The Geography of Croatia is defined by its location—it is described as a part of Central Europe and Southeast Europe, a part of the Balkans and Mitteleuropa. Croatia's territory covers 56,594 km2. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia in the east, Slovenia in the west, Hungary in the north and Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea in the south, it lies between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Croatia's territorial waters encompass 18,981 square kilometres in a 12 nautical miles wide zone, its internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 square kilometres; the Pannonian Basin and the Dinaric Alps, along with the Adriatic Basin, represent major geomorphological parts of Croatia. Lowlands make up the bulk of Croatia, with elevations of less than 200 metres above sea level recorded in 53.42% of the country. Most of the lowlands are found in the northern regions in Slavonia, itself a part of the Pannonian Basin plain; the plains are interspersed with horst and graben structures, believed to have broken the Pliocene Pannonian Sea's surface as islands.
The greatest concentration of ground at high elevations is found in the Lika and Gorski Kotar areas in the Dinaric Alps, but high areas are found in all regions of Croatia to some extent. The Dinaric Alps contain the highest mountain in Croatia—1,831-metre Dinara—as well as all other mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres. Croatia's Adriatic Sea mainland coast is 1,777.3 kilometres long, while its 1,246 islands and islets encompass a further 4,058 kilometres of coastline—the most indented coastline in the Mediterranean. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is prominent in the Dinaric Alps, as well as throughout the coastal areas and the islands. 62% of Croatia's territory is encompassed by the Black Sea drainage basin. The area includes the largest rivers flowing in the country: the Danube, Drava and Kupa; the remainder belongs to the Adriatic Sea drainage basin, where the largest river by far is the Neretva. Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification.
The mean monthly temperature ranges between −3 °C and 18 °C. Croatia has a number of ecoregions because of its climate and geomorphology, the country is among the most biodiverse in Europe. There are four types of biogeographical regions in Croatia: Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland. There are 444 protected natural areas in Croatia, encompassing 8.5% of the country. The permanent population of Croatia by the 2011 census reached 4.29 million. The population density was 75.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, the overall life expectancy in Croatia at birth was 75.7 years. The country is inhabited by Croats, while minorities include Serbs, 21 other ethnicities recognised by the constitution. Since the counties were re-established in 1992, Croatia is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb; the counties subdivide into 429 municipalities. The average urbanisation rate in Croatia stands at 56%, with a growing urban population and shrinking rural population; the largest city and the nation's capital is Zagreb, with an urban population of 686,568 in the city itself and a metropolitan area population of 978,161.
The populations of Split and Rijeka exceed 100,000, five more cities in Croatia have populations over 50,000. Croatia's territory covers 56,594 square kilometres, making it the 127th largest country in the world; the physical geography of Croatia is defined by its location—it is described as a part of Southeast Europe Croatia borders Bosnia–Herzegovina and Serbia in the east, Slovenia for 667.8 km in the west, Hungary for 355.5 km in the north and Montenegro for 22.6 km and the Adriatic Sea in the south. It lies between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the extreme south of Croatia is separated from the rest of the mainland by a short coastline strip around Neum belonging to Bosnia–Herzegovina. Croatia's 348-kilometre border with Hungary was inherited from Yugoslavia. Much of the border with Hungary follows its former river bed; the border in Međimurje and Baranya was defined as a border between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, pursuant to the Treaty of Trianon of 1920.
The present outline of the 956-kilometre border with Bosnia–Herzegovina and 19-kilometre border with Montenegro is the result of the Ottoman conquest and subsequent recapture of territories in the Great Turkish War of 1667–1698 formally ending with the Treaty of Karlowitz, as well as the Fifth and Seventh Ottoman–Venetian Wars. This border had minor modifications in 1947 when all borders of the former Yugoslav constituent republics were defined by demarcation commissions implementing the AVNOJ decisions of 1943 and 1945 regarding the federal organisation of Yugoslavia; the commissions defined Baranya and Međimurje as Croatian territories, moreover set up the present-day 314-kilometre border between Serbia and Croatia in Syrmia and along the Danube River between Ilok and the Drava river's mouth and furthe
Nanchang Qingyunpu Airport known as Sanjiadian Airport, is an airport in Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, China. Constructed for use by the Republic of China Air Force, it was the largest airport in China when opened in 1935; the airport was rebuilt afterwards. After 1949, it was used for test flights by the aircraft manufacturer Hongdu Aviation Industry Group, until its replacement by Nanchang Yaohu Airport in 2018; the airport is located in Qingyunpu District of the capital of Jiangxi Province, China. It has a cement runway, 2,417 metres long and 50 metres wide, capable of handling Boeing 737 and similar aircraft, its elevation is 46 metres above sea level. Qingyunpu Airport called Sanjiadian Airport, was built for Chiang Kai-shek's Encirclement Campaigns against the Chinese Soviet Republic, the rebel communist base in southern Jiangxi. Laoyingfang Airport was used for that purpose, but its proximity to the city center impeded frequent military operations by the 250 war planes based there. In September 1933, Chiang ordered the construction of Sanjiadian Airport in Qingyunpu in the far outskirts of Nanchang, mobilized 290,000 labourers from 83 counties of Jiangxi Province.
