to Inoue pulled him through this by putting about 50 stiches of tatami needle in the wounds on the whole body without anesthesia because of emergency during the domestic war time, he played a key role in the formation of the Satchō Alliance against the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration, Inoue served in several important positions in the new Meiji government, he was appointed Vice Minister of Finance in 1871 and was influential in reorganizing government finances on modern lines in the reform of the land tax system, termination of government stipends to the ex-samurai and former aristocracy and for promoting industrialization.
Linked to business circles, including the emerging Mitsui zaibatsu, he was involved in the railway business. These measures created many political enemies, Inoue was forced to resign in May 1873. Inoue took part in the Osaka Conference of 1875 to support the creation of a representative national assembly. In 1876, Inoue was asked to assist in the field of foreign affairs, was involved in the conclusion of the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876 as vice-ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, he returned to government as Minister of Public Works in 1878 and Lord of Foreign Affairs in 1879 under the early Meiji Dajō-kan Cabinet. In 1884, he was elevated to the rank of count under the new kazoku peerage system. In December 1885, Inoue became Japan’s first Minister of Foreign Affairs bearing that title in the first Itō Hirobumi cabinet. However, Inoue came under public criticism for his failure to negotiate a revision of the unequal treaties, his building of the Rokumeikan, support of its Westernizing influences, which forced him to resign in August 1887.
He served as Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in the Kuroda administration, as Home Minister in the second Itō administration and again as Finance Minister in the 3rd Itō administration. From 1901 onwards, Inoue served as most senior of the genrō, considered himself the government's foremost advisor on financial affairs, he was advanced to the title of marquis in 1907, died in 1915 at his summer home at Okitsu-juku, Shizuoka prefecture. From the article in the Japanese Wikipedia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Count Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Marquess Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of France List of Ambassadors from Japan to South Korea Akamatsu, Paul.. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Japan. New York: Harper & Row. Beasley, William G.. The Meiji Restoration. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
__________.. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political and Social Change Since 1850. New York: St. Martin's Press. Craig, Albert M.. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds.. Japan in Transition: from Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691054599. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Chamber of Elders was a national assembly in early Meiji Japan, established after the Osaka Conference of 1875. It is referred to as the Senate of Japan, Genrōin being the word used to describe the Roman Senate, other western legislatures named after it; the Freedom and People's Rights Movement and liberals among the Meiji oligarchy had withdrawn from the Meiji government over their efforts to establish a national assembly with increased representative democracy. The Osaka Conference of 1875 attempted to address this issue by the establishment of the Genrōin, a national assembly whose members were drawn from the peerage, upper ranks of the bureaucracy and various scholars; the Genrōin was only quasi-legislative, in that it had the power to review proposed legislation and make recommendations, but did not have the power to initiate any legislation. As an assembly, it replaced the Chamber of the Left. In 1876, the Genrōin was given the task of drafting a constitution for Japan, which it completed in 1880, only to have the draft rejected by Itō Hirobumi and Iwakura Tomomi as being too liberal.
The Genrōin was replaced by the Imperial Diet in 1890. The Genrōin should not be confused with elder statesmen. Most of the Genrō were members of the Genrōin, but not all members of the Genrōin were Genrō. Banno, Junji; the Establishment of the Japanese Constitutional System. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00497-7 Brunton, Richard. Building Japan 1868-1876. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 1-873410-05-0 Buruma, Ian. Inventing Japan: 1853-1964. Modern Library. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7
Satsuma Domain Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what became the city of Kagoshima, its kokudaka was assessed at the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain. The Shimazu family controlled Satsuma province for four centuries prior to the beginning of the Edo period. Despite being chastised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his 1587 Kyūshū Campaign, forced back to Satsuma, they remained one of the most powerful clans in the archipelago. During the decisive battle of Sekigahara in 1600, the Shimazu fought on the losing side.
