Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature, as set out in Aristotle's Poetics. For Aristotle, poetry and performance each had specific design features that supported appropriate content of each genre.
Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, for example, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best. In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes.
The term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly. Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications; these are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative, religious and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the
The Chapelle Sainte-Agathe is a chapel located in Saint-Maime in the French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. It was erected in the 12th-century; the Chapelle Sainte-Agathe and the Château de Saint-Maime tower were built in the 12th century. Apart from the remains of a few castle walls, these are the only remains of the castle, once inhabited by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and his wife Beatrice of Savoy; the chapel offers panoramic views of the Luberon valley including the villages of Mane. The chapel is classified as an official Monument historique by a decree of March 4, 1988. Inside the chapel, frescoes of the 12 apostles are visible; the adjacent tower is the only octagonal tower in Provence. The tower has undergone an extensive renovation with support from the French Fondation du Patrimoine. Municipal website
Gillian Bourke is a female rugby union player. She represented Ireland at the 2010 and 2014 Women's Rugby World Cup, where she was voted the Number 2 position in the WRWC Team of the Tournament, she has 51 caps for Ireland, playing from 2008-2015, winning the Six Nations Grand Slam in 2013, the Six Nations Championship in 2015. She was invited to play with the legendary Barbarians team in February 2018 against the British Army, again in April 2019 against the USA Women’s National team in Denver, Colarado, she was voted Munster Women’s Player of the Year for the 2017-18 season. In August 2019, she moved from her club Stade Francais in Paris to join Tyrrell’s Premier 15s giants Harlequins. Bourke studied Sport Science at the University of Limerick, she is a performance analyst. She works as a Game Analyst with World Rugby. Irish Rugby Player Profile