The Hankyoreh is a daily newspaper in South Korea. It was established in 1988 after widespread purges forced out dissident journalists, was envisioned as an alternative to existing newspapers, who were regarded as unduly influenced by the authoritarian government at the time; when it opened, it claimed to be "the first newspaper in the world independent of political power and large capital." As of 2016, it has been voted as the most trusted news organization by Korean journalists for nine consecutive years but it is the least influential news outlet by the survey. The newspaper was established as Hankyoreh Shinmun on 15 May 1988 by ex-journalists from the Dong-a Ilbo and Chosun Ilbo. At the time, government censors were in every newsroom, newspaper content was dictated by the Ministry of Culture & Information, newspapers had nearly the same articles on every page. Hankyoreh was intended to provide an independent, left-leaning, nationalist alternative to mainstream newspapers regarded as blindly pro-business, pro-American, opposed to national reunification.
To underscore its patriotism and its break with tradition, the Hankyoreh became the first daily to reject the use of hanja and use only hangul. It was the first newspaper in Korea to be printed horizontally instead of vertically. On the conflictual nature of the territorial sovereignty of the Liancourt Rocks, although exceeded by the Chosun Ilbo in its coverage, the Hankyoreh's coverage has been described in “A Comparative Analysis of News Coverage of Dokdo Island” by Yoon Youngchul and E Gwangho as reflecting the foreign policy interest of South Korea versus the U. S or Japan. In general, on issues pertaining to national sovereignty, the Hankyoreh's editorial stance can be seen as one issuing aggressive criticism on a government's undemocratic attitude or United States unilateral policy towards Korea, the Korean peninsula or elsewhere. Where the Hankyoreh has criticized the Bush administration's foreign policies on numerous occasions, it has tended to be favorable on the Obama administration's foreign policies on North Korea.
On the domestic front, Hankyoreh has been characterized as opposed to big business, has been “nationalist, anti-American and anti-corporate.” The Hankyoreh does negate the philosophy of the free market economy, individual liberty and personal freedom, has been critical of Korean big business and conglomerates that overwhelm the market, the Korean university entrance system, widening income disparities in Korean society, the rapid opening and globalization of the Korean economy, while maintaining a favorable attitude towards organized labor, trade protectionism, the redistribution of income. Other legacies of its early dissident history include a strong emphasis on human rights in South Korea, a position it continues to hold today together with several international organizations have criticized South Korea for its retreat in democracy, human rights and press freedom; the Hankyoreh's advocacy of human rights extends to North Koreans and tends to support normalization of relations with the U.
S. and have been critical of approaches towards improving the situation by encouraging system collapse such as the Lefkowitz approach and absorption by South Korea or by encouraging defections. The Hankyoreh opposes censorship and wiretapping and encourages active debate on news, circulated, like many newspapers in South Korea, is opposed to circulation of graphic news content and took a strong stance in the instance of the video footage of Kim Sun-il's death in Iraq It endorsed the 2008 "mad cow protests" as a victory for "substantive democracy" over "procedural democracy." It encouraged coverage of the 2008 demonstrations and a greater understanding of "candlelight spirit" that academics are referring to as an emergence of a new social movement and form of democracy in South Korea that protests policy development on trade, liberalization of public education, the privatization of health, the environmental consequences of a cross-country canal project without substantial public opinion gathering.
In line with the newspaper's nationalism and aspirations for reunification, its reporting of inter-Korean and East Asian affairs is based on its editorial policy seeking reconciliation and peaceful co-prosperity through dialogue rather than pressure on government of North Korea. In terms of national affairs, Office of the President, studies on the editorial policies of South Korean newspapers have found that the "Hankyoreh Shinmun, which published its first issue early in the Roh Tae Woo administration, has shown little fluctuation from administration to administration. Hankyoreh runs a "Hankyoreh Foundation for Reunification and Culture" as a forum for advocacy of peace and reunification on the Korean peninsula. Notwithstanding the newspaper's support for democracy, human rights, free speech in South Korea, in June 2009, the Hankyoreh described the arrest and imprisonment of two US journalists in North Korea, condemned by Reporters Without Borders as a sham trial, as a "not negative signal" of North Korea's openness to communicate.