Satsuma was one of the most powerful feudal domains in Tokugawa Japan. It was controlled throughout the Edo period by the tozama daimyō of the Shimazu clan. Since the mid-15th century, Satsuma fought with the Ryukyu Kingdom for control of the Northern Ryukyu Islands, which lie southwest of Japan. In 1609, Shimazu Iehisa requested permission from the shogunate to invade Ryukyu. After a three-month war which met stiff resistance, Satsuma captured the Ryukyuan capital of Shuri and King Shō Nei. In the ensuing peace treaty, Satsuma annexed the Amami and Tokara Islands, demanded tribute, forced the King and his descendants to pledge loyalty to Satsuma's daimyō. For the remainder of the Edo period, Satsuma influenced their politics and dominated their trading policies to take advantage of Ryukyu's tributary status with China; as strict maritime prohibitions were imposed upon much of Japan beginning in the 1630s, Satsuma's ability to enjoy a trade in Chinese goods, information, via Ryukyu, provided it a distinct and important, if not unique, role in the overall economy and politics of the Tokugawa state.
The degree of economic benefits enjoyed by Satsuma, the degree of their influence in Ryukyu, are subjects debated by scholars, but the political prestige and influence gained through this relationship is not questioned. The Shimazu continually made efforts to emphasize their unique position as the only feudal domain to claim an entire foreign kingdom as its vassal, engineered repeated increases to their own official Court rank, in the name of maintaining their power and prestige in the eyes of Ryukyu. In 1871, Emperor Meiji abolished the Han system, the following year informed King Shō Tai that he was designated "Domain Head of Ryukyu Domain", transferring Satsuma's authority over the country to Tokyo. Though not the wealthiest han in terms of kokudaka, Satsuma remained among the wealthiest and most powerful domains throughout the Edo period; this derived not only from their connection to Ryukyu, but from the size and productive wealth of Satsuma province itself, from their extreme distance from Edo, thus from the shōgun's armies.
The Shimazu exercised their influence to exact from the shogunate a number of special exceptions. Satsuma was granted an exception to the shogunate's limit of one castle per domain, a policy, meant to restrict the military strength of the domains, they received special exceptions from the shogunate in regard to the policy of sankin-kōtai, another policy meant to restrict the wealth and power of the daimyō. Under this policy, every feudal lord was mandated to travel to Edo at least once a year, to spend some portion of the year there, away from his domain and his power base; the Shimazu were granted permission to make this journey only once every two years. These exceptions thus allowed Satsuma to gain more power and wealth relative to the majority of other domains. Though arguably opposed to the shogunate, Satsuma was one of the strictest domains in enforcing particular policies. Christian missionaries were seen as a serious threat to the power of the daimyō, the peace and order of the domain.
The ban on smuggling unsurprisingly, was not so enforced, as the domain gained from trade performed along its shores, some ways away from Nagasaki, where the shogunate monopolized commerce. In the 1830s, Satsuma used its illegal Okinawa trade to rebuild its finances under Zusho Hirosato; the Satsuma daimyō of the 1850s, Shimazu Nariakira, was interested in Western thought and technology, sought to open the country. At the time, contacts with Westerners increased particularly for Satsuma, as Western ships landed in the Ryukyus and sought not only trade, but formal diplomatic relations. To increase his influence in the shogunate, Nariakira engineered a marriage between Shōgun Tokugawa Iesada and his adopted daughter, Atsu-hime. In 1854, the first year of Iesada's reign, Commodore Perry landed in Japan and forced an end to the isolation policy of the shogunate. However, the treaties signed between Japan and the western powers the Harris Treaty of 1858, put Japan at a serious disadvantage. In the same year, both Iesada and Nariakira died.
