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Geography of France

The geography of France consists of a terrain, flat plains or rolling hills in the north and west and mountainous in the south and the east. Metropolitan France has a total size of 551,695 km2, it is the third largest country in Europe after Ukraine. Metropolitan France: 551,695 km2 (Metropolitan - i.e. European - France only, French National Geographic Institute data? Metropolitan France: 543,965 km2 Lowest point: Rhône river delta -2 m Highest point: Mont Blanc 4,808 m Arable land: 33.40% Permanent crops: 1.83% Other: 64.77% Irrigated land: 26,420 km² Total renewable water resources: 211 km3 Freshwater withdrawal: 31.62 km3/yr Coal, iron ore, zinc, antimony, potash, fluorspar, timber, gold Flooding, midwinter windstorms, forest fires in the south near the Mediterranean The region that now comprises France consisted of open grassland during the Pleistocene Ice Age. France became forested as the glaciers retreated starting in 10,000 BC, but clearing of these primeval forests began in Neolithic times.

These forests were still extensive until the medieval era. In prehistoric times, France was home to large predatory animals such as wolves and brown bears, as well as herbivores such as elk; the larger fauna have disappeared outside the Pyrenees Mountains where bears live as a protected species. Smaller animals include martens, wild pigs, weasels, rodents and assorted birds. By the 15th century, France had been denuded of its forests and was forced to rely on Scandinavia and their North American colonies for lumber. Significant remaining forested areas are in the Gascony region and north in the Alsace-Ardennes area; the Ardennes Forest was the scene of extensive fighting in both world wars. The upper central part of this region is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land; the Normandy coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast is indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

France has several levels of internal divisions. The first-level administrative division of Integral France is regions. Besides this the French Republic has sovereignty over several other territories, with various administrative levels. Metropolitan France is divided into 1 territorial collectivity, Corsica. However, Corsica is referred to as a region in common speech; these regions are subdivided into 96 départements, which are further divided into 332 arrondissements, which are further divided into 3,879 cantons, which are further divided into 36,568 communes. Five overseas regions: Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Mayotte, Réunion, with identical status to metropolitan regions; each of these overseas regions being an overseas département, with the same status as a département of metropolitan France. This double structure is new, due to the recent extension of the regional scheme to the overseas départements, may soon transform into a single structure, with the merger of the regional and departmental assemblies.

Another proposed change is that new départements are created such as in the case of Réunion, where it has been proposed to create a second département in the south of the island, with the région of Réunion above these two départements. Four overseas collectivities: Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Wallis and Futuna. One overseas "country": French Polynesia. In 2003 it became an overseas collectivity, its statutory law of 27 February 2004 gives it the particular designation of overseas country inside the Republic, but without legal modification of its status. One sui generis collectivity: New Caledonia, whose status is unique in the French Republic. One overseas territory: the French Southern and Antarctic Lands divided into 5 districts: Kerguelen Islands, Crozet Islands, Île Amsterdam and Île Saint-Paul, Adélie Land, the Scattered islands. One uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico which belongs directly to the central State public land and is administered by the high-commissioner of the French Republic in French Polynesia: Clipperton.

Land boundaries: Total: 3,966.2 kilometres 2,751 kilometres, 1,205 kilometres 10.2 kilometres Border countries: Andorra 55 kilometres, Belgium 556 kilometres, Germany 418 kilometres, Italy 476 kilometres, Luxembourg 69 kilometres, Monaco 6 kilometres, Spain 646 kilometres, Switzerland 525 kilometres Brazil 649 kilometres, Suriname 556 kilometres, 1,183 kilometres Sint Maarten 10.2 kilometres Coastline: 3,427 kilometres, 378 kilometres, 306 kilometres, 350 kilometres (Martiniqu

Steam drum

A steam drum is a standard feature of a water-tube boiler. It is a reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes; the drum stores the steam generated in the water tubes and acts as a phase-separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the "hotter"-water/and saturated-steam into the steam-drum; the boilers were designed with 4 drums and 3 drums like the Stirling boiler. The single drum at the bottom and three drums on the top were connected through a network of tubes which were welded to the drums above and the single drum below; the rational demand of steam in terms of capacity and temperature resulted in bi drums and single drum boilers. The separated steam is distributed for process. Further heating of the saturated steam will make superheated steam used to drive a steam turbine. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the re-enters the furnace in through a superheater; the steam and water mixture enters the steam drum through riser tubes, drum internals consisting of demister separate the water droplets from the steam producing dry steam.

The saturated water at the bottom of the steam drum flows down through the downcomer pipe unheated, to headers and water drum. Its accessories include a safety valve, water-level level controller. Feed-water of boiler is fed to the steam drum through a feed pipe extending inside the drum, along the length of the steam drum. A steam drum is used without or in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum, located at a lower level. A boiler with both steam drum and mud/water drum is called a bi-drum boiler and a boiler with only a steam drum is called a mono-drum boiler; the bi-drum boiler construction is intended for low pressure-rating boiler while the mono-drum is designed for higher pressure-rating. On steam locomotives the steam drum is called a steam dome. Three drum/ Four drum boilers - Are the veterans of the normal day boilers, although they are still used in some industries. Bi drum boiler - are used for power steam generation both. For power generation they are used now and are replaced by single drum boilers as the bi drum boilers are non-reheat units.