In its business, Hankyoreh departed from established convention by relying more on sales, periodic private donation campaigns, the sale of stock, rather than advertising from major corporations to sustain itself. The newspaper has more than 60,000 citizen shareholders, none of whom have a more than one percent share. Core shareholders include students, lawyers, dissidents, liberal, p
Republic of Korea Army
The Republic of Korea Army known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018; this size is maintained through conscription. The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881; the 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the American occupation period from 1945-1948; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition to some Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army contributed to the force.
The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946 replacing the American lead constabulary from 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U. S.-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War. The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of, permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ; the current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to counter a North Korean attack. The ROK Army was organized into 3 armies: the First Army, Third Army and Second Operational Command.
Each with its own headquarters and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ; the First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard. Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019; the army consists of 495,000 troops 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK, as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture; the future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther, which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader.
The new tank will feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field 390 Black Panthers. In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV, which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare; the initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field 1,000 units until 2015. The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines.
When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload. The ROK Army fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus", fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support. Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS. A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010; the overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW. Capital Defense Command'SHIELD' 1st Air Defense Brigade 52nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division 56th Homeland Defense Infantry Division Special Warfare Command'LION' 1st Special Forces Brigade'EAGLE' 3rd Special Forces Brigade'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단'비호부대'
The Dong-a Ilbo
The Dong-A Ilbo is a newspaper in Korea since 1920 with daily circulation of more than 1.2 million and opinion leaders as its main readers. The Dong-A Ilbo is the parent company of Dong-A Media Group, composed of 11 affiliates including Sports Dong-A, Dong-A Science, DUNet, dongA.com, as well as Channel A, general service cable broadcasting company launched in December 1, 2011. It covers variety of areas including news, entertainment, sports and movies 24 hours a day; the Dong-A Ilbo has partnered with international news companies such as The New York Times of the United States of America, The Asahi Shimbun of Japan and The People's Daily of China. It has correspondents stationed in five major cities worldwide including Washington D. C. New York, San Francisco, Tokyo and Paris, it publishes global editions in 90 cities worldwide including New York, London and Frankfurt. Dong-A Ilbo was established in 1920 with the motto of "For the people and culture." These ideas have transformed into what the company named "Dong-A DNA" which calls for critical view of authority, journalistic integrity in reporting the truth, humanism by sharing the pain of the neglected and being revolutionary by not fearing change.
1920-04-01: Published the first issue along with the civilization policy of Governor-General of Korea 1920-09-25: The first suspension for indefinite period of time: for printing the article "Discussing the Problems with Rituals" which were critical of three items sacred to Japan 1926-03-06: The second suspension for printing a message celebrating the March 1 uprising 1930-04-16: The third suspension for printing "The Dong-A Ilbo Plays an Important Role in Chosun's Current Situation", a letter sent by a press in US in support of Korea 1931-03-21: Held the 1st Dong-A Marathon Games, Korea's first marathon race 1936-08-29: The fourth suspension: for erasing the Japanese flag from Korean born Olympic gold medalist 1940-08-10: Forced closure by the Japanese government 1945-12-01: Re-opening of Dong-A Ilbo 1961-03-15: Articles were printed criticizing the illegalness of the 3.15 election 1963-03-17: Published newspaper without editorials in protest to the continued military rule 1963-04-25: Opened Dong-A Broadcasting Station.
The first media company to own print and broadcast media 1964-07-15: Establishment of Children's Dong-A 1967-01-28: Establishment of Dong-A Annual 1971-08-17: Staff reporters receive Korea Reporter's Award 1974-10-24: Announced the Free Press Declaration 1974-11-20: Awarded for efforts made in freedom of speech by US Freedom House 1974-12-20: Published blank advertisements in protest of the tyrannical military administration's advertisement oppressions 1975-04-18: Dong-A Ilbo President Sang-man Kim receives Press Freedom Golden Pen award 1980-11-30: Dong-A Broadcasting Station closed due to the mandatory merger by the military government forces 1984-04-01: Establishment of Dong-A Music 1986-01-01: Establishment of Dong-A Science 1987-01-16: Exclusively reported the torture and death of Park Jong-chul, which acted as a catalyst for the June democracy uprising 1993-04-01: Changed from an evening newspaper to a morning newspaper 1994-03-21: Established Ilmin Culture Foundation 1996-10-01: Began internet news service: DongA.com 1996-12-19: Ilmin Museum of Art opened in the former Dong-a Ilbo newspaper building 2000-01-01: Moves into Dong-A Media Centre in the Gwanghwamun area 2000-12-15: Newspaper museum "Presseum" opened 2001-07-01: World edition of paper printed in over 90 cities 2002-01-01: Starting of Dong-A Ilbo's mobile services 2002-01-04: The first Korean newspaper company to publish the weekend section, Weekend 2003-04-01: Introduced the Knowledge Management System,'Genie'.