Nariakira named Shimazu Tadayoshi, as his successor. As Tadayoshi was still a child, his father, Shimazu Hisamitsu
Prince Matsukata Masayoshi was a Japanese politician and the 4th and 6th Prime Minister of Japan. Matsukata was born into a samurai family in Satsuma Province. At the age of 13, he entered the Zoshikan, the Satsuma domain's Confucian academy, where he studied the teachings of Wang Yangming, which stressed loyalty to the Emperor, he started his career as a bureaucrat of the Satsuma Domain. In 1866, he was sent to Nagasaki to study western science and surveying. Matsukata was regarded by Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori, who used him as their liaison between Kyoto and the domain government in Kagoshima. Knowing that war was coming between Satsuma and the Tokugawa, Matsukata purchased a ship available in Nagasaki for use in the coming conflict; this ship was given the name Kasuga. The leaders of Satsuma felt the ship was best used as cargo vessel and so Matsukata resigned his position as captain of the ship he had purchased. Just a few months the Kasuga did become a warship and it fought in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa ships.
At the time of the Meiji Restoration, he helped maintain order in Nagasaki after the collapse of the Tokugawa bakufu. In 1868, Matsukata was appointed governor of Hita Prefecture by his friend Okubo, the powerful minister of the interior for the new Meiji government; as governor Matsukata instituted a number of reforms including road building, starting the port of Beppu, building a successful orphanage. His ability as an administrator was noted in Tokyo and after two years he was summoned to the capital. Matsukata moved to Tokyo in 1871 and began work on drafting laws for the Land Tax Reform of 1873–1881. Under the new system: a taxpayer paid taxes with money instead of rice taxes were calculated based on the price of estates, not the amount of the agricultural product produced, tax rates were fixed at 3% of the value of estates and an estate holder was obliged to pay those taxes; the new tax system was radically different from the traditional tax gathering system, which required taxes to be paid with rice varied according to location and the amount of rice produced.
The new system took some years to be accepted by the Japanese people. Matsukata became Lord Home Minister in 1880. In the following year, when Ōkuma Shigenobu was expelled in a political upheaval, he became Lord Finance Minister; the Japanese economy was in a crisis situation due to rampant inflation. Matsukata introduced a policy of fiscal restraint that resulted in what has come to be called the "Matsukata Deflation"; the economy was stabilized, but the resulting crash in commodity prices caused many smaller landholders to lose their fields to money-lending neighbors. Matsukata established the Bank of Japan in 1882; when Itō Hirobumi was appointed the first modern-day Prime Minister of Japan in 1885, he named Matsukata to be the first Finance Minister in his cabinet. Matsukata sought to protect Japanese industry from foreign competition, but was restricted by the unequal treaties; the unavailability of protectionist devices benefited Japan in the long run, as it enabled Japan to develop its export industries.
The national government tried to create government industries to produce particular products or services. Lack of funds forced the government to turn these industries over to private businesses which in return for special privileges agreed to pursue the government's goals; this arrangement led to the rise of the zaibatsu system. Matsukata served as finance minister in seven of the first nine cabinets, led the Finance Ministry for 15 of the 20-year period from 1881 to 1901, he is believed to have had significant influence on drafting Articles 62–72 of the Meiji Constitution of 1890. Matsukata followed Yamagata Aritomo as Prime Minister from May 6, 1891, to August 8, 1892, followed Ito Hirobumi as Prime Minister from September 18, 1896, to January 12, 1898, during which times he concurrently held office as finance minister. One issue of his term in office was the Black Ocean Society, which operated with the support of certain powerful figures in the government and in return was powerful enough to demand concessions from the government.
They received promises of a strong foreign policy from the 1892 Matsukata Cabinet. Matsukata successively held offices as president of the Japanese Red Cross Society, privy councillor, member of the House of Peers, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan, he was given the title of prince and genrō. In 1902 he visited Europe, he arrived in London from New York in late April. During his stay, he was received in audience by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 2 May 1902, received an honorary degree from the University of Oxford the following month. In July he visited St Petersburg before returning to Japan. Incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia article Count Marquess Duke Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Matsukata was named an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of Order of St Michael and St George in November 1902. D. C. L. University of Oxford - June 1902, during a visit to the United Kingdom Matsukata had many children and grandchildren.