So, due to the high heat rate of the plant a single drum boiler or a once through boiler is more feasible. In process steam generation the bi drum boilers are used as they can adapt to the high load fluctuation and respond to load changes. Single drum boiler- used for the power plants for power generation; the pressure limit for single drum boilers is higher than that of the bi drum boilers as the stress concentration is reduced to a greater extent. There exists only one drum and the downcomers are welded to it. Single drum boilers can adapt to both reheat and non-reheat type of boilers, they can be designed as Corner tube boiler where the frame is not required as the downcomers itself serves the purpose of it and they are designed as top supported where the whole boiler assembly needs an external frame and supported by top drum. Once-through steam generator, does not have a steam drum

Nils Sköld

Nils Gunnar Sköld was a Swedish Army lieutenant general. He was Chief of the Army from 1976 to 1984. Sköld was born in Stockholm, the son of the politician and former Minister for Defence Per Edvin Sköld and his wife Edit, he was brother to the Marshal of the Realm Per Sköld and the first female National Antiquarian Margareta Biörnstad. He became an officer in 1943 and attended the Royal Swedish Army Staff College from 1948 to 1950. Sköld became a captain of the General Staff in 1954 and served in the Army Staff's Organization Department the same year, he served at the Defence Staff's Planning Department in 1957 and was company commander of the Swedish UN battalion in Gaza in 1959. Sköld served at the Norrbotten Regiment the same year and was promoted to major in 1960 and was teacher of strategy at the Royal Swedish Army Staff College in 1960, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1962 and served at the Norrbotten Regiment in 1963. Sköld was promoted to colonel of the General Staff in 1964 and served as section chief at the Defence Staff from 1964 to 1967 and was after that regimental commander of Hälsinge Regiment from 1967 to 1968.

He was chief of staff at the Western Military Area from 1968 to 1969. Sköld was promoted to major general in 1969 and was head of the Army Materiel Administration at the Defence Materiel Administration and the Technical Staff Corps from 1969 to 1974, he was promoted to lieutenant general in 1974 and was military commander at the Eastern Military Area and the Commandant General in Stockholm from 1974 to 1976. Sköld was Chief of the Army from 1976 to 1984; as Chief of the Army he stressed the role of conscription in a major public defense of more traditional kind and laid great emphasis on issues concerning security policy and leadership in war. His defense doctrine was summed up in the concept of "tough guys", which accounted for an organization where every man was armed, where a tenacious defense battle could be conducted over the entire Swedish territory. Sköld became a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences in 1960, he was an expert in the 1965 Defense Investigation. Sköld was a member of the 1969 Defense Research Investigation.

He was an expert at the Ministry of Defence from 1984 to 1987 and chairman of the Friends of the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology from 1986. Sköld made a contribution to military band by laying the foundations for the army music platoon. In 1945, Sköld married Inger Rutqvist, the daughter of the timber dealer John Rutqvist and Elma, née Wikström, he was the father of Ingemar. Like his father and grandfather Sköld was a Social Democrat, as he declared with an openness, less common among senior officers. Sköld was buried at Kungsholms Church in Stockholm. 1943 – Fänrik 19?? – Lieutenant 1954 – Captain 1960 – Major 1962 – Lieutenant Colonel 1964 – Colonel 1969 – Major General 1974 – Lieutenant General Knight of the Order of the Sword United Nations Emergency Force Medal Nils Sköld: chef för armén 1976-1984.:. 1984

William Merriam Burton

William Merriam Burton was an American chemist who developed the first thermal cracking process for crude oil. Burton was born in Ohio. In 1886, he received a Bachelor of Science degree at Western Reserve University, he earned a PhD at Johns Hopkins University in 1889. Burton worked for the Standard Oil refinery at Whiting, Indiana, he became president of Standard Oil from 1918 to 1927. The process of thermal cracking invented by Burton, which became U. S. Patent 1,049,667 on January 7, 1913, doubled the yield of gasoline that can be extracted from crude oil; the first thermal cracking method, the Shukhov cracking process, was invented by Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov, in the Russian empire, Patent No. 12926, November 27, 1891. Burton died in Florida. Cracking Burton process Shukhov cracking process Information on cracking in oil refining

Fair Em

Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter of Manchester, is an Elizabethan-era stage play, a comedy written c. 1590. It was bound together with Mucedorus and The Merry Devil of Edmonton in a volume labelled "Shakespeare. Vol. I" in the library of Charles II. Though scholarly opinion does not accept the attribution to William Shakespeare, there are a few who believe they see Shakespeare's hand in this play. Fair Em was published in quarto twice before the closing of the theatres in 1642: Q1, with no attribution of authorship, was printed by "T. N. and I. W." The title page states that "it was sundrietimes publiquely acted in the honourable citie of London, by the right honourable the Lord Strange his seruaunts" – which dates the play to the 1589–93 period. Q2, 1631, printed by John Wright by no attribution of authorship; the full title as given on both editions is A Pleasant Comedie of Faire Em, the Millers Daughter of Manchester. With the love of William the Conqueror. Edward Phillips, in his Theatrum Poetarum, states.