2005-07-15: On and Off-line Newsroom unifies 2005-08-17: Begins printing 32 pages of Dong-a Ilbo in color In 1933, Dong-A Ilbo launched The New Women The publication held events such as cooking schools and wives’ picnic providing women a place to socialize outside of the home. Articles such as “The New Woman and Education”, “Liberation of Women and the Nuclear Family” and “Women and Career” were printed to stimulate women’s participation in society and the development of women’s rights. Dong-A Ilbo hosted athletic events for women. “Women’s National Tennis Competition” is Korea's and Dong-A's oldest contest to be held. In 1939 when World War II erupted, the Japanese government began a campaign to unify Korea and Japan as a culture; this meant the suppression of much of Korea's cultural identity. After four attempts to close DongA Ilbo and other numerous occasions of inspection, censorship and deletion, the Japanese government succeeded in August 1940; the Dong-A Ilbo built Dong-A Broadcasting System.
Under the Chun Doo-hwan regime, South Korea's media policy had changed. The regime had closed several radio and TV networks and DBS was forced to give most of its shares to the government; the Dong-A Ilbo gave up DBS in 1980. The event that made forced closure possible was Dong-A Ilbo's deliberate obscuration of the Japanese flag in a photograph of the first Korean Olympic Gold medalist. Sohn Kee-Chung won the gold medal in marathon at the 11th Summer Olympics in Berlin; the article showed pride for the Korean athlete and featured a smudged Japanese flag to promote nationalistic ideas. Receives Korea's Best Brand Award Dong-A Ilbo President Sang-man Kim receives Press Freedom Golden Pen award Awarded for efforts made in freedom of speech by US Freedom House Staff reporters receive Korea Reporter's Award Circulation
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism is a central government agency responsible for the areas of tourism, art and sports. It has two vice ministers, three assistant ministers, one commission, over 60 divisions; the first Minister of Culture was novelist Lee O-young. Subsidiary entities such as the National Museum, the National Theater, the National Library are under the Ministry; the headquarters are located in the Sejong Government Complex in Sejong City. The headquarters was in Jongno District, Seoul; the main goals of the MCST are: To educate Korean people to be cultured and creative citizens To create a society in which leisure and work are in harmony To create a dynamic nation in which various local cultures are represented To enhance public awareness of the national agenda through public relations activities To improve quality of life for citizens by supporting cultural events and activities, sports and religious activities The Ministry of Culture and Tourism was a suborganization of the Ministry of Education created in 1948.
The Ministry of Transportation set up a tourism department. The Ministry of Information was set up in 1961 for administration of art and cultural affairs; the Ministry of Culture and Information became the Ministry of Culture in 1990. In 1993, the Ministry of Culture was integrated with the Ministry of Youth and Sports to become the Ministry of Culture and Sports. In 1998, as part of government reorganization efforts, the Ministry of Culture and Sports was replaced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, it was created to invest in and support the entertainment industry, as Korea needed new areas of growth in the wake of the Asian financial crisis in the 1990s. President Kim Dae Jung put forth industrial policies supporting entertainment with the same regard as traditional industrial sectors such as manufacturing. Investments were made in both infrastructure and technology to support K-Pop, including concert halls and visual effects technology. In addition, government regulation of karaoke bars favored K-Pop.
Since there has been a focus on developing soft power. As part of those efforts to move beyond developing a domestic industry and toward international success, the Ministry established an advisory committee and announced an international training school. Direct financial support of artists increased. In 2013, the Ministry allocated 319 billion won for direct support of Hallyu. Cultural exports increased at an annual rate of 10 percent as a result of these efforts. 29 February 2008 - 26 January 2011 Yu In-chon 27 January 2011 - 19 September 2011 Choung Byoung-gug 2 September 2011 - 10 March 2013 Choe Kwang-shik 11 March 2013 - 16 July 2014 Yoo Jin-ryong August 21, 2014 – September 4, 2016 Kim Jong-deok 5 September 2016 – 21 January 2017 Cho Yoon-sun 10 June 2017–present Do Jong-hwan The Korean Culture and Information Service is a department of the MCST that aims to bring Korean culture closer to the rest of the world while improving the national image of Korea. It is responsible for setting up more than 20 Korean Cultural Centers around the world.
