Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world. A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pencil; the geocacher signs the log with their established code name and dates it, in order to prove that they found the cache. After signing the log, the cache must be placed back where the person found it. Larger containers such as plastic storage containers or ammunition boxes can contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets of more sentimental worth than financial. Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, orienteering, treasure-hunting, letterboxing and Munzee. Geocaching was similar to the 160-year-old game letterboxing, which uses clues and references to landmarks embedded in stories. Geocaching was conceived shortly after the removal of Selective Availability from the Global Positioning System on May 2, 2000, because the improved accuracy of the system allowed for a small container to be placed and located.
The first documented placement of a GPS-located cache took place on May 3, 2000, by Dave Ulmer of Beavercreek, Oregon. The location was posted on the Usenet newsgroup sci.geo.satellite-nav at 45°17.460′N 122°24.800′W. Within three days, the cache had been found first by Mike Teague. According to Dave Ulmer's message, this cache was a black plastic bucket, buried and contained software, books, money, a can of beans, a slingshot; the geocache and most of its contents were destroyed by a lawn mower. Another geocache and plaque called. Groundspeak allows extraterrestrial caches, e.g. the Moon or Mars, although presently, the website provides only earthbound coordinates. Only one geocache has been extraterrestrial: GC1BE91, on the International Space Station between 2008 as 2017, it used the launch area Baikonur in Kazakhstan as its position. The activity was referred to as the GPS stash hunt or gpsstashing; this was changed shortly after the original hide when it was suggested in the gpsstash eGroup that "stash" could have negative connotations and the term geocaching was adopted.
Over time, a variety of different hide-and-seek-type activities have been created or abandoned, so that "geocaching" may now refer to hiding and seeking containers, or locations or information without containers. An independent accounting of the early history documents several controversial actions taken by Irish and Grounded, Inc. a predecessor to Groundspeak, to increase "commercialization and monopolistic control over the hobby". More other similar hobbies such as Munzee have attracted some geocachers by adopting smart-phone technology, which has caused "some resistance from geocaching organizers about placing caches along with Munzees". For the traditional geocache, a geocacher will place a waterproof container containing a log book and trade items or trackables record the cache's coordinates; these coordinates, along with other details of the location, are posted on a listing site. Other geocachers obtain the coordinates from that listing site and seek out the cache using their handheld GPS receivers.
The finding geocachers record their exploits in the logbook and online, but must return the cache to the same coordinates so that other geocachers may find it. Geocachers are free to take objects from the cache in exchange for leaving something of similar or higher value. Typical cache "treasures" known in the geocaching world as swag, are not high in monetary value but may hold personal value to the finder. Aside from the logbook, common cache contents are unusual coins or currency, small toys, ornamental buttons, CDs, or books. Although not required, many geocachers decide to leave behind signature items, such as personal Geocoins, pins, or craft items, to mark their presence at the cache location. Disposable cameras are popular as they allow for anyone who found the cache to take a picture which can be developed and uploaded to a Geocaching web site listed below. Common are objects that are moved from cache to cache called "hitchhikers", such as Travel Bugs or Geocoins, whose travels may be logged and followed online.
Cachers who place a Travel Bug or Geocoins assign specific goals for their trackable items. Examples of goals are to be placed in a certain cache a long distance from home, or to travel to a certain country, or to travel faster and farther than other hitchhikers in a race. Less common trends are site-specific information pages about the historic significance of the site, types of trees, birds in the area or other such information. Higher-value items are included in geocaches as a reward for the First to Find, or in locations which are harder to reach. Dangerous or illegal items, weapons and drugs are not allowed and are against the rules of most geocache listing sites. If a geocache has been vandalized or stolen, it is said to have been "muggled"; the former term plays off the fact that those not familiar with geocaching are called muggles, a term borrowed from the Harry Potter series of books, rising in popularity at the same time geocaching got its start. Traditional geocaching gave birth to GeoCaching – an active urban game of the Encounter project.
The Skyliners Drum and Bugle Corps are an Open Class competitive senior drum and bugle corps. Based in New York City, the corps is now based in the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania area; the Skyliners were one of the original founding corps of Drum Corps Associates and have won every major title available to a senior drum & bugle corps. The Skyliners are sponsored by American Legion Post #411 in Jessup and American Legion Post #1523 in New York City, they have won the DCA World Championship three times, the DCA Open Class Championship twice, the American Legion National Title twice. The Skyliners formed in 1945 as the New York Skyliners as a drum and bugle corps function of two American Legion posts in New York City, they were accepted as a senior corps in the American Legion in 1946, sponsored by Raymond A. Garbarina Memorial Post #1523. During the Skyliners' years in the American Legion League, they claimed the championship title three times. In 1964, the Skyliners, along with several senior corps in the northeastern United States, formed the Drum Corps Associates to establish a more formal competition format than the then-current haphazard collection of contests.
The New York Skyliners succeeded in DCA, going on to win both several Open Class and Class A titles, before dwindling attendance forced the corps to remain inactive. In 2014, Director Larry Carbonell and Assistant Director Doreen Sandor revived the inactive corps and moved its location from New York to Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; the corps is active in DCA Class A Competition and rehearses in nearby Plymouth, Pennsylvania. Source: Score: 84.530 Repertoire: Charlie Welch * Columbia the Gem of the Ocean * That Old Black Magic * Flight of the Bumblebee * Once in Love with Amy * Hava Nagila * Oklahoma Score: 91.500 Repertoire: NY Montage * Little Old New York * Longest Day * Alabama Jubilee * Lucretia McEvil * Comes Love * Slaughter on Tenth Avenue * Little Old New York * East Side-West Side Fanfare Score: 91.280 Repertoire: How Could You Believe Me When I Said I Loved You * Hymn to Victory * West Side Story Medley * The Elks' Parade * Give My Regards to Broadway * East Side-West Side Fanfare Official Site Skyliners Alumni Association Skyliners Historical Scores Skyliners Historical Repertoires Drum Corps Associates
The swimming portion of the 2011 FINA World Championships was held July 24–31 at the Shanghai Oriental Sports Center in Shanghai, China. Swimming is one of five aquatic disciplines at the championships. In January 2010, the FINA Bureau approved the swimming qualification system for the 2011 World Aquatics Championships; this represented the first time that a qualification system was used for the swimming portion of the world championships. Times had to be swum at a FINA approved competition/meet between March 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011; the qualification meets included continental championships in 2010 and 2011. All meets; the qualifying system for individual events was similar to. There has been a limit of 2-swimmers per country per individual event, one relay team per country per relay event; this limitation remains. The swimming competition featured races in a long course pool in 40 events; the evening session schedule for the 2011 World Aquatics Championships is shown below. Note: prelims/semifinals/finals will be swum in events 200 m and shorter.
For prelims/semifinals/finals events and semis will be held on the same day, with finals being the evening of the following day. For the 400 m events and the 800 m relays and finals are the same day. For the individual 800 m and 1500 m races, prelims are in the morning of one day, with finals in the evening of the next day. Preliminary sessions began at 9:00 a.m.. The following world records were established during the competition: Official website