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Gentleman's Agreement

Gentleman's Agreement is a 1947 American drama film based on Laura Z. Hobson's best-selling novel of the same name, it concerns a journalist who poses as a Jew to research an exposé on the widespread distrust and dislike of Jews in New York City and the affluent communities of New Canaan and Darien, Connecticut. It was nominated for eight Oscars and won three: Best Picture, Best Supporting Actress, Best Director; the movie was controversial in its day, as was a similar film on the same subject, released the same year. In 2017, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant", it was released on DVD as part of the 20th Century Fox Studio Classics collection. Philip Schuyler Green is a widowed journalist who has just moved to New York City with his son Tommy and mother. Green meets with magazine publisher John Minify, who asks Green, a Gentile, to write an article on anti-Semitism, he is not enthusiastic at first, but after struggling with how to approach the topic in a fresh way, Green is inspired to adopt a Jewish identity and writes about his first-hand experiences.

At a dinner party, Phil meets Minify's divorced niece Kathy Lacey, a pre-school teacher, who turns out to be the person who suggested the story idea. The next day, Phil tries to explain anti-Jewish prejudice to his young, precocious son – directly after displaying some anti-female prejudice of his own. Green tells his mother that he's struck by the odd notion that the idea for the article came from "a girl" at the magazine, his mother replies, "Why, women will be thinking next". Phil and Kathy begin dating. Green and Minify agree to keep it secret. Phil has difficulty getting started on his assignment, he realizes. He recalls having "lived as an Okie on Route 66" or as a coal miner for previous writing jobs, instead of tapping a man on the shoulder and making him talk, he decides to write, "I Was Jewish for Six Months". Though Kathy seems to have liberal views, when he reveals what he intends to do, she is taken aback and asks if he is Jewish; the strain on their relationship due to Kathy's subtle acquiescence to bigotry becomes a key theme in the film.

At the magazine, Phil is assigned Elaine Wales, who reveals that she, too, is Jewish. She changed her name to get the job. After Phil informs Minify about Wales' experience, Minify orders the magazine to adopt hiring policies that are open to Jews. Wales has reservations about the new policy, fearing that the "wrong Jews" will be hired and ruin things for the few Jews working there now. Phil meets fashion editor Anne Dettrey, who becomes a good friend and more as strains develop between Phil and Kathy. Phil's childhood friend, Dave Goldman, Jewish, moves to New York for a job and lives with the Greens while he looks for a home for his family. Dave experiences anti-Semitism, when some person in the armed forces tells him that he hates Jews, gets into a brief fight before the prejudiced soldier is taken away. Housing is scarce in the city, but it is difficult for Goldman, since not all landlords will rent to a Jewish family; when Phil tells Dave about his project, Dave is concerned. As Phil researches his story, he experiences several incidents of bigotry.

When his mother becomes ill with a heart condition, the doctor discourages him from consulting a specialist with an Jewish name, suggesting he might be cheated. When Phil reveals that he is himself Jewish, the doctor leaves. In addition, the janitor is shocked to see that a Jewish name is listed on the mail box, instead of his Christian name; when Phil wants to celebrate his honeymoon at a swanky hotel for rich people in the country, the hotel manager refuses to register Phil, because Phil is Jewish, tells him to register at a different hotel instead. Tommy becomes the target of bullies. Phil is troubled by the way Kathy consoles Tommy, telling him their taunts of "dirty Jew" are wrong because he isn't Jewish, not that the epithet is wrong in and of itself. Kathy's attitudes are revealed further, her sister Jane invites them to a celebration in her home in Darien, known to be a "restricted" community where Jews are not welcome. Fearing an awkward scene, Kathy wants to tell her family and friends that Phil is only pretending to be a Jew, but Phil prevails on Kathy to tell only Jane.

