Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, are associated with prehistoric peoples; the word comes from the Greek prefix petro-, from πέτρα petra meaning "stone", γλύφω glýphō meaning "to carve", was coined in French as pétroglyphe. The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are quite different. Inuksuit are unique, found only in the Arctic. Another form of petroglyph found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone.
While these relief carvings are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric or nonliterate cultures. Some of these reliefs exploit the rock's natural properties to define an image. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures in the ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures. Stylistically, a culture's rock relief carvings relate to other types of sculpture from period concerned. Except for Hittite and Persian examples, they are discussed as part of the culture's sculptural practice; the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on horizontal surfaces are found. The term relief excludes relief carvings inside natural or human-made caves, that are common in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded.
Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are to be included, but smaller boulders described as stele or carved orthostats. Some petroglyphs might be as old as 40,000 years, petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years. Many petroglyphs are dated to the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, if not earlier, such as Kamyana Mohyla. Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, some cultures continued using them much longer until contact with Western culture was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Siberia, southwestern North America, Australia. Many hypotheses explain the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their location and subject matter; some many be astronomical markers and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of proto-writing.
Petroglyph maps may show trails, symbols communicating time and distances traveled, as well as the local terrain in the form of rivers and other geographic features. A petroglyph that represents a landform or the surrounding terrain is known as a geocontourglyph, they might have been a by-product of other rituals: sites in India, for example, have been identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". Some petroglyph images have deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not-yet-fully understood symbolic or ritual language. Glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to possible religious meanings. Petroglyph styles has regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established, they are not yet well understood.
Petrogylphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles; this could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had "... a common origin, indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation. More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain. Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness induced by the use of natural hallucinogens.
Many of the geometric patterns which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They frequently
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper and similar metals, or certain stones, wooden furniture, or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. Additionally, leather aficionados use the term to describe the ageing of high quality leather; the patina on leather goods are unique to the type of leather, frequency of use, exposure. Patinas can provide a protective covering to materials that would otherwise be damaged by corrosion or weathering, they may be aesthetically appealing. On metal, patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as oxides, sulfides, or sulfates formed on the surface during exposure to atmospheric elements, a common example of, rust which forms on iron or steel when exposed to oxygen. Patina refers to accumulated changes in surface texture and colour that result from normal use of an object such as a coin or a piece of furniture over time. Archaeologists use the term "patina" to refer to a corticated layer that develops over time, due to a range of complex factors on flint tools and ancient stone monuments./ This has led stone tool analysts in recent times to prefer the term "cortification" as a better term to describe the process than "patination".
In geology and geomorphology, the term "patina" is used to refer to discolored film or thin outer layer produced either on or within the surface of a rock or other material by either the development of a weathering rind within the surface of a rock, the formation of desert varnish on the surface of a rock, or combination of both. It refers to development as the result of weathering of a case-hardened layer, called "cortex" by geologists, within the surface of either a flint or chert nodule; the word "patina" comes from the Italian patina derived from the Latin patĭna. Figuratively, patina can refer to any fading, darkening or other signs of age, which are felt to be natural or unavoidable; the chemical process by which a patina forms or is deliberately induced is called patination, a work of art coated by a patina is said to be patinated. The green patina that forms on copper and bronze, sometimes called verdigris consists of varying mixtures of copper chlorides, sulfides and carbonates, depending upon environmental conditions such as sulfur-containing acid rain.
In clean air rural environments, the patina is created by the slow chemical reaction of copper with carbon dioxide and water, producing a basic copper carbonate. In industrial and urban air environments containing sulfurous acid rain from coal-fired power plants or industrial processes, the final patina is composed of sulphide or sulphate compounds. A patina layer takes many years to develop under natural weathering. Buildings in damp coastal/marine environments will develop patina layers faster than ones in dry inland areas. Facade cladding with alloys of copper, e.g. brass or bronze, will weather differently from "pure" copper cladding. A lasting gold colour is possible with copper-alloy cladding, for example Colston Hall in Bristol, or the Novotel at Paddington Central, London. Antique and well-used firearms will develop a patina on the steel after the bluing, parkerizing, or other finish has worn. Firearms in this state are considered more valuable than ones that have been re-blued or parkerized.