Despite the large amounts of money the government provides for Hallyu, the K-Pop industry, the most internationally well-known part of Hallyu has criticized the Ministry's efforts. Many industries such as fashion and food have lobbied the government for inclusion in the Hallyu budget, politicians and the bureaucracy have varying interests in how the budget is distributed. Despite popular internet speculation on the Korean government's financial support for the promotion of K-Pop, there are no figures to substantiate the speculation. In 2013 of the $230 million allocated for Hallyu there are itemized contributions to the promotion of the Korean language and food but no known figures for allocations directly to K-Pop. Independent of financial support in recent years the Ministry has been successful in reversing decades-long governmental policy of suppressing and jailing pop and gayo artists in favor of supporting K-Pop as a driver of Hallyu overseas. South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism official website South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism official website
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
From April 1948 to May 1949, the Korean province of Jeju Island was subjected to an anti-imperialist, communist-linked insurgency and subsequent anticommunist suppression campaign, during which between 14,000 and 30,000 people were killed. The proximate cause of the rebellion was the scheduling of elections for May 10, 1948, by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea in the hope of creating a new government for all of Korea; the elections, were only planned for the south of the country, the area controlled by UNTCOK. Fearing the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters of the communist South Korean Labor Party reacted with protests by attacking local police and rightist paramilitary groups stationed on Jeju Island. Though atrocities were committed by both sides, historians have noted that the methods used by the South Korean government to suppress protesters and rebels were cruel. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people including children, killed by government forces.
On another, American soldiers reported government police forces carrying out an execution of 76 villagers, including women and children. Up to 10% of the island's population died during or as a result of the conflict, another 40,000 fled to Japan. In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through censorship and repression. In 2006 60 years after the rebellion, the South Korean government apologized for its role in the killings; the government promised reparations but as of 2018, nothing had been done to this end. After Imperial Japan surrendered to Allied forces on August 15, 1945, the 35-year Japanese occupation of Korea came to an end. Korea was subsequently divided at the 38th parallel north, with the Soviet Union assuming trusteeship north of the line and the United States south of the line. In September 1945, Lt. General John R. Hodge established a military government to administer the southern region, which included Jeju Island. In December 1945, U.
S. representatives met with those from the Soviet Union and United Kingdom to work out joint trusteeship. Due to lack of consensus, the U. S. took the "Korean question" to the United Nations for further deliberation. On November 14, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed UN Resolution 112, calling for a general election on May 10, 1948, under UNTCOK supervision. Fearing it would lose influence over the northern half of Korea if it complied, the Soviet Union rejected the UN resolution and denied the UNTCOK access to northern Korea. UNTCOK went through with the elections, albeit in the southern half of the country only; the Soviet Union responded to these elections in the south with an election of its own in the north on August 25, 1948. Residents of Jeju island were some of the most active participants in the Korean independence movement against colonial Japanese occupation. Due to the island's relative isolation from the mainland peninsula, Jeju experienced relative peace after the Japanese surrender, contrasting with the period of heavy unrest in the southern region of mainland Korea.
As with the mainland, the period following the Japanese surrender was characterized by the formation of People's Committees, local autonomous councils tasked with coordinating the transition towards Korean independence. When the American military government arrived on Jeju in late 1945, the Jeju People's Council was the only existing government on the island; as a testament to this relative stability, the US military governor under the United States Army Military Government in Korea John R. Hodge stated in October 1947 that Jeju was "a communal area, peacefully controlled by the People's Committee without much Comintern influence."The Jeju People's Council had come under the directive of the South Korean Labor Party by late 1946. The SKLP encouraged the People's Council to establish military and political committees, as well as mass organizations; the 1946 USAMGIK dissolution of the provisional People's Republic of Korea and their associated People's Committees on the mainland sparked the Autumn Uprising of 1946, which did not spread to Jeju but did contribute to rising tensions on the island.