At the party, everyone is friendly to Phil, though many people are "unable" to attend at the last minute. Dave announces. Kathy owns a vacant cottage in Darien, but though Phil sees it as the obvious solution to Dave's problem, Kathy is unwilling to offend her neighbors by renting it to a Jewish family, she and Phil break their engagement. Phil announces; when it comes out, it is well received by the magazine staff. Kathy meets with Dave and tells him how sick she felt when a party guest told a bigoted joke

Wadena County, Minnesota

Wadena County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,843, its county seat is Wadena. It is the poorest county in Minnesota, one of the poorest in the United States; the newly organized Minnesota Legislature created the county on June 11, 1858. A settlement began at the future city of Wadena in 1871, by 1873 a post office was in operation there; the settlement was designated the county seat when the state legislature organized the county on February 21, 1873. The town took the name of a trading post 15 miles to the east, which had flourished for several years but was abandoned by that time; the trading post was named for Chief Wadena, an Ojibwe Indian chief of the late 19th century in northwestern Minnesota. Wadena County comprises 15 townships, first surveyed in 1863; each township contains 36 sections of land. In 1857 Augustus Aspinwall laid out a town site in what is now Section 15, Thomastown township, at the junction of the Crow Wing and Partridge rivers, named it Wadena.

When the railroad went through the area in 1872 it ran about three miles south of this site and the town withered away. During the last part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, there were two railroads in the county; the Northern Pacific main line running east to west through Wadena was built in 1872, while the Great Northern branch or "K" line which ran from Sauk Centre to Bemidji, via Sebeka and Menahga, was completed in 1891. The line from Park Rapids to Long Prairie was abandoned in 1984 while the rest was abandoned in the early 1970s with the northern section from Park Rapids to Cass Lake since converted to the Heartland Trail. Wadena used to be served by Elliott Bros.. Transportation Co. Northwest Transportation Co. Red Bus Line, Gray Bus Line, Liederbach Bus Co. and Mercury Bus line. There are four historical societies in the county, including the Wadena County Historical Society, the Verndale Historical Society, the Sebeka Finnish American Historical Society and the Menahga Historical Society.

In 2010 there were four organized school districts in the county: Wadena, Verndale and Menahga. In 1906 there were 52 school districts in the county. Sebeka once had Minnesota's second-largest creamery. Over the years there have been ten creameries in the county and ten cheese factories; the Crow Wing River flows south through the east-central part of the county and forms the lower part of the county's eastern border as it turns to flow southeast. The Partridge River flows east through the southern part of the county, discharging into the Crow Wing in the county's southeast corner; the Leaf River flows east through the central part of the county, discharging into the Crow Wing in the county's eastern portion. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, carved by drainages, devoted to agriculture wherever possible; the terrain slopes to the east and south, with its highest point near its northwest corner, at 1,460' ASL. The county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 536 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water.

Wadena is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than forest soils. Staples Municipal Airport - north of Staples As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 13,713 people, 5,426 households, 3,608 families in the county; the population density was 25.6/sqmi. There were 6,334 housing units at an average density of 11.8/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.89% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.93 % of the population were Latino of any race. 37.5% were of German, 14.0% Norwegian, 12.5% Finnish, 9.0% United States or American and 5.3% Swedish ancestry. There were 5,426 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.50% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contained 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 19.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,651, the median income for a family was $38,618. Males had a median income of $28,424 versus $21,027 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,146. About 9.70% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. Wadena County is known as the poorest county in Minnesota. Bluegrass Huntersville Oylen Leaf River Shell City Wadena County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In only one national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Wadena County, Minnesota Wadena County government’s website Wadena County Historical Society

Swinkels Family Brewers

Royal Swinkels Family Brewers is a family business from Noord-Brabant in the Netherlands, active in the beer, soft drink and malt sector. The company is owned by the Swinkels family for seven generations; the head office is located in Lieshout and there are subsidiaries in twelve countries. Swinkels Family Brewers is the second largest brewery company in the Netherlands after Heineken and one of the largest producers of malt in Europe; the business has a turnover of more than 713 million euros per year of which two thirds come from more than 130 countries outside the Netherlands. Within Europe France and Italy contribute to sales. More than a quarter of the turnover is achieved outside Europe, of which a large part in Ethiopia. Swinkels Family Brewers produces and markets beer and soft drinks; the business operates seven brewery locations: three in the Netherlands, three in Belgium and one in Ethiopia. These breweries produced over 8 million hectolitres of beer in 2018. Furthermore beer is brewed under license in nine countries.