The patina protects the firearm from the more damaging rust that would occur were the patina to be polished off. Artists and metalworkers deliberately add patinas as a part of the original design and decoration of art and furniture, or to simulate antiquity in newly made objects; the process is called distressing. A wide range of chemicals, both household and commercial, can give a variety of patinas, they are used by artists as surface embellishments either for color, texture, or both. Patination composition varies with the reacted elements and these will determine the color of the patina. For copper alloys, such as bronze, exposure to chlorides leads to green, while sulfur compounds tend to brown; the basic palette for patinas on copper alloys includes chemicals like ammonium sulfide, liver of sulfur, cupric nitrate and ferric nitrate. For artworks, patination is deliberately accelerated by applying chemicals with heat. Colors range from matte sandstone yellow to deep blues, whites and various blacks.
Some patina colors are achieved by the mixing of colors from the reaction with the metal surface with pigments added to the chemicals. Sometimes the surface is enhanced by oiling, or other types of lacquers or clear-coats. More the French sculptor Auguste Rodin used to instruct assistants at his studio to urinate over bronzes stored in the outside yard. A patina can be produced on copper by the application of vinegar; this patina will not last on the outside of a building like a "true" patina. It is used as pigment. Patina is found on slip rings and commutators; this type of patina is formed by corrosion, what elements the air might hold, residue from the wear of the carbon brush and moisture. Patinas can be found in woks or other metal baking dishes, which form when properly seasoned; the patina on a wok is a dark coating of oils that have been burned onto it to prevent food sticking and to enhance the flavor of the foods cooked in it
Lara is a small town north of the City of Greater Geelong, 18 km north-east of the Geelong CBD, inland from the Princes Freeway to Melbourne. The explorers Hume and Hovell arrived at Lara on December 16, 1824, believing that they had reached Westernport Bay, they recorded that the Aboriginals described the bay as Djillong and land as Corayo, suggesting origins for the names of Geelong and Corio. The area was named Kennedy's Creek but was given several different names including Duck Ponds, Hovell's Creek, Cheddar and Lara Lake; the area of Lara was no more than a few farms at this time. The railway though the town was opened in 1857 along with the local railway station, with several subdivisions announced. A Post Office opened on 1 March 1858 as Duck Ponds, renamed Hovell's Creek in 1872, Lara in 1884; the population grew to a few hundred by 1890, several facilities like schools and churches were built, but a municipal water supply was not completed until 1947. In January 1969, 17 people were killed in bushfires.
Most of the victims were trapped by the fast-moving grass fire while travelling on the Princes Highway. Several scenes from the 1979 feature film Mad Max were shot on location around Lara, as well as several scenes from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation mockumentary We Can Be Heroes: Finding The Australian of the Year, in which the town carried the fictional name "Dunt"; the town's history is being preserved at the Lara Museum and Historical Centre on the corner of Forest and Canterbury Roads. This historic property the Lake Bank Hotel, was renovated by local businessman Lino Bisinella and provided in 2013 to the community group which runs the museum, Lara Heritage and Historical Inc. Lara contains a number of heritage listed sites, including: 605 Bacchus Marsh Road, Elcho Homestead Princes Highway and Hovell Monument 108 Windermere Road, Pirra Homestead Hovell's Creek runs through Lara and ends at Limeburners Bay, a small inlet of Corio Bay. Owing to the poor soils and low runoff inherent in Australian streams, along with the fact the region is the driest in southern Victoria because of the Otway Ranges’ rain shadow, the creek is ephemeral and is not useful as a water source.