Fair Em has a clear relationship with Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Since Greene's play is thought to date to c. 1589, Fair Em would have to have originated between that date and the publication of Farewell to Folly in 1591. This span of 1589–91 conforms to the dating based on the Lord Strange connection, noted above. In modern scholarship, the attributions of authorship that have attracted the most support are to Robert Wilson and to Anthony Munday; the attribution to Munday relies on John a Kent and John a Cumber. A play, John Day's The Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, bears noteworthy resemblances to Fair Em; the plot derives from traditional sources. In the main plot, William the Conqueror falls in love with the image on the shield that the Marquess of Lubeck carries in a tournament. In disguise, William travels to the court of King Zweno of Denmark to see the original of the portrait. Marianna, however, is faithful to her suitor and has no interest in William; the ladies stage a plot. When the woman's true identity is revealed – she is of course Blanche – William accepts her as his wife.

Lubeck and Marianne are left to each other. In the subplot, Em, the beautiful daughter of the miller of Manchester, is wooed by three suitors, Valingford and Manvile. Preferring Manvile, she pretends blindness to evade Valingford, deafness to avoid Mountney, but Manvile proves unfaithful to Em. In the end, Manvile loses both of the women he pursues, Em marries Valingford, the one of the three who has remained true to her; the two plots meet at the end, as William recognizes Goddard's banishment revokes it. Em makes William realize that the world does contain virtuous women, which helps to reconcile him to his marriage with Blanche. A few nineteenth-century commentators read hidden significance into the play, interpreting it as an allegory on the theatrical conditions of its day. Modern scholarship rejects these views as fanciful, regards the work as a light entertainment, successful on its own level. Speculations that Shakespeare may have played either William the Conqueror or Valingford have not been judged favorably.

Brian Vickers believes the play to be by Thomas Kyd. The first modern-day revival production of Fair Em opened in 2013 at the Union Theatre, London. Directed by Phil Willmott, this performance ran from January 8 to February 9. Chambers, E. K; the Elizabethan Stage. 4 Volumes, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923. Logan, Terence P. and Denzell S. Smith, eds; the Predecessors of Shakespeare: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore: Penguin, 1964. Tucker Brooke, C. F. ed. The Shakespeare Apocrypha. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908

2015–16 Dreams Metro Gallery FC season

The 2015–16 season is Dreams Metro Gallery's debut season in the top-tier division in Hong Kong football. They will compete in Senior Challenge Shield and FA Cup in this season. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong defender Leung Kwok Wai joins the club from Eastern on a free transfer. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong goalkeeper Pang Tsz Kin joins the club from Yuen Long on a free transfer. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong defender Wong Tsz Ho, Lee Ka Wah, Vasudeva das Lilley Nunez and Yiu Ho Ming join the club on loan from Eastern until the end of the season. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong midfielder Li Ka Chun, Eugene Mbome, Lau Ho Lam and Tse Long Hin join the club on loan from Eastern until the end of the season. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong goalkeeper Li Yat Chun joins the club on loan from Eastern until the end of the season. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong midfielder Chu Siu Kei, Chung Wai Keung, Lai Lok Yin, Siu Chun Ming, Lui Wai Chiu and Chow Win Yin join the club from Metro Gallery Sun Source on a free transfer. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong defender Lo Tsz Hin and Siu Pui Lam join the club from Metro Gallery Sun Source on a free transfer.

17 July 2015: Japanese striker Kenji Fukuda joins the club from YFCMD on a free transfer. Cameroon striker Paul Ngue joins the club from Metro Gallery Sun Source on a free transfer. 17 July 2015: Hong Kong goalkeeper To Chun Kiu joins the club from YFCMD on a free transfer. 17 July 2015: Spanish Pablo Gallardo joins the club from Arroyo CP on a free transfer. 2 September 2015: Brazilian defender Clayton Michel Afonso joins the club on loan from Eastern until the end of the season. As of 11 September 2015Ordered by squad number. LPLocal player. Players with number marked left the club during the playing season; as of 30 July 2015 The list is sorted by shirt number. Includes all competitive matches. Players listed below made at least one appearance for Southern first squad during the season. Last updated: 25 July 2015Source: Competitive matchesOrdered by, = Number of bookings. Includes all competitive matches. Last updated: 30 July 2015 Last updated: 25 July 2015Source: Competitive match reports. Competitive matches only Matches started as captain onlyCountry: FIFA nationality.

Games: Number of games started as captain. Updated to match played 25 July 2015Source: Competitions