The group sells beer under several brand names, including Bavaria, Swinckels', La Trappe, Rodenbach. About 9 percent of the total beer production consists of low-alcoholic beer; the share of beer in the 2018 turnover is 70 percent. Swinkels Family Brewers owns one in Lieshout and one in Eemshaven; the annual capacity totals 245,000 tons of malt, a third of, used by Swinkels Family Brewers itself. One third of the production is sold to third parties in Europe and one third goes to countries outside Europe to Latin America, South America and Japan. Sales of malt contribute to around fifteen percent of Swinkels Family Brewers sales; the company produces 856,000 hectoliters of soft drinks per annum, of which 95 percent as private label products. Swinkels Family Brewers itself uses the brand names 3ES and B52; the soft drink activities account for seven percent of total sales. The history of Swinkels Family Brewers can be traced back to 1680. In that year Dirk Vereijken owned a brewery at the Kerkdijk in Lieshout, proof of which can be found in an account of the municipal tax records of that year.

This brewery was transferred from father to daughter for three consecutive generations. The names of the new brewing families were Moorrees. In 1764 Brigitta Moorrees married Ambrosius Swinkels. After her mother's death in 1773, Brigitta and her husband became the full owners of the brewery. Since the brewery has been owned by the Swinkels family. For centuries the brewery only produced beer for the local market, it was not until the fourth generation of Swinkels took charge of the brewery that production was expanded. Jan Swinkels, born in 1851, started distribution to the city of Helmond at 10 kilometres from Lieshout in 1890. Sales rose from 988 hectolitres of beer in 1890 to 1,900 hectolitres in 1900. After the First World War distribution was expanded to other villages in North Brabant. By 1923 output had increased to 3,325 hectolitres of beer. By that time the original brewery buildings had become too small so a larger brewery was built in Lieshout. On that occasion three brothers of the fifth generation of Swinkels took over leadership, adopted the brand name Bavaria.

This name indicated. Distribution was broadened to include Amsterdam, The Hague and Utrecht, the four largest cities of the Netherlands. In 1933 the brewery added its own bottling plant. By 1940 a malt house was built; the output of the brewery at the beginning of the Second World War was 40,000 hectolitres per annum, with an nationwide coverage in distribution. In 1955 the company started manufacturing soft drinks under the brand name 3-ES; this name refers to the three Swinkels brothers of the fifth generation. In the postwar years beer consumption in the Netherlands had decreased to a low level, it took the firm until 1959 to recover in terms of sales volume. In the sixties the company doubled its production capacity. From 1973 onwards the company took an interest in the exporting business, first of all in Southern Europe. In the late seventies the firm introduced alcohol-free beer, exported to Islamic countries. By 1981 the total volume reached 1,000,000 hectolitres of beer. From the nineties onwards the business expanded into seasonal beers.

Moreover, the company started to adapt its drinks to individual markets. Export grew to cover 130 countries. In 1999, the Trappist Koningshoeven Abbey, located in Berkel-Enschot, entered into an agreement with the Swinkels family to take over the daily operations of the monks' brewery within the abbey; the brewery, which operates as "De Koningshoeven NV", is a subsidiary of Swinkels Family Brewers, whilst the buildings and equipment remain in the ownership of the abbey. The monks remain the ultimate authority on the brewing process while Swinkels Family Brewers manages the commercial business; the beer is sold under the brandname La Trappe. On May 10, 2016 it was announced that the company N. V. has taken a majority stake in the Belgian brewery Palm. The firm acquires 60% of the shares and this will be expanded to 100% in 2021. In November 2016 the company acquired Latis Imports, establishing a dedicated US presence in one of its "five key regions". In June 2018 it was decided to change the name of Bavaria to Swinkels Family Brewers.

At the moment the management of the company consists of members of the seventh generation Swinkels. In March 2019, Wim van de Donk, Commissioner of the King of the province of Brabant, announ