Granite peaks known as the You Yangs, 4 kilometres north of Lara, rise to a height of 352m and can be seen from most areas of Geelong. Lara offers education through its three primary schools; the town has the opened Lara Secondary College, which accommodates years 7 - 12 and the VCE since 2008. Lara is home to Avalon college, a school for International Students preparing them for traditional schools. In the Lara outskirts are industry parks and two prisons – the maximum security HM Prison Barwon, opened in January 1990, the medium security Marngoneet Correctional Centre, opened 3 March 2006; the former Pirra Girls' Home, a home for girls age 13 to 18, part of the Victorian youth welfare system, closed during the 1980s. Lara is home to St. Laurence Park, set on 42 acres of parkland and houses 86 self-contained cottages and 22 flats for the elderly. Ford Australia operates a proving grounds for automotive testing and evaluation at the north end of the You Yangs. Lara has regular V/Line passenger train services on the Geelong line to Melbourne and Geelong to cater for the many residents who commute to work each day via Lara railway station.
Lara has become a popular place to live for those wishing to work in Melbourne and have ties to Geelong. After the extension of Myki ticketing to the Geelong line in 2013, Lara became a Myki Zone 2, 3 & 4 station. Following the introduction of 20-minute off-peak services in 2015, there has been an increase in passenger traffic by train between Geelong and Lara. Under contract to Public Transport Victoria, CDC Geelong operates bus services in the Lara area on routes 10, 11 and 12, running to and from Lara station. Taxis are available. Avalon Airport is nearby but there is no regular public transport from Lara station to the airport terminal. Lara has a post office, two banks, several hairdressers, a barber, a travel agency, a butcher, a greengrocer, a Woolworths supermarket and a Coles supermarket; the Coles supermarket opened in December 2014 as part of the town centre expansion on the site of Austin Park, as well as a re-alignment of Waverley Road to create a more spacious site for the supermarket and the re-configuration of the park.
There are one newsagency. The Lara Library opened in 2011. Lodging and entertainment are provided by a pub/hotel, sports club, a lawn bowls club. There are several eat-in bakery/coffee/cake shops, two Thai restaurants, an Indian restaurant, four pizza shops, three fish-and-chip shops, McDonald's, three Chinese and noodle shops and other take-aways. There are two petrol stations, both of which are open for business 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Lara has an Australian rules football team competing in the Geelong Football League. There are two soccer clubs: Lara Soccer Club. North Geelong play in the National Premier Leagues Victoria and Lara Soccer club who play Geelong Premier Division the GRFA 1 the 9th tier in Australian football. Golfers play at the Lara Golf Club on Elcho Road. Avalon Airport Avalon Raceway Serendip Sanctuary Lara - City of Greater Geelong Lara Museum Lara Weather
Spiral Jetty is an earthwork sculpture constructed in April 1970, considered to be the most important work of American sculptor Robert Smithson. Smithson documented the construction of the sculpture in a 32-minute color film titled Spiral Jetty. Built on the northeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake near Rozel Point in Utah of mud, salt crystals, basalt rocks, Spiral Jetty forms a 1,500-foot-long, 15-foot-wide counterclockwise coil jutting from the shore of the lake. In 1999, the artwork was donated to Dia Art Foundation. Since its initial construction, those interested in its fate have dealt with questions of proposed changes in land use in the area surrounding the sculpture; the sculpture is built of mud, precipitated salt crystals, basalt rocks. The sculpture forms a 1,500-foot-long, 15-foot-wide counterclockwise coil jutting from the shore of the lake; the sculpture is sometimes visible and sometimes submerged, depending upon the water level of the Great Salt Lake. Smithson chose the Rozel Point site based on the blood-red color of the water and its connection with the primordial sea.
The red hue of the water is due to the presence of salt-tolerant bacteria and algae that thrive in the extreme 27 percent salinity of the lake's north arm, isolated from freshwater sources by the building of a causeway by the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1959. Smithson was attracted to the Rozel Point site because of the stark anti-pastoral beauty and industrial remnants from nearby Golden Spike National Historic Site, as well as an old pier and a few unused oil rigs. While observing the construction of the piece from a helicopter, Smithson remarked "et in Utah ego" as a counterpoint to the pastoral Baroque painting et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. To move the rock into the lake, Smithson hired Bob Phillips of nearby Ogden, who used two dump trucks, a large tractor, a front end loader to haul the 6,650 tons of rock and earth into the lake, it is reported that Smithson had a difficult time convincing a contractor to accept the unusual proposal. Spiral Jetty was the first of his pieces to require the acquisition of land rights and earthmoving equipment.
