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Genus

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Panthera leo and Panthera onca are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae; the composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not codified, so different authorities produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together. Reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly. Moreover, genera should be composed of phylogenetic units of the same kind as other genera.

The term "genus" comes from the Latin genus, a noun form cognate with gignere. Linnaeus popularized its use in his 1753 Species Plantarum, but the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort is considered "the founder of the modern concept of genera"; the scientific name of a genus is called the generic name. It plays a fundamental role in binomial nomenclature, the system of naming organisms, where it is combined with the scientific name of a species: see Specific name and Specific name; the rules for the scientific names of organisms are laid down in the Nomenclature Codes, which allow each species a single unique name that, for "animals", "plants" and prokaryotes, is Latin and binomial in form. Except for viruses, the standard format for a species name comprises the generic name, indicating the genus to which the species belongs, followed by the specific epithet, unique to the species. For example, the gray wolf's scientific name is Canis lupus, with Canis being the generic name shared by the wolf's close relatives and lupus being the specific name particular to the wolf.

A botanical example would be Hibiscus arnottianus, a particular species of the genus Hibiscus native to Hawaii. The specific name is written in lower-case and may be followed by subspecies names in zoology or a variety of infraspecific names in botany; when the generic name is known from context, it may be shortened to its initial letter, for example C. lupus in place of Canis lupus. Where species are further subdivided, the generic name still forms the leading portion of the scientific name, for example Canis lupus familiaris for the domestic dog in zoology, or as a botanical example, Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus. As visible in the above examples, the Latinised portions of the scientific names of genera and their included species are, by convention, written in italics; the scientific names of virus species are descriptive, not binomial in form, may or may not incorporate an indication of their containing genus. As with scientific names at other ranks, in all groups other than viruses, names of genera may be cited with their authorities in the form "author, year" in zoology, "standard abbreviated author name" in botany.

Thus in the examples above, the genus Canis would be cited in full as "Canis Linnaeus, 1758", while Hibiscus first established by Linnaeus but in 1753, is "Hibiscus L.". Each genus should have a designated type, although in practice there is a backlog of older names without one. In zoology, this is the type species and the generic name is permanently associated with the type specimen of its type species. Should the specimen turn out to be assignable to another genus, the generic name linked to it becomes a junior synonym and the remaining taxa in the former genus need to be reassessed. In zoological usage, taxonomic names, including those of genera, are classified as "available" or "unavailable". Available names are those published in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and not otherwise suppressed by subsequent decisions of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. There will be more available names than valid names at any point in time, which names are in use depending on the judgement of taxonomists in either combining taxa described under multiple names, or splitting taxa which may bring avai

Altar crucifix

An Altar Crucifix or Altar Cross is a cross placed upon an altar, is the principal ornament of the altar. The first appearances of a cross upon the altar occurred in the 6th century, although it remained unusual for several centuries, discouraged; when it was used, it seems to have been only during actual services, a processional cross, detachable from its staff, placed on the altar after processing. This was at first always a cross rather than a true crucifix. By the start of the 13th century, treatises by Pope Innocent III expect there to be a cross between two candles on the altar during the mass; this period was the era when candlesticks probably carried in procession at the start of a service, started appearing upon altars instead of nearby, as such marked a rather large evolution in the adornment of altars. Around the 14th century, altar crosses were universally replaced by crucifixes now affordable by all churches, however, it was not until the Roman Missal of Pius V in 1570 that there is any mention of an obligation to have the crucifix on the altar.

Early Christians were not accustomed to publicly expose the cross or crucifix due to fear of subjecting it to the insults of pagans or scandalizing the weak. To avoid this, they used symbols like the anchor or trident; the crucifix placed upon the altar is intended to serve as a reminder to the people in attendance and the celebrant of the believed nature of the Eucharist as the actual body of Christ. It is for this reason that Roman Law decrees it necessary to have the crucifix upon the altar whenever Mass is celebrated, it is placed directly in between the Candlesticks in such a way that it is conveniently seen by the people. In some cases, to better fulfill this requirement, the crucifix is instead hung on the wall behind the altar, so that when the priest is facing the congregation the crucifix is not obstructed. In some churches the crucifix is suspended mid-air via strong, nearly invisible metal cords, directly above the altar itself. While the crucifix is demanded to be upon or at least near the altar at all times, during the period of time from the first Vespers of Passion Sunday to the unveiling of the cross on Good Friday it is expected to be covered with a violet veil, except for the High Mass on the altar, when the veil is white, Good Friday, when the veil is black.

After Good Friday, until Holy Saturday it is necessary for all, including the bishop, the canons of the cathedral, the celebrant to genuflect to the crucifix, in contrast to any other time of the year when the aforementioned are not required to genuflect. In many of the mainline Protestant denominations, such as the Episcopal Church and United Methodist Church have altar crosses; these crosses are traditionally, but not always, brought in as processional crosses at the beginning of the religious service and placed at the altar in the sanctuary. When approaching the altar, the acolyte is to bow at the cross to show respect toward the Lord. Processional Cross Crucifix Altar

Much Ado About Nothing (2016 film)

Much Ado About Nothing is a 2016 Chilean drama film directed by Alejandro Fernández Almendras. It was shown in the Panorama section at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival, it was inspired by a real-life political scandal in Chile. In 2013, Martín Larraín, son of Senator Carlos Larraín, was acquitted after killing a man in a DUI hit and run while his friends took the fall. Agustín Silva as Vicente Paulina García Daniel Alcaíno Alejandro Goic Luis Gnecco Samuel Landea Dindi Jane Isabella Costa Augusto Schuster Much Ado About Nothing on IMDb