Residents of Jeju began protesting against the elections a year. Concerned about permanently dividing the peninsula, the SKLP planned gatherings on March 1, 1947 to denounce the elections and celebrate the anniversary of the March 1st Movement. An attempt by the security forces to disperse the crowds only brought more citizens of Jeju out in support of the demonstrations. In a desperate attempt to calm the boisterous crowd, Korean police fired indiscriminate warning shots above their heads, some of which went into the crowd. Although these shots pacified the demonstrators, six civilians were killed, including a six-year-old child. On March 8, 1947, a crowd of about a thousand demonstrators gathered at the Chong-myon jail, demanding the release of SKLP members the military government had arrested during the Sam-Il demonstrations; when the demonstrators started throwing rocks and subsequently rushed the jail, the police inside shot at them in a panic, killing five. In response, SKLP members and others called on the military government to take action against the police officers who fired on the crowd.
Instead, 400 more police officers were flown in from the mainland, along with members of an extreme right-wing paramilitary group known as the Northwest Youth League. Although both the police and paramilitary groups employed violent and harsh tactics in their suppression of the locals, the Northwest Youth League was especia
OhmyNews is a South Korean online news website with the motto "Every Citizen is a Reporter". It was founded by Oh Yeon Ho on February 22, 2000, it is the first news website in Korea to accept and publish articles from its readers, in an open source style of news reporting. About 20% of the site's content is written by the 55-person staff, while most of the articles are written by other freelance contributors who are ordinary citizens. OhmyNews was influential in determining the outcome of the South Korean presidential election, 2002. After being elected, President Roh Moo-hyun granted his first interview to OhmyNews. OhmyNews International is an English language online newspaper that features "citizen reporter" articles written by contributors from all over the globe, its content is 100% citizen reporter. On February 22, 2006, OhmyNews and Japanese firm Softbank signed an investment contract valued at US$11 million. In 2006 OhmyNews started to build a Japan-based citizen-participatory journalism site called OhmyNews Japan, launched on August 28 with a famous Japanese journalist and 22 other employees working under ten reporters.
These journalists' articles were the object of much criticism. The South Korean newspaper admitted. In July 2008, all staff of OhmyNews Japan were dismissed, by the end of August operations had ceased on the site; the 2nd Citizen Reporters' Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul, Korea from July 12–15, 2006. The 3rd International Citizen Reporters Forum was held by OhmyNews in Seoul from June 27–29, 2007. On November 24, 2007, OhmyNews opened a "citizen journalism school" to serve as a "collaborative knowledge center" for classes in journalism, digital cameras and photojournalism, it is located 90 minutes from Seoul in the refurbished building of an elementary school. The faculty will include OhmyNews editors and other journalists from print and television. There is in-school dining capacity for 50 guests. On July 8, 2009, Oh Yeon-ho revealed that Ohmynews was losing up to 700 m won yearly, appealed to website users to join a voluntary subscription scheme. Critics argue that Ohmynews is losing original features as alternative–independent media in financial independence.
Oh Yeon-ho said, "70 to 80 percent of our revenue sponsorships. In contrast, contributions from readers only totaled five percent of total revenue.” Oh said, “We have not received a cent from Lee Myungbak government for central government advertising.”However a government report to National Assembly in 2009 revealed that Ohmynews received 120 m won for government advertising from February 2008 to July 2009. An Ohmynews report said they had received about 870 m won for government advertising from 2003 to 2007 by introducing government official reports to National Assembly. An alternative medium Pressian reported Oh's comments, "I respect Samsung as major business partner," and introduced about 20 percent of the total advertising and cooperation revenue of Ohmynews is coming from Samsung for years, the biggest business corporate of Korea. On August 1, 2010, OhMyNews of South Korea announced a change in its format from an "edited citizen journalist news site" to a "blog dedicated to covering and discussing the world of citizen journalism itself," starting the following month.
"Curators are important to our operation. They are given a great deal of trust. In order to maintain credibility amongst our team members, new curators join through recommendations of existing curators, and amongst the curators we have different levels depending on their experience and contributions. This is to maintain a steady level of quality and credibility with our readers." On September 2010, OhmyNews International changed its format from citizen journalism to becoming a forum about citizen journalism. OmN became a victim of its own success; the old site does not accept new articles. Hankyungoh, the grouping which includes OhmyNews Culture of South Korea Media in South Korea International press react to OhmyNews TIME magazine profile of contributor Kim Hye-won Giants of Citizen Media Meet Up The Tyee, October 24, 2007 OhmyNews Citizen Journalism School Opens, OhmyNews, November 24, 2007 The End of OhmyNews Japan, Global Voices Online, September 18, 2008 Official website Media related to OhmyNews at Wikimedia Commons