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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geodesy

Geodesy is the Earth science of measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space and gravitational field. The field incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measurements for other planets. Geodynamical phenomena include crustal motion and polar motion, which can be studied by designing global and national control networks, applying space and terrestrial techniques and relying on datums and coordinate systems; the word geodesy comes from the Ancient Greek word γεωδαισία geodaisia. It is concerned with positioning within the temporally varying gravity field. Geodesy in the German-speaking world is divided into "higher geodesy", concerned with measuring Earth on the global scale, "practical geodesy" or "engineering geodesy", concerned with measuring specific parts or regions of Earth, which includes surveying; such geodetic operations are applied to other astronomical bodies in the solar system. It is the science of measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, gravity field.

To a large extent, the shape of Earth is the result of rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, the competition of geological processes such as the collision of plates and of volcanism, resisted by Earth's gravity field. This applies to the liquid surface and Earth's atmosphere. For this reason, the study of Earth's gravity field is called physical geodesy; the geoid is the figure of Earth abstracted from its topographical features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents and air pressure variations, continued under the continental masses; the geoid, unlike the reference ellipsoid, is irregular and too complicated to serve as the computational surface on which to solve geometrical problems like point positioning. The geometrical separation between the geoid and the reference ellipsoid is called the geoidal undulation, it varies globally between ± 110 m. A reference ellipsoid, customarily chosen to be the same size as the geoid, is described by its semi-major axis a and flattening f.

The quantity f = a − b/a, where b is the semi-minor axis, is a purely geometrical one. The mechanical ellipticity of Earth can be determined to high precision by observation of satellite orbit perturbations, its relationship with the geometrical flattening is indirect. The relationship depends on the internal density distribution, or, in simplest terms, the degree of central concentration of mass; the 1980 Geodetic Reference System posited a 1:298.257 flattening. This system was adopted at the XVII General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, it is the basis for geodetic positioning by the Global Positioning System and is thus in widespread use outside the geodetic community. The numerous systems that countries have used to create maps and charts are becoming obsolete as countries move to global, geocentric reference systems using the GRS 80 reference ellipsoid; the geoid is "realizable", meaning it can be located on Earth by suitable simple measurements from physical objects like a tide gauge.

The geoid can, therefore, be considered a real surface. The reference ellipsoid, has many possible instantiations and is not realizable, therefore it is an abstract surface; the third primary surface of geodetic interest—the topographic surface of Earth—is a realizable surface. The locations of points in three-dimensional space are most conveniently described by three cartesian or rectangular coordinates, X, Y and Z. Since the advent of satellite positioning, such coordinate systems are geocentric: the Z-axis is aligned with Earth's rotation axis. Prior to the era of satellite geodesy, the coordinate systems associated with a geodetic datum attempted to be geocentric, but their origins differed from the geocenter by hundreds of meters, due to regional deviations in the direction of the plumbline; these regional geodetic data, such as ED 50 or NAD 27 have ellipsoids associated with them that are regional "best fits" to the geoids within their areas of validity, minimizing the deflections of the vertical over these areas.

It is only because GPS satellites orbit about the geocenter, that this point becomes the origin of a coordinate system defined by satellite geodetic means, as the satellite positions in space are themselves computed in such a system. Geocentric coordinate systems used in geodesy can be divided into two classes: Inertial reference systems, where the coordinate axes retain their orientation relative to the fixed stars, or equivalently, to the rotation axes of ideal gyroscopes; the X-axis lies within the Greenwich observatory's meridian plane. The coordinate transformation between these two systems is described to good approximation by sidereal time, which takes into account variations in Earth's axial rotation. A more accurate description takes polar motion into account, a phenomenon monitored by geodesists. In surveying and mapping, important fields of application of geodesy, two general types of coordinate systems are used in the plane: Plano-

Dakota Jackson

Dakota Jackson, is an American furniture designer known for his eponymous furniture brand, Dakota Jackson, Inc. his early avant-garde works involving moving parts or hidden compartments, his collaborations with the Steinway & Sons piano company. Jackson helped establish the art furniture movement in 1970s SoHo becoming a celebrity designer in the 1980s, his background in the world of stage magic helped him get his first commissions and is cited as the source of his point-of-view. Dakota Jackson was born on August 24, 1949, grew up in the Rego Park neighborhood of Queens, New York. Jackson's father, Jack Malon, was a professional magician. Mr. Malon learned the trade from his own father, who studied stage magic in early 20th century Poland. Jackson began sometimes performed with his father. Jackson's name, in fact, grew out of a road trip to North Dakota. Throughout his adolescence and into his early 20s, Jackson immersed himself in the world of magic. In 1963, Jackson began to perform in talent shows at his junior high school, William Cowper JHS 73, at children's birthday parties.

