Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy, formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The population of the area at the 2007 census was 532,559. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of Veliocasses, who controlled an area in the lower Seine valley. The Gauls named the settlement Ratumacos and the Romans called it Rotomagus, Roman Rotomagus was the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis, after Lugdunum. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric, in the 10th century Rouen became the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and the residence of the dukes, until William the Conqueror established his castle at Caen.
During the early 12th century the population reached 30,000. In 1150, Rouen received its charter, which permitted self-government. During the 12th century, Rouen was probably the site of a Jewish yeshiva, at that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the total population. The well-preserved remains of a medieval Jewish building, that could be a yeshiva, were discovered in the 1970s under the Rouen Law Courts. In 1200, a destroyed part of Rouens Romanesque cathedral, leaving just St Romains tower, the side porches of its front. New work on the present Gothic cathedral of Rouen began, in the nave, choir, on 24 June 1204, Philip Augustus entered Rouen and annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom. The fall of Rouen meant the end of Normandys sovereign status and he demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, competing with the northern County of Flanders, the city found its market niche in the Champagne fairs.
Rouen depended on the traffic of the Seine for its prosperity. Wine and wheat were exported to England, with tin and wool received in return, in the late 13th century urban strife threatened the city, in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged
Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, was destroyed by the Mamluks, the sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. This second kingdom is called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre. Three other crusader states founded during and after the First Crusade were located north, the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch. While all three were independent, they were tied to Jerusalem. Beyond these to the north and west lay the states of Armenian Cilicia, further east, various Muslim emirates were located which were ultimately allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. Jerusalem itself fell to Saladin in 1187, and in the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast.
In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, dynastic ties strengthened with Tripoli and Armenia. The kingdom was soon dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa. Emperor Frederick II claimed the kingdom by marriage, but his presence sparked a war among the kingdoms nobility. The kingdom became more than a pawn in the politics and warfare of the Ayyubid and Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, as well as the Khwarezmian. The Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, the kingdom was ethnically and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. They imported many customs and institutions from their homelands in Western Europe, the kingdom inherited oriental qualities, influenced by the pre-existing customs and populations. The majority of the inhabitants were native Christians, especially Greek and Syrian Orthodox, as well as Sunni.
The native Christians and Muslims, who were a lower class, tended to speak Greek and Arabic, while the crusaders spoke French. There were a number of Jews and Samaritans. According to the Jewish writer Benjamin of Tudela, who travelled through the kingdom around 1170, since sets a lower bound for the Samaritan population at 1,500, since the contemporary Tolidah, a Samaritan chronicle, mentions communities in Gaza and Acre. The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, the main objective quickly became the control of the Holy Land
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order. The conflict was a succession crisis precipitated by the death of William Adelin. Stephens early reign was marked by fighting with English barons, rebellious Welsh leaders. Following a major rebellion in the south-west of England, Matilda invaded in 1139 with the help of her half-brother, in 1141 Stephen was captured following the Battle of Lincoln, causing a collapse in his authority over most of the country. Stephen almost seized Matilda in 1142 during the siege of Oxford, the war dragged on for many more years. Empress Matildas husband, Geoffrey V of Anjou, conquered Normandy, rebel barons began to acquire ever greater power in northern England and in East Anglia, with widespread devastation in the regions of major fighting. In 1148 the Empress returned to Normandy, leaving the campaigning in England to her young son, Stephen unsuccessfully attempted to have his own son, recognised by the Church as the next king of England.
By the early 1150s the barons and the Church mostly wanted a long-term peace, when Henry FitzEmpress re-invaded England in 1153, neither factions forces were keen to fight. After limited campaigning and the siege of Wallingford and Henry agreed a negotiated peace, Stephen died the next year and Henry ascended the throne as Henry II, the first Angevin king of England, beginning a long period of reconstruction. The origins of the Anarchy lay in a crisis involving England. In the 11th and 12th centuries, north-west France was controlled by a number of dukes and counts, frequently in conflict with one another for valuable territory. In 1066 one of men, Duke William II of Normandy, mounted an invasion to conquer the rich Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, pushing on into south Wales. The division and control of lands after Williams death proved problematic. Henry intended for his lands to be inherited by his legitimate son. In 1120, the landscape changed dramatically when the White Ship sank en route from Barfleur in Normandy to England, around three hundred passengers died, including Adelin.