He began work on the jetty in April 1970. The work was constructed twice. After contemplating the result for two days, Smithson called the crew back and had the shape altered to its present configuration, an effort requiring moving 7,000 tons of basalt rock during an additional three days. Robert "Bob" Phillips worked for 40 years in construction, including positions as a bid estimator for Utah contracting companies Jack B. Parsons Construction, Whitaker Construction, he told people that his best-known construction job was “the only thing I built that... was to look at and had no purpose.” Phillips was an expert at construction materials and techniques and was proficient in projecting the cost and effort required for a projected job. Phillips was uneasy about using earth-moving equipment in the muck around Rozel Point, where Smithson wanted to create the jetty. “It’s tricky working out on that lake,” Phillips said. “There’s lots of backhoes buried out there.” Smithson, in hip-wader boots, was in full command on the site.
“When we got out there, he just took over,” Phillips said. "I don't think he had done any geology anything on it. He just had in his mind what it should look like.… He just had the eye for it. I assume it was the artist in him.” Smithson had Phillips’ crew build the jetty twice. The first took six days of work, using heavy equipment, but two days Smithson had Phillips’ team redo it, to create today's spiral shape. Phillips said Smithson liked to use words like “entropy” to describe the interaction of the basalt and the lake. Robert Phillips was born in Spanish Fork and grew up in Cache Valley, he married Judy Crocket in January 1961. They had four children, he earned a degree in entomology from Utah State University. He died of cancer in Ogden; the sculpture was financed in part by a $9,000 USD grant from the Virginia Dwan Gallery of New York. In 1999, through the generosity of the artist Nancy Holt, Smithson’s wife, the Estate of Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty was donated to Dia Art Foundation; as owner and custodian of Spiral Jetty, Dia Art Foundation maintains the lease of Utah sovereign lands in Great Salt Lake upon which the artwork is sited, is responsible for the stewardship of this iconic earthwork.
Smithson died in a helicopter crash in Texas three years after finishing the jetty. At the time Dia acquired Spiral Jetty, the work was submerged in the lake. Beginning in the early 2000s, sustained drought in Utah caused water levels to recede, Spiral Jetty became visible for the first prolonged period in its history; as a result, the prominence of Spiral Jetty has risen over the past decade, increasing both the visitorship to the site and the public’s interest in the artwork, at the local and international levels. Dia is committed to maintaining a photographic record of the work and documenting changes to the piece over time. Dia collaborates with two organizations in Utah, the Great Salt Lake Institute at Westminster College and the Utah Museum of Fine Arts at the University of Utah, who have been involved in the advocacy of Spiral Jetty over the years; the issue of preservation has been complicated by ambiguous statements by Smithson, who expressed an admiration for entropy in that he intended his works to mimic earthly attributes in that they remain in a state of arrested disruption and not be kept from destruction.
The Dia website states that visitors are prohibited from removing rocks from the artwork or from stepping on ve
Westbury White Horse
The Westbury or Bratton White Horse is a hill figure on the escarpment of Salisbury Plain 1.5 mi east of Westbury in Wiltshire, England. Located on the edge of Bratton Downs and lying just below an Iron Age hill fort, it is the oldest of several white horses carved in Wiltshire, it was restored in 1778, an action which may have obliterated another horse that had occupied the same slope. A contemporary engraving from the 1760s appears to show a horse facing in the opposite direction, rather smaller than the present figure. There is, however, no documentation or other evidence for the existence of a chalk horse at Westbury before 1742; the horse is 180 feet tall and 170 feet wide and has been adopted as a symbol for the town of Westbury, appearing on welcome signs and the logo of its tourist information centre. It is considered a symbol for Wiltshire as a whole; the origin of the Westbury White Horse is obscure. It is claimed to commemorate King Alfred's victory at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, while this is not impossible, there is no trace of such a legend before the second half of the eighteenth century.