Construction began on 1 August 1934, the airport was opened in the spring of 1935. At the time it was the largest airport in China, proclaimed to be the "No. 1 airport in the Far East". It was often referred to as the New Nanchang Airport. In 1933, Chiang Kai-shek signed an agreement with Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini to establish a joint venture in China to manufacture airplanes; the company, called Sino-Italian National Aircraft Works, was established in 1934 in Nanchang, with factories located at both Sanjiadian and Laoyingfang airports. It became the predecessor of Hongdu Aviation Industry Group, one of China's major aircraft manufacturers. After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, SINAW factories were damaged by Japanese aerial bombing; the Soviet Union dispatched a volunteer air force to Qingyunpu Airport to help China fight the Japanese. The airport was destroyed in the fighting, was rebuilt after the end of the war in 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the airport was renovated and used for aircraft testing by Hongdu Machinery Factory.
From March 1981 to early 1982, when the runway of Nanchang Xiangtang Airport was being improved, Qingyunpu temporarily served as Nanchang's public airport for nine months. With the expansion of the city of Nanchang, Qingyunpu Airport became surrounded by the urban Qingyunpu District and restricted its development. Several major thoroughfares are cut off by the airport, causing Qingyunpu to be known as the most congested district of Nanchang. On 23 December 2009, the Jiangxi provincial government reached an agreement with Aviation Industry Corporation of China, the parent company of Hongdu Aviation, to build the new Yaohu Airport in the Nanchang Aviation Industrial City to replace Qingyunpu Airport. Construction for Yaohu Airport began in November 2016, it was opened on 16 August 2018. Qingyunpu Airport is expected to close by the end of 2018
Ernest Zacharevic is a multidiscipline contemporary and public artist based in Penang, Malaysia. Zacharevic creates oil paintings, installations and stencil and spray paint to produce culturally relevant compositions both inside gallery space and in the arena of public art and walls His interest in the outdoor pieces is in the interaction between mural and the urban landscape, with concepts arising as part of a spontaneous response to the environment; as well as his on street works Ernest found objects alike. These works belong to private collections and institutions across the world including the Ritz Carlton and Dean Collection, a private collection of works owned and maintained by Swizz Beats. In 2012, Zacharevic received worldwide recognition after creating a series of six street art murals for the George Town Festival in Penang, with the BBC calling him Malaysia's answer to Banksy; these images depict scenes of everyday Malaysian life using local people as the models. The two most popular are Children on Boy on Motorcycle.
These murals now stand as cultural landmarks in George Town, complete with plaques and frequent queues of people waiting to have their photographs taken with the works. Zacharevic held his first solo show in Penang in 2012 at the Hin Bus Depot, a centre for arts and culture located in George Town Art is Rubbish Rubbish is Art. A collection of 30 plus works found materials. In 2013 Zacharevic received viral attention for his on-street work with the controversial lego mural in Johor Bahru, home to Malaysian "Legoland". Using the lego figures, Zacharevic comments on the violent state of JB, positioning them on a street corner, as a woman carrying a Chanel bag approaches, a masked villain waits around the corner for her; the piece was buffed over but not before the image went viral, with thousands of people showing their support for the mural and the serious statement it was making. Zacharevic painted a series of murals in Singapore, one of the most restrictive countries in the world in terms of street art.
He created one of his most iconic concepts Style Wars. The piece sees two duelling children about to engage in combat with mops and brooms upon crayon illustrated horses. In 2014 Zacharevic opened his second solo show'Rock, Scissors' in Barcelona at Montana Gallery; the collection saw a juxtaposition of more figurative works featuring characters from different cultures all dynamic poses and actionsin 2015 Ernest held a solo exhibition at the Underdogs gallery in Lisbon Portugal, this was the first introduction publicly of his origami themed body of work entitled The Floor is Lava. Since this time he has been travelling around the work for independent projects, producing beautiful walls globally. Since 2016 Ernest has directed focus to the initiation of the Splash and Burn Project, an artist led artivism campaign which used street art to communicate issues concerning the unsustainable production of Palm Oil in South East Asia. Since its inception, the project has collaborated with 9 international artists all creating works to generate awareness of the issues towards positive change.
