A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix "geo" means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.

The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8. Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons


Tonka is an American producer of toy trucks. The company was known for making steel toy models of machinery. Maisto International, which makes diecast vehicles, acquired the rights to use the Tonka name in a line of 1:64 scale diecast vehicles, featuring trucks. Mound Metalcraft was created in 1946 in Mound, Minnesota, by Lynn Everett Baker, Avery F. Crounse, Alvin F. Tesch, their original intent was to manufacture garden implements. Their building's former occupant, the Streater Company, had patented several toys. E. C. Streater was not interested in the toy business; the three men at Mound Metalcraft thought. After some modifications to the design by Alvin Tesch and the addition of a new logo created by Erling Eklof, the company began selling metal toys, which soon became the primary business; the logo was based on a University of Minnesota drafting student's sketch by Donald B. Olson, who became the company Chief Industrial Engineer; the logo used the Dakota Sioux word tanka, which means "great" or "big".

In November, 1955, Mound Metalcraft changed its name to Tonka Toys Incorporated. The logo at this time was an oval, showing the Tonka Toys name in red above waves honoring nearby Lake Minnetonka. In 1964, Tonka acquired the Mell Manufacturing Company in Chicago, allowing it to produce barbecue grills under the Tonka Firebowl label. In 1987, Tonka purchased Kenner Parker, including UK toy giant Palitoy, for $555 million, borrowing extensively to fund the acquisition. However, the cost of servicing the debt meant Tonka itself had to find a buyer and it was acquired by Hasbro in 1991. In 1998, Hasbro began a licensing deal with Funrise Toys to distribute Tonka trucks; the deal began with versions of the trucks fitted with electronics for lights and sounds, but grew to encompass the entire brand. Tonka has produced a variety of toys, including dolls and other toys aimed at girls like Keypers and aimed at boys like Gobots, Rock Lords, Spiral Zone, Steel Monsters, it was the original manufacturer of the Pound Puppies toy line, in the late 1980s licensed products inspired by Maple Town.

Tonka produced video games as Tonka Video Games, including Tonka Raceway, purchased the rights to distribute and market the Sega Master System after Sega of America stopped competing against the Nintendo Entertainment System in the US. However, the Master System's market share declined, since Tonka did not have experience with video games or how to market them. Hasbro sold the digital gaming rights for various properties to Infogrames for US$100 million in 2000, buying back the rights for US$66 million in June 2005. In 2001, Tonka trucks were inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York; the Winifred Museum in Winifred, has a collection of more than 3,000 Tonka toys. Fifteen video games based on the toys were released between 1996 and 2006. In 2012, an animated film based on the trucks toy line was in development, it was to be produced by Sony Pictures Animation, Hasbro Studios, Happy Madison Productions, to be distributed by Columbia Pictures. A script was written by Happy Madison alumni Fred Wolf, was to be produced by Adam Sandler and Jack Giarraputo, Brian Goldner and Bennett Schneir.

Official Tonka Website


Honshō-ji, is a Buddhist temple of the Ōtani-ha Jōdo Shinshū sect in the city of Anjō, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Its main image is a statue of Amida Nyōrai, it is a rare surviving example of a fortified temple/monastery from the Sengoku period and as such, the temple grounds have been designated as Historic Site of Japanin 2016. The temple is known as the Nodera Gohon-bō. Honshō-ji is located southeast of the downtown area of modern Anjō; the temple was founded in 1206 by Kyouen, a disciple of Shinran and became one of the main strongholds of the Ikkō-ikki movement in Mikawa Province. This movement overthrew the secular authority of the shugo and local landlords and attempted to rule the province as a semi-theocratic republic, drawing widespread support from overtaxed peasants and the lower ranks of the samurai; the temple was fortified in the manner of a flatland-style Japanese castle with a double concentric moat, high walls, yagura-style towers in the corners, which were used as drum-towers or belfries.

In 1549, Honshō-ji has 115 samurai under its banners and was a major military force in the province, together with Shōman-ji and Jōgū-ji. However, the movement drew the ire of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who crushed it in a series of military campaigns culminating in the Battle of Azukizaka in 1564; the temple fell into disrepair after that date, was abandoned for a century, when it was revived by order of Shogun Tokugawa Ietsuna in 1663 as a temple to pray for the prosperity of the Tokugawa clan. Throughout the Edo period it enjoyed the patronage of the Owari-Tokugawa family. Many of the surviving buildings of the temple date from the Edo period and are protected as Aichi Prefectural Important Cultural properties; these include the Main Hall, Bell tower, Drum Tower, Kyōzō, Gates. The outer moat has been buried under modern urban development, about half of the inner moat remains. Honshō-ji has two paintings from the Kamakura period which are registered as Important Cultural Properties of Japan. One is a depiction of Shotoku Taishi and another is a depiction of the honzon statues of Zenko-ji.

List of Historic Sites of Japan Media related to Honsho-ji at Wikimedia Commons Anjō city home page Aichi Tourism official home page