Since the late 19th century historians have located the battle of Ethandun at Edington in Wiltshire, some two miles away from the white horse, but this theory is still open to debate. Another hillside chalk figure, the Uffington White Horse, featured in King Alfred's early life, he was born in the Vale of White Horse, not far from Uffington. Unlike the recorded history of Westbury, documents as early as the eleventh century refer to the "White Horse Hill" at Uffington, archaeological work has dated the Uffington White Horse to the Bronze Age, although it is not certain that it was intended to represent a horse. A white horse war standard was associated with the continental Saxons in the Dark Ages, the figures of Hengest and Horsa who, according to legend, led the first Anglo-Saxon invaders into England, are said to have fought under a white horse standard. During the eighteenth century, the white horse was a heraldic symbol associated with the new British Royal Family, the House of Hanover, it is argued by some scholars that the Westbury White Horse may have first been carved in the early eighteenth century as a symbol of loyalty to the new Protestant reigning house.
In Alfred and the Great White Horse of Wiltshire, the Downside Abbey monk Dom Illtyd Trethowan debunked the suggested connection of the White Horse with Alfred and the Battle of Ethandune. Paul Newman suggests in his book Lost Gods of Albion that the horse may have been inspired by the popularity of folly buildings in the 18th century. Wiltshire folklore has it that when the nearby Bratton church clock strikes midnight, the white horse goes down to the Bridewell Springs, below the hill, to drink. By 1872 the horse was considered to have lost shape, by the chalk growing over and being recut. In 1873 it was remodelled by a committee, at the same time substantial edging-stones were added all around the perimeter, to prevent the shape from changing again; the horse was illuminated again in 1950, both times using army equipment. For the 1950 event, traffic in Westbury and Bratton came to a standstill as drivers slowed down to look. In the 1950s the horse was concreted over by Westbury Urban District Council as a way to save on long-term maintenance costs.
Since the concrete has greyed over time, it was cleaned in 1993. In 2003, the horse was vandalised when "Stop This War" was written in yellow across the horse in capital letters in protest of the Iraq War. After the words were removed, the horse was noticeably grey with a white horizontal strip where the message had been. In November 2006, the horse was repainted and the 1950s damage was repaired, as was the white strip; the newly whitened horse was illuminated for a third time on the night the repairs were finished, this time by Second World War searchlights. In July 2010, the neck of the horse was vandalised; this part of the neck had to be rewhitened in 2010, leading to the horse having a whiter neck than the rest of the body. The BBC reported on 2 March 2012 that the horse was to be cleaned again in 2012. Work began 11 April 2012 and was completed 19 April 2012; the cleaning coincided with the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. Celebrating the completion of the work, again the horse was lit up with searchlights.
Since the annual Village Pump Festival moved from Farleigh Hungerford to the White Horse Country Park beneath the horse in 2012, the horse has been illuminated at night whilst the festival has been taking place. This is achieved via a tinted spotlight which changes colour every couple of seconds, so the horse appears different colours. Two visitor information signs, on the hill above the horse and in the Viewing Area car park, were placed in 1999 following the completion of Devizes White Horse. On the side of the hill is a toposcope dated 1968, mounted on a small stone structure, which identifies the towns and cities that can be seen from the hillside. For the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, a fire beacon was placed to the side of the road on the top of the hill leading to the car park on 3 June 2002, that resembles the millennium beacons, it is lit sporadically, was lit for the 70th anniversary of VE Day on 8 May 2015. BBC News had a video on 28 June 2018 showing horse being cleaned with high pressure water jets by up to 18 volunteer abseilers.
The cost was given as £3,000, paid for by Westbury Town Council. It stated that the previous clean was in 2016; the Horse can be viewed from up to 16–