In September 2015 Artist Ernest Zacharevic and Photographer Martha Cooper began their series of collaborations entitled “ReplayNYC.” The project was inspired by Martha’s iconic book "Street Play” which captured carefree New York City kids in the late 1970s. In his signature style, Ernest brings Martha’s subjects back to the streets. Seven works were curated by Martha and Ernest, with each image corresponding to a specific location to illustrate the vibrant changing landscape of New York City. Most of these paintings have disappeared; this on-street project was showcased for the first time in 2016 at the Long Beach Museum of Art. Featured were in-progress photos of the project, along with a wider selection of Martha’s images from around the world of children engaged in creative play. Splash and Burn is a public art project curated by Ernest Zacharevic and coordinated by Charlotte Pyatt, run in association with the SOS Sumatran Orangutan Society and the OIC Orangutan Information Centre; the aim is to provide an alternative platform for organisations and NGOs fighting to initiate positive change by embracing the weight of the Street Art community, inviting international artists to create murals/sculptures and interventions in and around the urban landscape of Medan Indonesia.
Ernest hopes to raise a wider consciousness of conservation issues globally while helping to facilitate relationships with communities directly. Splash and Burn is an ongoing initiative; the latest project was realised in 2019 by Spanish Artist ESCIF, which involved a rewind symbol carved into a palm oil planation in Indonesia to be rewilded with trees indigenous to the surrounding rainforests. In Collaboration with Indonesian musician Nursalim Yadi Anugerah, REWILD was accompanied by a short film produced by Studio Birthplace on the festival circuit. In May 2016, Zacharevic went to Christmas Island, an Australian Territory in the Indian Ocean at the invitation of Christmas Island Phosphates and the local Shire government for a scoping trip to beautify the island landscape, he left behind his first Australian art installation with'Forklift Boy,' near a local tavern. An abandoned forklift adjacent to a shipping container provided the canvas for the piece, it is similar in aesthetic to his Boy and Girl on a Bike and Boy on a Motorbike art installatio
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature. The "Generation of'98" was a group of novelists, poets and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish–American War. Jose Martínez Ruiz known as Azorín, comes up with the name in 1913 to allude to the moral and social crisis produced by Spain's defeat. Writing after 1910, the group reinvigorates Spanish letters, revives literary myths and breaks with classical schemes of literary genres. In politics, members of the movement justify radicalism and rebellion. Bliss Carman, By the Aurelian Wall William Henry Drummond, Phil-o-rum’s Canoe and Madeleine Vercheres: Two Poems, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Charles G. D. Roberts, New York Nocturnes and Other Poems Duncan Campbell Scott and the Angel, including "The Onondaga Madonna", Canada Alfred Austin: Lamia's Winter-Quarters Songs of England Robert Bridges, Poetical Works, Volume 1. Tolson, African American Modernist poet, columnist, trade unionist and politician February 9 – Yagi Jūkichi, 八木重吉, Japanese February 18 – Luis Muñoz Marín, Puerto Rican poet and politician February 19 – Richard Rudzitis, Latvian poet and philosopher March 9 – Fuyue Anzai 安西 冬衛, poet and co-founder of the magazine Shi To Shiron, surname: Anzai March 20 – Luis Palés Matos, Puerto Rican poet April 2 – Harindranath Chattopadhyay, Indian poet writing in English and film actor April 10 – Horace Gregory, American poet, literary critic and academic.