Jackson began to build his own props, including large boxes for sawing a woman in half and small boxes from which doves would emerge in full flight. Jackson acknowledges the importance of these early experiences with magic to his career as a furniture designer: "The demands of performance taught me how to discipline myself to achieve aesthetic ends."After Jackson graduated from Forest Hills High School in 1967, he continued performing as a magician, working in art galleries, night clubs, touring in the Catskills, giving private performances at society events. When he was 17, Jackson had studied with magician Jack London to learn the dangerous bullet catch trick."What appealed to me was the notion of doing things that appeared miraculous" Jackson once recalled. "I was interested in spiritualism. I was interested in things like bullet catching, things that challenged individual sensibilities, that were frightening, on the edge."He didn't find the opportunity to perform the trick publicly until a decade at Jackson's final professional performance as a magician.

It was documented in Andy Warhol's Interview, in a story titled "Dakota Jackson bites the bullet." Jackson admits that he sometimes tires of references to his magician background, although he acknowledges it as an important part of his history. In the late 1960s, Jackson moved into a loft on 28th Street in Chelsea. Jackson became part of the Downtown scene, a community of "artists, dancers and musicians" who moved to the neighborhood for the cheap rent and social life. In October 1970, Jackson performed with the Japanese group Tokyo Kid Brothers at New York's La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club in a rock musical production called "Coney Island Play"; the show explored themes of cross-cultural communication and understanding and was a follow up to the group's debut performance of "The Golden Bat" at La MaMa earlier that summer. Jackson played the part of a "clever conjurer." Over the next few years, Jackson became interested in minimalist dance and performed in the dance companies of Laura Dean and Trisha Brown.

Jackson credits his exposure to minimalism and minimalist dance in particular as having had a strong influence on his approach to design. In minimalism, the object is pared down to its basic meaning by stripping away all the excrescence... —those elements that do not contribute to the pure idea. In the early 1970s, as he experimented with performance and dance, Jackson began branching out as a special effects consultant to other magicians, film producers, musicians such as Donna Summer; the loft gave Jackson an opportunity to apply his creativity and building skills: "These were times when lofts were not... luxury condominiums. These were tough, tough raw spaces... and we artists, creative people, we created our environment. So I had to build". Recognizing his skills as a builder, Jackson decided to shift away from performance and become a full-time maker, he began making a variety of objects, including furnishings for other artists and magic boxes with hidden compartments for art collectors and galleries.

Jackson's social connections helped spread word about his work and this led to his first commissions. In 1974, Jackson's career as a designer began when Yoko Ono asked him to build a desk with hidden compartments for husband John Lennon. "She wanted to make a piece of furniture. The result was a small cubed-shaped writing table with rounded corners reminiscent of Art Deco era style. Touching secret pressure points opened the desk's compartments; this commission helped build Jackson's reputation and allowed him to merge his experience as a magician and performer with his developing interest in furniture. In 1978, a bed designed for fashion designer Diane von Furstenberg garnered Jackson more notoriety. Called "The Eclipse", the bed was described in The New Yorker as "large, sumptuous, with sunbursts of cherry wood and quilted ivory satin at head and foot." A lighting system positioned behind the headboard switched on automatically at sunset and spread out rays of light "like an aurora borealis," which grew brighter and brighter until turning off at 2 am.

Commissions like these continued to come in and Jackson soon became known as a designer to the rich and famous. Some of his other clients from this period in

Humane Society of the United States

The Humane Society of the United States is an American nonprofit organization that focuses on animal welfare and opposes animal-related cruelties of national scope. It uses strategies, it works on issues including companion animals, farm animals and other equines, animals used in research and education. As of 2001, the group's major campaigns targeted factory farming, animal blood sports, the fur trade, puppy mills, wildlife abuse; the HSUS is based in Washington, D. C. and was founded in 1954 by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, Marcia Glaser. In 2013, the Chronicle of Philanthropy ranked HSUS as the 136th largest charity in the US in its Philanthropy 400 listing, its reported revenue was US$129 million and net assets US$215 million as of 2014. HSUS pursues its global work through an affiliate, Humane Society International, which listed staff 17 nations for 2013. Other affiliated entities include the Doris Day Animal League, the Fund for Animals. Together with the Fund for Animals, HSUS operates animal sanctuaries in five US states.