With Adelin dead, the inheritance to the English throne was thrown into doubt, rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain, in some parts of France, male primogeniture, in which the eldest son would inherit a title, was becoming more popular. The problem was complicated by the sequence of unstable Anglo-Norman successions over the previous sixty years, there had been no peaceful. With William Adelin dead, Henry had only one legitimate child, Matilda
Stephen, King of England
Stephen, often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, Stephens reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by Matildas son, Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings. Stephen was born in the County of Blois in middle France, his father, Count Stephen-Henry, died while Stephen was still young, placed into the court of his uncle, Henry I of England, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands. He married Matilda of Boulogne, inheriting estates in Kent. Stephen narrowly escaped drowning with Henry Is son, William Adelin, in the sinking of the White Ship in 1120, in 1138 the Empresss half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. Together with his advisor, Waleran de Beaumont, Stephen took firm steps to defend his rule. When the Empress and Robert invaded in 1139, Stephen was unable to crush the revolt rapidly, captured at the battle of Lincoln in 1141, Stephen was abandoned by many of his followers and lost control of Normandy.
Stephen became increasingly concerned with ensuring that his son Eustace would inherit his throne, in 1153 the Empresss son, Henry FitzEmpress, invaded England and built an alliance of powerful regional barons to support his claim for the throne. The two armies met at Wallingford, but neither sides barons were keen to fight another pitched battle, Stephen began to examine a negotiated peace, a process hastened by the sudden death of Eustace. Later in the year Stephen and Henry agreed to the Treaty of Winchester, in which Stephen recognised Henry as his heir in exchange for peace, passing over William, Stephens second son. Modern historians have debated the extent to which Stephens personality, external events. Stephen was born in Blois in France, in either 1092 or 1096 and his father was Stephen-Henry, Count of Blois and Chartres, an important French nobleman, and an active crusader, who played only a brief part in Stephens early life. During the First Crusade Stephen-Henry had acquired a reputation for cowardice, Stephens mother, was the daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, famous amongst her contemporaries for her piety and political talent.
She had a strong influence on Stephen during his early years. France in the 12th century was a collection of counties and smaller polities. The kings power was linked to his control of the province of Île-de-France. In the west lay the three counties of Maine and Touraine, and to the north of Blois was the Duchy of Normandy, Williams children were still fighting over the collective Anglo-Norman inheritance
Genisteae is a tribe of trees and herbaceous plants in the subfamily Faboideae of the legume family Fabaceae. It includes a number of plants including broom, gorse. The tribes greatest diversity is in the Mediterranean, and most genera are native to Europe, however, the largest genus, Lupinus, is most diverse in North and South America. Anarthrophytum and Sellocharis are South American and Aryrolobium ranges into India, the Genisteae arose 32.3 ±2.9 million years ago. The members of this tribe consistently form a clade in molecular phylogenetic analyses. Most genera in the tribe produce 5-O-methylgenistein, many genera accumulate quinolizidine alkaloids, ammodendrine-type dipiperidine alkaloids, and macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Old English bróm is from a common West Germanic *bráma-, from a Germanic stem bræ̂m- of unknown origin, use of the branches of these plants for sweeping gave rise to the term broom for sweeping tools in the 15th century, gradually replacing Old English besema.
Brooms tolerate poor soils and growing conditions, in cultivation they need little care, though they need good drainage and perform poorly on wet soils. They are widely used as landscape plants and for wasteland reclamation. Tagasaste, a Canary Islands native, is grown as sheep fodder. Species of broom popular in horticulture are purple broom, Atlas broom, dwarf broom, Provence broom, many of the most popular brooms in gardens are hybrids, notably Kew broom and Warminster broom. On the east and west coasts of North America, common broom was introduced as an ornamental plant and it is known in much of the pacific northwest as Scotch broom. It has become an invasive weed, and due to its aggressive seed dispersal broom removal has proved very difficult. Similarly, it is a problem species in the cooler and wetter areas of southern Australia. Biological control for broom in New Zealand has been investigated since the mid-1980s, the Plantagenet kings used common broom as an emblem and took their name from it.
It was originally the emblem of Geoffrey of Anjou, father of Henry II of England, wild broom is still common in dry habitats around Anjou, France. Charles V and his son Charles VI of France used the pod of the plant as an emblem for livery collars. Genista tinctoria, provides a yellow dye and was grown commercially for this purpose in parts of Britain into the early 19th century
House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France. The family held the English throne from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, under the Plantagenets, England was transformed, although this was only partly intentional. The Plantagenet kings were forced to negotiate compromises such as Magna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for financial and military support, the king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots and Irish, in the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years War and beset with social and economic problems. Popular revolts were commonplace, triggered by the denial of numerous freedoms, the Tudors worked to centralise English royal power, which allowed them to avoid some of the problems that had plagued the last Plantagenet rulers.