It is said. Matsukata's son, Kōjirō Matsukata led a successful business
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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Prince Katsura Tarō was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the longest serving Prime Minister of Japan, having served three terms. Katsura wi × as born into a samurai family from Chōshū Domain; as a youth, he joined the movement against the Tokugawa shogunate and participated in some of the major battles of the Boshin War that led to the Meiji Restoration. The new Meiji government considered that Katsura displayed great talent, sent him to Germany to study military science, he served as military attaché at the Japanese embassy in Germany from 1875–1878 and again from 1884-1885. On his return to Japan, he was promoted to major general, he served in several key positions within the Imperial Japanese Army, in 1886 was appointed Vice-Minister of War. During the First Sino-Japanese War Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo. During the war, his division made a memorable march in the depth of winter from the north-east shore of the Yellow Sea to Haicheng occupying Niuchwang, effecting a junction with the IJA 2nd Army which had moved up the Liaodong Peninsula.
After the war, he was elevated with the title of shishaku under the kazoku peerage system. He was appointed 2nd Governor-General of Taiwan from June 2, 1896 to October 1896. In successive cabinets from 1898 to 1901, he served as Minister of War. Katsura Tarō served as 13th and 15th Prime Minister of Japan, he remains the longest-serving Prime Minister of Japan to date. Katsura became Prime Minister for the first time on June 2, 1901, he retained the office for four and a half years to January 7, 1906, a record in Japan. Japan emerged as a major imperialist power in East Asia. In terms of foreign affairs, it was marked by the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 and victory over the Russian Empire in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. During his tenure, the Taft–Katsura agreement, accepting Japanese hegemony over Korea, was reached with the United States. Katsura received the Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George from British King Edward VII and was elevated to the rank of marquess by Emperor Meiji.
In terms of domestic policy, Katsura was a strictly-conservative politician who attempted to distance himself from the Diet of Japan and party politics. His political views mirrored that of Yamagata Aritomo in that he viewed that his sole responsibility was to the Emperor, he vied for control of the government with the Rikken Seiyūkai, the majority party of the lower house, headed by his archrival, Marquess Saionji Kinmochi. In January 1906, Katsura resigned the premiership to Saionji Kinmochi over the unpopular Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the war between Japan and Russia. However, his resignation was part of a "back door deal," brokered by Hara Takashi to alternate power between Saionji and Hara. On April 1, 1906, he was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. Katsura returned as Prime Minister from July 14, 1908 to August 30, 1911, his second term was noteworthy for the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty of 1910. He promulgated the Factory Act in 1911, the first act for the purpose of labor protection in Japan.
Katsura was unpopular during his second term over public perception that he was using his office to further both his personal fortune and the interests of the military over the welfare of the people. He faced growing public dissatisfaction over the persistence of the hanbatsu domainal based politics. After his resignation, he became a kōshaku, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan and one of the genrō. Katsura's brief reappointment again as Prime Minister again from December 21, 1912 to February 20, 1913 sparked widespread riots in what became known as the Taisho Political Crisis, his appointment was viewed as a plot by the genrō to overthrow the Meiji Constitution. However, rather than compromising, Katsura created his own political party, the Rikken Dōshikai in an effort to establish his own support base. However, faced with a no-confidence motion, the first successful one in Japanese history, the loss of the support of his backers, he was forced to resign in February 1913, he was succeeded by Yamamoto Gonnohyōe.
Katsura died of stomach cancer eight months on October 10, 1913, aged 65. His funeral was held at the temple of Zōjō-ji in Shiba and his grave is at the Shōin Jinja, in Setagaya, Tokyo. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Viscount Count Marquess Prince Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure Order of the Golden Kite, 3rd class Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Pius IX Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Lone, Stewart. Army and Politics in Meiji Japan: The Three Careers of General Katsura Taro. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23289-6. Newspaper clippings about Katsura Tarō in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k