HSUS does not oversee local animal care and control agencies. HSUS formed after a schism surfaced in the American Humane Association over pound seizure and other policy issues; the incorporators of HSUS included four people—Larry Andrews, Marcia Glaser, Helen Jones, Fred Myers—all of whom were active in the leadership of existing local and national groups, who would become its first four employees. They believed that a new kind of organization would strengthen the American humane movement, they set up HSUS as the "National Humane Society", in Washington, DC to ensure that it could play a strong role in national policy development concerning animal welfare. HSUS's guiding principle was ratified by its national membership in 1956: "The Humane Society of the United States opposes and seeks to prevent all use or exploitation of animals that causes pain, suffering, or fear." The values that shaped HSUS's formation in 1954, came in some degree from the humane movement that originated in the 1860s in the United States.

The idea of kindness to animals made significant inroads in American culture in the years following the Civil War. The development of sympathy for creatures in pain, the satisfaction of keeping them as pets, the heightening awareness about the relationship between cruelty to animals and interpersonal violence strengthened the movement's popular appeal; the most immediate philosophical influence on 1950s-era advocates, including those associated with HSUS, was the reverence-for-life concept advanced by Albert Schweitzer. Schweitzer included a deep regard for nonhuman animals in his canon of beliefs, animal advocates laboring to give their concerns a higher profile were buoyed by Schweitzer's 1952 Nobel Peace Prize speech, in which he noted that "compassion, in which ethics takes root, does not assume its true proportions until it embraces not only man but every living being."Myers and his colleagues found another exemplar of their values in Joseph Wood Krutch, whose writings reflected a deep level of appreciation for wilderness and for nonhuman life.

With The Great Chain of Life, Krutch established himself as a philosopher of humaneness, in 1970, HSUS' highest award was renamed in his honor. The growing environmental movement of the early 1970s influenced the ethical and practical evolution of HSUS; the burgeoning crisis of pollution and wildlife-habitat loss made the public aware that humans needed to change their behavior toward other living things. By that time, the treatment of animals had become a topic of serious discussion within moral philosophy; the debate spilled over into public consciousness with the publication of Peter Singer's Animal Liberation. Singer's book sought to recast concern for animals as a justice-based cause like the movements for civil rights and women's rights. Most of what Singer wrote concerning the prevention or reduction of animals' suffering was in harmony with HSUS's objectives. Singer's philosophy did not rest upon the rights of animals, he rejected the framework of rights in favor of a utilitarian assessment that focused on animal sentience.

His principal concern, like that of HSUS, was the mitigation and elimination of suffering, he endorsed the view that ethical treatment sometimes permitted or required killing animals to end their misery. The 1980s witnessed a flourishing of concern about animals and a proliferation of new organizations, many influenced by the emergence of a philosophy holding that animals had inherent rights; those committed to the purest form of animal rights rejected any human use of animals. In this changing context, HSUS faced new challenges; as newer animal organizations adopted more radical approaches to achieve their goals, the organization born in anti-establishment politics now found itself identified – and sometimes criticized – as the "establishment" group of record. In 1954, HSUS's founders decided to create a new kind of animal organization, based in the nation's capital, to confront national cruelties beyond the reach of local societies and state federations. Humane slaughter became an immediate priority and commanded a substantial portion of the organization's resources.

Myers and his colleagues viewed this first campaign as a vehicle for promoting movement cohesion. In 1958, the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act passed, which required the proper use of humane slaughter methods at slaughterhouses subject to federal inspection. Only four years after HSUS's formation, Myers pointed out that the movement had united, for the first time in

Moscow School District

The Moscow School District #281 is a public school district located in Moscow, Latah County, Idaho. It has four elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, one alternative high school. During the summer of 2012, the district reconfigured from a 6–3–3 format to 5–3–4. After 46 years as a three-grade senior high school, Moscow High School returned to a four-grade campus in August with the addition of freshman. MHS was four years until September 1966, when the freshmen in the district stayed for a third year at the newly expanded junior high, which had opened in 1959 with two grades; the district's attendance boundary includes student housing facilities of the University of Idaho that have university students with dependent children, including South Hill Apartments and South Hill Vista Apartments. The district extends beyond the Moscow city limits and is bounded by four other school districts: Pullman to the west at the state line, Potlatch School District #285 to the north, Troy School District #287 to east, Genesee School District #282 to the south.