The resulting stability allowed for the English Renaissance, and the advent of early modern Britain, Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, adopted Plantagenet as his family name in the 15th century. Plantegenest had been a 12th-century nickname for his ancestor Geoffrey, count of Anjou, one of many popular theories suggests the common broom, planta genista in medieval Latin, as the source of the nickname. It is uncertain why Richard chose this name, although during the Wars of the Roses it emphasised Richards status as Geoffreys patrilineal descendant. It was only in the late 17th century that it passed into common usage among historians, the three Angevin kings were Henry II, Richard I and John, Angevin can refer to the period of history in which they reigned. Many historians identify the Angevins as a distinct English royal house, Angevin is used in reference to any sovereign or government derived from Anjou. The term Angevin Empire was coined by Kate Norgate in 1887, the Empire portion of Angevin Empire has been controversial.
In 1986 a convention of historians concluded that there had not been an Angevin state, and therefore no Angevin Empire, historians have continued to use Angevin Empire. The counts of Anjou, including the Plantagenets, descended from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, in 1060 the couple inherited the title via cognatic kinship from an Angevin family that was descended from a noble named Ingelger, whose recorded history dates from 870. During the 10th and 11th centuries, power struggles occurred between rulers in northern and western France including those of Anjou, Brittany, Blois and the kings of France. In the early 12th century Geoffrey of Anjou married Empress Matilda, King Henry Is only surviving legitimate child and heir to the English throne. As a result of marriage, Geoffreys son Henry II inherited the English throne as well as Norman and Angevin titles, thus marking the beginning of the Angevin
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. The use of the term is restricted to certain contexts in a somewhat arbitrary way, recumbent effigies on tombs are so called. Likenesses of religious figures in sculpture are not normally called effigies and it is common to burn an effigy of a person as an act of protest. The word first appeared in 1539 and comes, perhaps via French, from the Latin effigies and this spelling was originally used in English for singular senses, even a single image was the effigies of. In effigie was probably understood as a Latin phrase until the 18th century, the word occurs in Shakespeares As You Like It of 1600, where scansion suggests that the second syllable is to be emphasized, as in the Latin pronunciation. The best known British example of a caricature effigy is the figure of the 1605 Gunpowder Plotter Guy Fawkes, found in charge of gunpowder to blow up the King in the House of Lords. On November 5, Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night, his effigy, typically made of straw, in many parts of the world, there are traditions of large caricature effigies of political or other figures carried on floats in parades at festivals.
Political effigies serve a similar purpose in political demonstrations and annual community rituals such as that held in Lewes. In Lewes, models of important or unpopular figures in current affairs are burned on Guy Fawkes Night, in Oriental Orthodox Christianity, populace used to burn an effigy of Judas, just before Easter. Now it is considered a custom and there are currently no attempts at revival. Caricature effigies, in Greek skiachtro, are still in use to prevent birds from eating mature fruit and they were shown lying on the coffin at the funeral, and often displayed beside or over the tomb. The figures were dressed in the clothes of the deceased, only the face, from the time of the funeral of Charles II in 1680, effigies were no longer placed on the coffin but were still made for display. The effigy of Charles II was displayed over his tomb until the early 19th century, nelsons effigy was a tourist attraction, commissioned the year after his death and his burial in St Pauls Cathedral in 1805.
The government had decided that public figures with State funerals should in future be buried at St Pauls. Concerned for their revenue from visitors, the Abbey decided it needed an attraction for admirers of Nelson. In the field of numismatics, effigy has been used to describe the image or portrait on the obverse of a coin. A practice evident in literature of the 19th century, the obverse of a coin was said to depict “the ruler’s effigy”. It can be the case that the monarchs reign becomes long enough to merit issuing a succession of effigies so that their appearance continues to be current, in the past, criminals sentenced to death in absentia might be officially executed in effigy as a symbolic act
Angevin kings of England
The Angevins /ændʒvɪns/ were an English royal house in the 12th and early 13th centuries, its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John. As a political entity this was different from the preceding Norman. Geoffrey became Duke of Normandy in 1144 and died in 1151, in 1152 his heir, added Aquitaine by virtue of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry inherited the claim of his mother, Empress Matilda, Henry was succeeded by his third son, whose reputation for martial prowess won him the epithet Cœur de Lion or Lionheart. He was born and raised in England but spent very little time there during his adult life, despite this Richard remains an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France, and is one of very few kings of England remembered by his nickname as opposed to regnal number. When Richard died, his brother John – Henry’s fifth and only surviving son – took the throne, in 1204 John lost much of the Angevins continental territories, including Anjou, to the French crown. He and his successors were recognized as dukes of Aquitaine.