Frank Herbert Foss was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. He attended public schools in Augusta and graduated from Kent Hill Seminary in 1886, he moved to Fitchburg in 1893. Foss was a member of the Bricklayers and Plasterers International Union of America Union, number 19, until 1895 when he took out an honorable withdrawal card and became a general contractor engaged in the construction of industrial plants, he was a member of the Fitchburg city council. He was a delegate to every Republican State Convention held between 1915 and 1946, he was elected as a Republican to the following four Congresses. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1934 to the 74th Congress, resumed management in the contracting business, he resided in Fitchburg until his death there on February 15, 1947, aged 81. Media related to Frank H. Foss at Wikimedia Commons United States Congress. "Frank H. Foss". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Frank H. Foss at Find a Grave
Napoleon is a 2002 historical miniseries which explored the life of Napoleon Bonaparte. It was the most expensive television miniseries in Europe up to that time, costing an equivalent of $46,330,000 to produce; the miniseries covered Napoleon's military successes and failures, including the battles of Eylau, Austerlitz and the retreat from Russia. It delved into Napoleon's personal life: his marriage to and divorce from Josephine de Beauharnais, his marriage to Marie Louise, the Duchess of Parma and daughter of Francis II, his affairs with Eleanore Denuelle and Marie Walewska; the series draws from Bonaparte historian Max Gallo's bestseller. The miniseries was produced by GMT Productions in France and co-produced by Transfilm in Canada and Spice Factory in the UK. In France it first aired October 7, 2002 on France 2, in Quebec it ran from February 2 to February 23, 2003 on Super Écran and was re-aired on Télévision de Radio-Canada. In the United States, it aired on the Arts and Entertainment channel.
The series begins with Napoleon on Saint Helena. Hudson Lowe, the British governor of the island demands Napoleon show his presence. After a futile attempt to convince Napoleon to leave his home, an English girl, soon appears. Although there is no explicit mention of this, it is assumed that Napoleon is reminiscing about his past successes to Miss Betsy, as it is revealed at the end; the story begins with his meeting of his future wife and Empress. It focuses on Napoleon's military involvement as the Vicount of Barras' chief of staff in neutralizing Royalist forces, followed by his seizure of the French throne, declaring himself Emperor, waging war on all of Europe. Filming took place in Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Switzerland; the filmmakers found. However, matte paintings and various digital effects were employed in post-production in order to recreate the historical setting. In many of the battle sequences, computer-generated soldiers created by Hybride Technologies were added into the footage.
"With digital effects, you always want to create something dramatic", said Pierre Raymond, president of Hybride. "But for Napoleon, we had to present the reality of the time period with imagery, visually interesting, but more important accurate." The fact that Napoleon left behind many historical records helped in the production, other records were supplied by the modern-day French Army. Upon its release, it was the first television series to be broadcast in all the participating European countries. However, when broadcast in the United States, it was edited down to a running time of three hours, as opposed to the original six hours; the first episode begins with the young Napoleon's suppression of Royalist rioters on 13 Vendémiaire with the famous "Whiff of Grapeshot" around the Church of St. Roch. On, Napoleon is shown failing to take a bridge from the Austrians at the Battle of the Bridge of Arcole during his first Italian campaign; the episode ends with the attempted bombing by the Royalists of Napoleon's carriage while it was en route to the opera house.
In the second episode, there is an extended sequence showing the Battle of Austerlitz. This is followed by a brief scene of the Battle of Jena; the episode ends in the midst of the snowy Battle of Eylau with Napoleon waiting for reinforcements led by Marshal Michel Ney. The third episode begins with the last minute arrival of Ney's reinforcements at Eylau battlefield, the charge of the French cuirassier heavy cavalry against the Russian lines, Napoleon's sending of his Imperial Guard grenadiers into action; the middle of the episode shows Napoleon suffering a serious defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling and the death of his closest friend and general Marshal Jean Lannes. There is no depiction of the Battle of Borodino, though it is mentioned in the episode. Instead and his forces are shown waiting outside of Moscow before his entire army parades into the empty Russian city; the episode ends with Napoleon opening the window in the Tsar's Kremlin bedroom to see the city engulfed in flames. The fourth episode begins with the retreat of half-frozen French soldiers in the bitterly cold Russian winter while being attacked by mounted Cossacks.
There is the Battle of Waterloo with Ney's heavy cavalry charge, the French taking of the farm Le Haie Sainte from the British, the assault of the Imperial Guard, the final rout of the French forces. As soldiers flee the battlefield, Napoleon's Imperial Guard grenadiers form a square around their emperor and retreat in disciplined order in their square; the episode ends with Napoleon dying in exile on the island of Saint Helena. During the miniseries's depiction of Napoleon as first consul, the incident of the Infernal Machine takes place, he is seen riding with his wife, but in historical reality, this was not the case. Cambronne is seen saying the infamous word of Cambronne and a variation of his famous response about the Guard during the Battle of Waterloo; the accuracy of these words is disputed. In the third episode Napoleon and Tsar Alexander are shown listening to a performance of Nicolo Paganini's Caprice No. 24. In reality the piece was composed in 1817, when Napoleon had abdicated. In the fourth episode, according to the plot Talleyrand is warning Louis XVIII of Napoleon advancing to Paris.