Pullman has a similar enrollment, while the combined enrollment of the other three districts is about half of Moscow's. A $29 million bond levy election was brought before the voters in April 2005, with $20 million to fund a proposed new high school campus on the northeast edge of the city. Three quarters of the 40-acre site, adjacent to Mountain View Park, was to be donated by a Moscow family; the levy was soundly defeated, with only 44 % in favor. The current high school opened in 1939 on a 4-acre site, a single-floor annex was added in 1968, west of the auditorium; the addition of a second floor to the annex was proposed in the late 1980s, but the soil under its foundation was found to be unsuitable. A second annex, a two-floor wing, was added on the south side of campus in 1991, west of the gymnasium. With limited space on campus, the varsity athletic facilities are located at Moscow Middle School. Prior to 1939, the high school was housed in the 1912 building across Third Street; the first high school of 1892 was on the present campus, southwest of Third & Adams streets, was razed in 1939.

Both of the former high schools were known as "Whitworth." The 1912 building was used as the district's junior high for twenty years, until the present middle school opened in 1959. The school district used the 1912 building for administration offices until its new building was completed in 1996, north of the middle school; the 1912 building was sold to the city in 1998 and is now the "1912 Center." Moscow High School Paradise Creek Regional High School Moscow Middle School Lena Whitmore Elementary School A. B. McDonald Elementary School John Russell Elementary School West Park Elementary School Official website

Australian classical music

The earliest western musical influences in Australia can be traced to two distinct sources: in the first settlements, the large body of convicts and sailors who brought the traditional folk music of England, Wales and Ireland. An example of original music by a convict would be an 1861 tune dedicated to settler James Gordon by fiddler constable Alexander Laing. Little music has survived from this early period, although there are samples of music originating from Sydney and Hobart that date back to the early 19th century. Musical publications from this period preserved in Australian libraries include works by Charles Edward Horsley, William Stanley, Isaac Nathan, Charles Sandys Packer, Frederick Augustus Packer, Carl Linger, Francis Hartwell Henslowe, Frederick Ellard, Raimund Pechotsch and Julius Siede. Isaac Nathan's 1847 Don John of Austria was the first opera to be written and produced in Australia; the establishment of choral societies and symphony orchestras led to increased compositional activity, although most Australian classical composers of this period worked within European models and many undertook their training in composition in Europe or the United Kingdom.

One of the earliest known composers was George Tolhurst, whose oratorio Ruth was the first composed in the colony of Victoria in 1864. Some works leading up to the first part of the 20th century were influenced by folk music. An estimated 10,000 Australians and New Zealanders traveled to Britain each year from the late 1880s to the early 20th century, the number doubled between the World Wars. A majority was female a musician. Success in London was seen as a prerequisite for fame in Australia for singers such as Nellie Melba, Amy Sherwin, Ada Crossley. Australian composers who published classical music during the late nineteenth century include Hugo Alpen, Hooper Brewster-Jones, Thomas Bulch, Alice Charbonnet-Kellermann, George H. Clutsam, Herbert De Pinna, John Albert Delany Guglielmo Enrico Lardelli, Louis Lavater, George Marshall-Hall, Stephen Moreno, George William Torrance, Cesare Cutolo, Christian Helleman and Augustus Juncker. For composers, a trip abroad could make a career: George Frederick Boyle, born in New South Wales in 1886, had a great career in Australia as a piano prodigy but did not meet with international success as a composer until he traveled to Europe and the United States.

From the time of Australia's Federation in 1901, a growing sense of national identity began to emerge in the arts, although a patriotic attachment with the "mother country" or "Home", Britain, the Empire, continued to dominate musical taste. In the war and post-war eras, as the Australian national identity continued to build, composers looked to their surroundings for inspiration. John Antill in his ballet Corroboree, Peter Sculthorpe and others began to incorporate elements of Aboriginal music, Richard Meale drew influence from south-east Asia, while Nigel Butterley combined his penchant for International modernism with an own individual voice. By the beginning of the 1960s other strong influences emerged in Australian classical music, with composers incorporating disparate elements into their work, ranging from Aboriginal and south-east Asian music and instruments, American jazz and blues, to the belated discovery of European atonality and the avante-garde. Composers like Don Banks, Don Kay, Malcolm Williamson and Colin Brumby epitomise this period.

Others who adhered to more traditional idioms include Arthur Benjamin, George Dreyfus, Peggy Glanville-Hicks and Robert Hughes. In recent times composers including Julian Cochran, Gordon Hamilton, Liza Lim, Nigel Westlake, David Worrall, Graeme Koehne, Elena Kats-Chernin, Carl Vine, Brett Dean, Martin Wesley-Smith, Georges Lentz, Richard Mills, Ross Edwards, Stephen Leek, Matthew Hindson and Constantine Koukias have embodied the pinnacle of established Australian composers. Well-known Australian classical performers of the past and the present day include: conductors Joseph Post, Sir Bernard Heinze, Sir Charles Mackerras, Richard Bonynge, Patrick Thomas, Stuart Challender, Simone Young, Geoffrey Simon and Richard Gill.