The loss of Anjou from which the dynasty is named is the rationale behind Johns son—Henry III of England— being considered the first Plantagenet—a name derived from a nickname for Geoffrey. Where no distinction is made between the Angevins—and Angevin era— and subsequent English Kings, Henry II is the first Plantagenet king, in addition it is used pertaining to Anjou, or any sovereign, government derived from this. As a noun it is used for any native of Anjou or Angevin ruler, the term Angevin Empire was coined in 1887 by Kate Norgate. Whereas the Angevin part of this term has proved uncontentious the empire portion has proved controversial, in 1986 a convention of historical specialists concluded that there had been no Angevin state and no empire but the term espace Plantagenet was acceptable. The Angevins descend from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou, in 1060 this couple inherited, via cognatic kinship, the county of Anjou from an older line dating from 870 and a noble called Ingelger.
It was from this marriage that Geoffrey’s son, inherited the claims to England and Anjou that marks the beginning of the Angevin and this was the third attempt by Geoffrey’s father Fulk V to build a political alliance with Normandy. The first was by marrying his daughter Matilda to Henry’s heir William Adelin, Fulk married his daughter Sibylla to William Clito, heir to Henrys older brother Robert Curthose, but Henry had the marriage annulled to avoid strengthening William’s rival claim to his lands. As society became more prosperous and stable in the 11th century, the twelfth-century chronicler Ralph de Diceto noted that the counts of Anjou extended their dominion over their neighbours by marriage rather than conquest. The marriage of Geoffrey to the daughter of a king occurred in this context, King Henry’s great relief in 1133 at the birth of a son to the couple, described as the heir to the Kingdom, is understandable in the light of this situation. According to William of Newburgh writing in the 1190s, the plan failed because of Geoffrey’s early death in 1151.
Henry’s brother Geoffrey died in 1154, too soon to receive Anjou, the unity of Henry’s assemblage of domains was largely dependent on the ruling family, influencing the opinion of most historians that this instability made it unlikely to endure
Its rulers were Henry II, Richard I, and John. The empire was established by Henry II, as King of England, Count of Anjou, in 1152, through marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, he became ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Despite the extent of Angevin rule, Henrys son, was defeated in the Anglo-French War by Philip II of France of the House of Capet following the Battle of Bouvines, John lost control of all his continental possessions, apart from Gascony in southern Aquitaine. This defeat set the scene for the Saintonge War and the Hundred Years War, the term Angevin Empire is a neologism defining the lands of the House of Plantagenet, Henry II and his sons Richard I and John. Another son, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, ruled Brittany, the term Angevin Empire was coined by Kate Norgate in her 1887 publication, England under the Angevin Kings. In France, the term Espace Plantagenêt is sometimes used to describe the fiefdoms the Plantagenets had acquired. The term Angevin itself is the demonym for the residents of Anjou and its capital, Angers.
The demonym, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, has been in use since 1653, the use of the term Empire has engendered controversy among some historians, over whether the term is accurate for the actual state of affairs at the time. The area was a collection of the inherited and acquired by Henry. Other historians argue that Henry IIs empire was powerful, centralised. There was no title, as implied by the term Angevin Empire. However, even if the Plantagenets themselves did not claim any imperial title, some chroniclers, often working for Henry II himself, Auvergne was in the empire for part of the reigns of Henry II and Richard, in their capacity as dukes of Aquitaine. Henry II and Richard I pushed further claims over the County of Berry but these were not completely fulfilled and the county was lost completely by the time of the accession of John in 1199. The frontiers of the empire were sometimes well known and therefore easy to mark, one characteristic of the Angevin Empire was its polycratic nature, a term taken from a political pamphlet written by a subject of the Angevin Empire, the Policraticus by John of Salisbury.
This meant that rather than the empire being controlled fully by the ruling monarch, he would delegate power to specially appointed subjects in different areas. England was under the firmest control of all the lands in the Angevin Empire, due to the age of many of the offices that governed the country, England was divided in shires with sheriffs in each enforcing the common law. A justiciar was appointed by the king to stand in his absence when he was on the continent, as the kings of England were more often in France than England they used writs more frequently than the Anglo-Saxon kings, which actually proved beneficial to England. Under William Is rule, Anglo-Saxon nobles had been replaced by Anglo-Norman ones who couldnt own large expanses of contiguous lands
Duke of Normandy
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in northwestern France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911, in 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollos male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135, in 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his army had conquered it. It remained a French royal province thereafter, still called the Duchy of Normandy, there is no record of Rollo holding or using any title. His son and grandson, William I and Richard I, used the titles count, prior to 1066, the most common title of the ruler of Normandy was Count of Normandy or Count of the Normans. The title Count of Rouen was never used in any official document, defying Norman pretensions to the ducal title, Adhemar of Chabannes was still referring to the Norman ruler as Count of Rouen as late as the 1020s. The late 11th-century Norman historian William of Poitiers used the title Count of Rouen for the Norman rulers down to Richard II, the first recorded use of the title duke is in a act in favour of the Abbey of Fécamp in 1006 by Richard II.