2018 Idaho Proposition 2

2018 Idaho Proposition 2 is an approved ballot initiative, included on the 2018 General Election ballot on November 6th, 2018. Idaho's Proposition 2 is an initiative; this Ballot Initiative was approved and qualified to be included for voting on July 17th, 2018 through campaigning and petitioning for signatures to acquire the necessary support of the voting Idaho population to be included for state-wide voting through the 2018 General Election ballot. This initiative moved to expand Medicaid to persons who did not qualify. Proposition 2 would expand Medicaid coverage to persons under the age of 65 if their income is below 133% of the Federal Poverty Line and are unable to gain medical insurance or coverage through other means; the estimated amount for Medicaid expansion in Idaho is 105 million dollars. Many studies have found that in total expansion states have saved around 6.2 billion dollars in uncompensated care between 2013 to 2015. A grassroots canvassing drive was held in order to gain enough signatures of registered voters in the prerequisite number of legislative districts in order to place the proposition on the ballot for the 2018 midterm elections.

The drive was able to obtain the needed number of signatures, a total of 56,192 signatures in at least 18 of the 35 state's legislative districts, by the end of the drive over 70,000 signatures were collected. Within the campaigning and petitioning portion to gain access to this proposition being listed on the election ballot, there were many officials and organizations that supported this Medicare expansion and worked to help gain the necessary support to allow this topic to be added onto the 2018 General Election voting Ballot in Idaho. Medicaid expansion was supported by many officials, among the supports was the Democratic gubernatorial candidate Paulette Jordan. There were two major committees that supported Proposition 2 and played a large role within the campaigning and petitioning to get enough support to warrant Proposition 2 onto the 2018 General Election Ballot were the Idahoans for Healthcare and Reclaim Idaho. Together the committees managed to raise nearly two million dollars in support of the proposition.

There were many persons and organizations that did not support Proposition 2 the newly formed political action committee Work, Not Obamacare PAC, an offshoot of the Idaho Freedom Foundation. The proposition was designed to address the Medicare gap that existed within the state by expanding Medicaid eligibility; the full text of the ballot read: "Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Idaho: SECTION 1. That Chapter 2, Title 56, Idaho Code, be, the same is hereby amended by the addition thereto of a NEW SECTION, to be known and designated as Section 56-267, Idaho Code, to read as follows: 56-267. MEDICAID ELIGIBILITY EXPANSION. Notwithstanding any provision of law or federal waiver to the contrary, the state shall amend its state plan to expand Medicaid eligibility to include those persons under sixty-five years of age whose modified adjusted gross income is one hundred thirty-three percent of the federal poverty level or below and who are not otherwise eligible for any other coverage under the state plan, in accordance with sections 1902 and 1902 of the Social Security Act.

No than 90 days after approval of this act, the department shall submit any necessary state plan amendments to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to implement the provisions of this section. The department is required and authorized to take all actions necessary to implement the provisions of this section as soon as practicable." 66.8% of the 612,536 registered voters that turned out for the November 6th, 2018 General Election voted on Proposition 2. The results were in favor with 60.6 % of voters supporting and 39.4 % opposing. This initiative was modified to include requirements for Medicaid recipients to meet further qualifications to gain eligibility for the expanded program through the establishment of Senate Bill 1204; the official legislation in regards to this Senate Bill can be found here. This alteration added requirements to ensure working hours, education hours, volunteerism, or qualification in programs such was TANF or SNAP to gain access to the expanded Medicaid benefits.

The Legislative Alteration verbiage is listed below:“ Legislative alteration: Senate Bill 1204 was passed in the state legislature on April 5, 2019, signed by the governor on April 9, 2019. SB 1204 was designed to require Medicaid recipients to do the following: 1. Work at least 20 hours per week or earn wages equal to or greater than the federal minimum wage for 20 hours per week or participate. Participate in a work training program for 20 hours per week. Be enrolled at least half-time in postsecondary education or other education program. Satisfy the work requirements with a combination of working, volunteering, or participating in a work program for 20 hours per week. Comply with the requirements of the work programs under the temporary assistance for needy families or supplemental nutrition assistance program. SB 1204 includes some exemptions for the work requirement.” The proposition passed with 60.6% of the vote. However, was challenged in court in a lawsuit directly after the initiative was passed within the 2018 General Election.

There has been one lawsuit in regards to Proposition 2, since it was approved through the 2018 General Election. This lawsuit was: Brent Regan v. Idaho Secretary of State Lawerence Denney and was filed within the Idaho Supreme Court; the Plaintiff, Brent Regan, made the argum