Earlier, the writer Richer of Reims had called Richard I a dux pyratorum, during the reign of Richard II, the French kings chancery began called the Norman ruler Duke of the Normans for the first time. As late as the reign of William II, the ruler of Normandy could style himself prince and duke, count of Normandy as if unsure what his title should be. The literal Latin equivalent of Duke of Normandy, dux Normanniae, was in use by 1066, Richard I experimented with the title marquis as early as 966, when it was used in a diploma of King Lothair. Richard II occasionally used it, but he seems to have preferred the title duke and it is his preference for the ducal title in his own charters that has led historians to believe that it was the chosen title of the Norman rulers. Certainly it was not granted to them by the French king, in the twelfth century, the Abbey of Fécamp spread the legend that it had been granted to Richard II by Pope Benedict VIII. The French chancery did not regularly employ it until after 1204, the actual reason for the adoption of a higher title than that of count was that the rulers of Normandy began to grant the comital title to members of their own family.
The creation of Norman counts subject to the ruler of Normandy necessitated the taking a higher title. The same process was at work in other principalities of France in the century, as the comital title came into wider use. The Normans nevertheless kept the title of count for the ducal family, from 1066, when William II conquered England, becoming King William I, the title Duke of Normandy was often held by the King of England. In 1087, William died and the passed to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, while his second surviving son, William Rufus. In 1096, Robert mortgaged Normandy to William, who was succeeded by brother, Henry I
Fulk, King of Jerusalem
Fulk, known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. During his reign, the Kingdom of Jerusalem reached its largest territorial extent, Fulk was born at Angers, between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort. In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France and he became count of Anjou upon his fathers death in 1109. In the next year, he married Ermengarde of Maine, cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine, Fulk went on crusade in 1119 or 1120, and became attached to the Knights Templar. He returned, late in 1121, after which he began to subsidize the Templars, much later, Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulks son Geoffrey of Anjou, which she did in 1127 or 1128. By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him.
Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughters inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord, Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a state always in the grip of war. However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen, Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulks fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffrey and left for Jerusalem, Baldwin II bolstered Melisendes position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130. Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin IIs death, from the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility, Melisendes sister Alice of Antioch, exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father.
She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132, Fulk and Pons fought a battle before peace was made. In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These natives focused on Melisendes cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hughs own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende, Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, the Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence, however, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh
Empress Matilda, known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was crowned in St. Peters Basilica. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, Matildas younger brother, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. On Henry Vs death, Matilda was recalled to Normandy by her father, Henry died in 1135 but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from the Norman barons and were unable to pursue their claims. The throne was taken by Matildas cousin Stephen of Blois. Stephen took steps to solidify his new regime, but faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom. Matildas forces captured Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141, as a result of this retreat, Matilda was never formally declared Queen of England, and was instead titled the Lady of the English.
Robert was captured following the Rout of Winchester in 1141, Matilda became trapped in Oxford Castle by Stephens forces that winter, and was forced to escape across the frozen River Isis at night to avoid capture. The war degenerated into a stalemate, with Matilda controlling much of the south-west of England, and Stephen the south-east, large parts of the rest of the country were in the hands of local, independent barons. Matilda returned to Normandy, now in the hands of her husband, in 1148, leaving her eldest son to continue the campaign in England, he eventually succeeded to the throne as Henry II in 1154. She settled her court near Rouen and for the rest of her life concerned herself with the administration of Normandy, particularly in the early years of her sons reign, she provided political advice and attempted to mediate during the Becket controversy. She worked extensively with the Church, founding Cistercian monasteries, and was known for her piety and she was buried under the high altar at Bec Abbey after her death in 1167.
Matilda was born to Henry I, King of England and Duke of Normandy, Henry was the youngest son of William the Conqueror, who had invaded England in 1066, creating an empire stretching into Wales. The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These barons typically had close links to the kingdom of France and her mother Matilda was the daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland, a member of the West Saxon royal family, and a descendant of Alfred the Great. For Henry, marrying Matilda of Scotland had given his reign increased legitimacy, Matilda had a younger, legitimate brother, William Adelin, and her fathers relationships with numerous mistresses resulted in around 22 illegitimate siblings. Little is known about Matildas earliest life, but she stayed with her mother, was taught to read